Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

  |About WALLRB|General Resources |Work |Learning |Work & Learning |Other Topics |


Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli


Other Topics in Learning and Work [PDF]


5.4. Working Conditions, Stress & Learning:
       Teachers & Other


1. Abel, M. H., & Sewell, J. (1999). Stress and burnout in rural and urban secondary school teachers. Journal of Educational Research, 92(5), 287-293.


            Surveys of rural and urban secondary teachers examined teacher stress and burnout. Urban teachers experienced significantly more stress from poor working conditions and staff relations. In both types of schools, student misbehavior and time pressures caused the highest stress. Working conditions and time pressures predicted burnout for rural teachers. Student misbehavior and working conditions predicted burnout for urban teachers.


            KEY WORDS: Collegiality; Rural Schools; Rural Urban Differences; Secondary Education; Secondary School Teachers; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Student Behavior; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Burnout; Teaching Conditions; Time Factors (Learning); Urban Schools.


2. Anderson, V. L., Levinson, E. M., Barker, W., & Kiewra, K. R. (1999). The effects of meditation on teacher perceived occupational stress, state and trait anxiety, and burnout. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(1), 3-25.


            Teacher stress has been the focus of educational concern and research for decades, and has resulted in the development of several teacher stress scales and various strategies to address the negative effects of stress and burnout. Few empirical studies have evaluated specific programs designed to reduce teacher stress. However, promising results have come from the practice of standardized meditation (SM). The current study employed a pretest-posttest control group design and used the Teacher's Stress Inventory (TSI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess the effect of a 5-week standardized meditation class on the perceived occupational stress of 91 full-time teachers from seven suburban school districts in three states. Results were consistent with previous studies and offered support for the hypothesis that SM significantly reduces teachers' perceived stress. Teachers perceived a reduction in stress using SM only 2-5 times per week. The use of standardized meditation by school psychologists to assist in reducing teacher stress is discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Mental-Health-Services; Job-Related Stress; Transcendental Meditation; Psychological Burnout; Relaxation Techniques; Classroom Teachers; School Teachers; Management; Inventory; Validity.


3. Baldauf, R. B. (2005). Coordinating government and community support for community language teaching in Australia: Overview with special attention to New South Wales. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 8(2-3), 132-144.


            An overview of formal government language-in-education planning for community languages (CLs) that has been undertaken in Australia and New South Wales is provided, moving from the more informal programmes provided in the 1980s to school-oriented programmes and training at the turn of the century. These programmes depend on community support; for many of the teachers from the communities, methodological training is needed to complement their language and cultural skills. At the same time, Commonwealth (Federal) and State support for CL programmes has improved their quality and provides students with opportunities to study CLs at the senior secondary matriculation level. The paper concludes with specific recommendations for greater recognition of CL schools and for greater attention to CL teacher preparation.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; State Aid; Community Support; Teacher Education; Language Planning; Language Teachers; Second Language Instruction; Public Policy.


4. Ballet, K., & Kelchtermans, G. (2002). Intensification and beyond: Bringing professional development back in the picture. Paper presented at the Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA, April 1-5, 2002.


            This paper reviews the literature on teaching conditions, stress variables, and demands placed upon teachers, focusing on the situation in Belgium. Researchers examined whether and how teachers in Flemish elementary schools experienced intense, stressful, and negative working conditions, focusing on which forms of stressors and negative conditions existed, the impact of growing demands and expectations upon teachers, mediating elements in this process, and characteristics of the school organization as a mediator. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with a principal, a part-time teacher, and three classroom teachers, and from staff room conversations and informal chats with school team members. Results indicated that hard working team members stimulated each other to respond to the new demands. This happened without any structuring by the principal. Teachers evaluated the advantages to students when determining whether or not an external demand was valuable. Although respondents coped in different ways, they had one issue in common: all teachers wanted to balance their professional and personal lives without doing any harm to the students.


            KEY WORDS: Coping; Elementary Education; Faculty Development; Foreign Countries; Stress Variables; Teacher Collaboration; Teaching Conditions; Belgium.


5. Black, S. (2003). Stressed out in the classroom. American School Board Journal, 190(10), 36-38.


            Many teachers feel overwhelmed about meeting the needs of students getting ready for tests, and about relations with principals. Four exceptionally high-stress factors that teachers admit carrying into their classrooms are money management, health, relationships, and care giving. A sidebar lists tips for administrators to help alleviate teachers' work-related stress.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Environment; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Principals; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Teacher Administrator Relationship; Teacher Burnout; Teacher Morale; Teaching Conditions.


6. Boles, J. S., Dean, D. H., Ricks, J. M., Short, J. C., & Wang, G. (2000). The dimensionality of the Maslach burnout inventory across small business owners and educators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(1), 12-34.


            This study tested the dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) by comparing three factor structures (i.e., a one-factor structure, a three-factor structure, and a higher order factor structure) in two diverse samples. The comparison of the LISREL measurement models was extended by a series of measurement invariance tests. Additionally, constructs related to burnout had a pattern of correlations to the three MBI dimensions that was similar across the two samples. In aggregate, the analyses suggested that the three-factor structure of the MBI is the most plausible model. By using a sample of small business owners, the current research contributed to existing knowledge on the MBI by establishing the dimensionality and generalizability of the MBI beyond human service occupations.


            KEY WORDS: Occupational Stress; Business Personnel; Industrial Personnel; Attitudes Toward Work; Small Business; Owners; Teachers; School Administrators.


7. Boswell, W. R., Olson-Buchanan, J. B., & LePine, M. A. (2004). Relations between stress and work outcomes: The role of felt challenge, job control, and psychological strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 165-181.


            Recent research on reported work stress indicates stress may not always be deleterious for an individual or organization. Research in this area, however, has not yet examined a variety of work outcomes, the mechanism by which stress leads to such outcomes, and the moderators of this effect. The present study hypothesized that two types of reported stress (challenge- and hindrance-related) have a divergent relationship with work outcomes (relating to desirable and undesirable outcomes, respectively) and a similar (positive) relationship with psychological strain. We also hypothesize felt challenge as a mechanism through which challenge stress relates to desirable outcomes and job control as a moderator of the effect. Results from a heterogeneous sample of university staff employees (N=461) supported many of the hypotheses. The two types of stress differentially related to work outcomes yet both positively related to psychological strain. In addition, felt challenge mediated the relationship between challenge-related stress and work outcomes, yet the effect of challenge-related stress did not depend on job control.


            KEY WORDS: Anxiety; Administrators; Job Performance; Burnout; Stress Variables; Organizational Climate; Heterogeneous Grouping; School Personnel; Job Satisfaction; College Faculty.


8. Briner, R. B., Harris, C., & Daniels, K. (2004). How do work stress and coping work? Toward a fundamental theoretical reappraisal. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 223-234.


            The main aim of this paper is to make the case for why a fundamental reappraisal rather than incremental development of work stress and coping theory is required. In order to do this we present, in simplified form, some of the basic tenets of theory in this field. These tenets are questioned and their limitations identified in two ways. The first way is through contrasting the sort of stories that emerge in counselling and psychotherapy about the causes of people's distress with the simplified accounts found in stress and coping theory. The second way is through a critical examination of the specific ideas that stressors are “out there“ in the work environment and that individuals go through a simple process of primary and secondary appraisal when dealing with potentially harmful aspects of the work environment. Drawing on the notion of the employee as an active crafter and shaper of their job and data showing the complex ways in which people make sense of potentially negative work circumstances, we show how these ideas are of very limited value. In conclusion, we suggest that these limitations are so serious that fundamental reappraisal rather than development is required.


            KEY WORDS: Coping; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Research; Theories; Work Environment; Psychological Patterns; Emotional Response.


9. Brock, B. L., & Grady, M. L. (2002). Avoiding burnout: A principal's guide to keeping the fire alive. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.


            The work of the school administrator is often described as fragmented and unrelenting. However, what is often left unsaid is that it is lonely. The issues of administrator stress and burnout form the focus of this book. It begins with a look at the nature of stress, and an assessment of individual stress triggers and response mechanisms. Subsequent chapters outline practical strategies for diminishing stress at home and capitalizing on work stress with effective time-management and interpersonal skills. The last chapter offers suggestions for career renewal and caring for one's personal well-being. In these chapters, school administrators are offered a "mirror" to look into to see how they are doing. This mirror comes in the form of voices of administrators who offer their stories and suggestions about how they handle stress and burnout. Through this approach, administrators can assess themselves in relation to how others manage the complexity and pace of school administration. Resources at the end of the book include: a list of destructive and constructive responses to stress; a list of realities in life that must be accepted and possibilities to embrace; a stress reduction outline for personal change; and a model action plan.


            KEY WORDS: Administrator Guides; Burnout; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Principals; Self Management; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Time Management.


10. Broman, C. L. (2001). Work stress in the family life of African Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 31(6), 835-846.


            This paper investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic financial stress negatively affected parental well-being.


            KEY WORDS: Blacks; Family Life; Job Satisfaction; Marital Satisfaction; Parent Attitudes; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Job Stress; Marital Quality.


11. Brouwers, A., Evers, W. J. G., & Tomic, W. (2001). Self-efficacy in eliciting social support and burnout among secondary-school teachers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1474-1491.


            A nonrecursive model with relationships between perceived lack of social support, perceived self-efficacy in eliciting support at the workplace, and the 3 successive burnout dimensions- emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment-was tested in a sample of 277 secondary-school teachers in The Netherlands. Results showed that teachers' perceived lack of support from colleagues and principals had a significant effect on their self-efficacy beliefs in eliciting support from them, while these self-efficacy beliefs were shown to predict their level of burnout. The hypothesized feedback loop was also confirmed: teachers' level of burnout predicted the extent to which they feel lack of support. An additional effect of the personal-accomplishment dimension of burnout on perceived self-efficacy was suggested. It was concluded that perceived self-efficacy in eliciting support at the workplace is a usable construct in the prediction of teacher burnout. Future directions in research are suggested.


            KEY WORDS: Psychological Burnout; Occupational Stress; Work Stress; Models; Fit; Cognitions; Depression; Commitment; Goodness; Validity.



12. Brownell, M. T., Ross, D. D., Colon, E. P., & McCallum, C. L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: "A comparison with general teacher education". Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242-252.


            Policy and program decisions involve choices among different ways of preparing teachers. These choices are shrouded in increasingly contentious debates as teacher shortages reach crisis proportions. Yet, research on special education teacher education is almost nonexistent. Findings from comparative research documenting the characteristics of effective teacher education programs can inform these choices, but these findings should be grounded in what we know from previous research in general teacher education. To assist educators, we have analyzed literature in general and special teacher education toward two ends. First, we present a framework, derived from work in general education, for analyzing teacher education programs. Second, we use this framework to analyze practice in teacher education in special education. Specifically, we conducted an exhaustive review of special education program descriptions and evaluations. We conclude by describing steps necessary to improve the special education teacher education research base.


            KEY WORDS: Specialists; Program Descriptions; Teacher Education Programs; Teacher Education; Teacher Shortage; Special Education; Special Education Teachers; Regular and Special Education Relationship.


13. Butcher, J., Howard, P., Labone, E., Bailey, M., Smith, S. G., McFadden, M., et al. (2003). Teacher education, community service learning and student efficacy for community engagement. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 31(2), 109-124.


            Student backgrounds and the increasing number of school students from low socio-economic areas requires teachers to have an understanding of students' worlds and to be committed to social justice both within school structures and curriculum as well as in the life of the wider community. Social engagement with marginalised people can be confronting for students as it is usually outside their previous life experience. Examines the role of community service learning within teacher education nationally and internationally. First, the article focuses on national and international perspectives regarding community engagement, teacher education and service learning. Next, the article describes three Australian case studies of community service learning as purposeful workplace learning. Finally, the authors findings relate to student teachers' efficacy for community engagement from one of these case study sites. We propose that the role of community service learning must be at the centre of debates about how teacher education should be reformed. Furthermore, the article argues that community engagement of staff and students is also an expression of the corporate citizenship of the university.


            KEY WORDS: Community Services; Teacher Education; Curriculum; Teachers.


14. Carlyle, D. E. E. (2002). Emotion and stress-related illness among secondary teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International, C: Worldwide, 63(3), 415-C.


            Over the last decade there have been sharp increases in recorded levels of occupational stress. Reports of the growing incidence of stress-related illness within the teaching profession continue, the numbers of teachers pursuing litigation to secure compensation for injury to health increasing. Based on qualitative empirical data gathered from in-depth longitudinal interviews guided by humanist counselling frameworks, this study focuses on the phenomenological experiences of 21 secondary school teachers (and their families) diagnosed as suffering stress-related illness. It shows how stress cascaded through school systems from government directives to the chalkface, and on into family systems, leading, in some cases, to family burnout. Analysis through the sociology and psychology of emotion emphasises the central position of emotions in the aetiology of stress-related illness. This research shows that emotions are social processes, playing a vital role as communicators both to the self and to others. Emotional climates within schools and the home, individual and organisational emotional competencies, emotional labouring, emotion management and emotion rules were key themes contributing to the experience of stress-related illness. This study finally deals with the struggle for survival and identity reconstruction processes within the self-renewal journey. Some teachers, profoundly damaged by the experience of stress, were unable to return to the teaching world. Some emerged with a renewed and strengthened sense of self. Implications are drawn regarding student achievement, individual and collective emotional literacy, and the retention, training and professional development of teachers.


            KEY WORDS: Emotions; Affective Illness; Occupational Stress; Secondary Schools; Teachers; Sociology of Health; Social Psychiatry; Mental Health.


15. Chan, D. W. (2003). Hardiness and its role in the stress-burnout relationship among prospective Chinese teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(4), 381-395.


            This paper assessed hardiness, stress, and burnout among Chinese preservice teachers. Different responses to positively and negatively worded hardiness items suggested positive and negative hardiness stress resilience and stress vulnerability. Stress, positive hardiness, and negative hardiness had main, independent significant impact on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Only positive hardiness had significant main effect on personal accomplishment. Respondents indicated an erosion of their original excitement when first pursuing a teaching career.


            KEY WORDS: Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Resilience (Personality); Stress Variables; Student Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Burnout; Hardiness; Hong Kong.


16. Chan, K. B., Lai, G., Ko, Y. C., & Boey, K. W. (2000). Work stress among six professional groups: The Singapore experience. Social Science & Medicine, 50(10), 1415-1432.


            Recent developments in stress research have called for attention to how social structures influence the stress and coping processes. This paper examines the experience of work stress among professionals in Singapore and argues that workers' experiences in the workplace are influenced not only by individual personality and job nature, but also by structural forces shaping the profession, the social organization of work institutions and the development of the economy.


            Data were collected from a survey of professionals in Singapore conducted in 1989–1990. The sample consisted of 2570 men and women from six different professions and para-professions, namely general practitioners, lawyers, engineers, teachers, nurses and life insurance personnel. Results showed that performance pressure and work-family conflicts were perceived to be the most stressful aspects of work. These two stressors also significantly contributed to the experience of overall work stress. Further, stress arising from work-family conflicts, performance pressure and poor job prospects was negatively associated with the level of work satisfaction. These findings were discussed in the contexts of increasing professionalization and de-professionalization and the growing emphases on productivity and efficiency in a quickly developing economy.


            KEY WORDS: Occupational Stress; Professionals; Singapore; Engineers; General Practitioners; Nurses; Sales Personnel; Teachers.


17. Cheetham, G., & Chivers, G. (2001). How professionals learn in practice: An investigation of informal learning amongst people working in professions. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(5), 247-292.


            Reviews theories, concepts, and learning approaches relevant to the development of professionals and reports on the range of experiences and events that practitioners have found formative in helping them become fully competent. The review is based on empirical research conducted across 20 professions.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Development; Adult Education; Cognitive Style; Informal Education; Mentors; Models; Professional Continuing Education; Professional Development; Professional Occupations; Theory Practice Relationship.


18. Coniam, D. (2002). Technology as an awareness-raising tool for sensitizing teachers to features of stress and rhythm in English. Language Awareness, 11(1), 30-42.


            This paper discusses language awareness activities for sensitizing trainee English-language teachers to suprasegmental phonological features in English, with particular reference to features associated with the concept of "stress timing." It discusses stress timing and how it relates to English, and examines the quasi-authentic material drawn from a television program as source material for the language awareness exercises on suprasegmental phonology.


            KEY WORDS: Computer Software; Consciousness Raising; English (Second Language); Language Rhythm; Language Teachers; Metalinguistics; Preservice Teacher Education; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Learning; Stress (Phonology); Suprasegmentals.


19. Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Teachers and teaching: Testing policy hypotheses from a National Commission Report. Educational Researcher, 27(1), 5-15.


            This article reviews research that supports the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future's analysis and recommendations on school reform. It outlines the research and programmatic work needed to test the policy hypothesis offered by the commission's report to advance the field of educational reform in teaching, teacher education, and schooling.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Hypothesis Testing; Professional Development; Teacher Improvement; Teaching (Occupation).


20. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300-314.


            Much of what teachers need to know to be successful is invisible to lay observers, leading to the view that teaching requires little formal study and to frequent disdain for teacher education programs. The weakness of traditional program models that are collections of largely unrelated courses reinforce this low regard. This article argues that we have learned a great deal about how to create stronger, more effective teacher education programs. Three critical components of such programs include tight coherence and integration among courses and between course work and clinical work in schools, extensive and intensely supervised clinical work integrated with course work using pedagogies that link theory and practice, and closer, proactive relationships with schools that serve diverse learners effectively and develop and model good teaching. The article also urges that schools of education should resist pressures to water down preparation, which ultimately undermine the preparation of entering teachers, the reputation of schools of education, and the strength of the profession.


            KEY WORDS: Teacher Education; Teacher Education Programs; Teaching Methods; Teaching Models; Schools of Education; Student Teaching; Teacher Supervision.


21. Day, C. (2000). The life and work of teachers: International perspectives in changing times. London; New York: Falmer Press.


            This book explores how learning opportunities are affected by three key issues: policy, leadership and teaching. It draws conclusions about teaching practice and the impact of change that can be applied on an internationally scale. The book also outlines critical and conceptual approaches to understanding and coping successfully with change. Contributors from around the world explore factors that significantly influence quality learning opportunities for students: namely policy, school leadership and teaching / teachers' lives. Drawing on a range of critical conceptual and empirical perspectives, the authors show how experiences can be similar. The book provides much-needed information of the effects of mandated change on school leaders and teachers, both nationally and internationally. It also illustrates how teachers have coped and/or flourished in the changing circumstances under which they work.


            KEY WORDS: Teaching; Schools; Education; Educational Change; Educational Leadership; Teachers.


22. del Pozo, M. R., Martinez-Aznar, M., Rodrigo, M., & Varela, P. (2004). A comparative study of the professional and curricular conceptions of the secondary education science teacher in Spain. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 193-213.


            This article presents a comparison between the professional and curricular conceptions of two samples of secondary education science teachers in Spain, who differed in their years of teaching experience and in whether or not they had participated in a long-duration scientific-pedagogical refresher course. Using the data from their responses to a questionnaire, aspects of their professionalism as teachers (motivation and work satisfaction) and aspects of the curriculum related to content, teaching methods and evaluation were analyzed. The results show a broader professionalism and a higher level of satisfaction in the case of the teachers with more experience and a higher level of professional training. The study found significant differences in whether the pupils' ideas were regarded as erroneous, and in whether laboratory practical work was used to test theory. It concludes by setting out a series of reflections with the aim of working towards improving teachers' "professional development."


            KEY WORDS: Secondary Education; Science Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Secondary School Science; Science Instruction; Foreign Countries; Teaching Experience; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods; Job Satisfaction; Teacher Motivation; Science Curriculum.


23. Delhi, K., & Fumia, D. (2002). Teachers' informal learning, identity and contemporary education "reform". NALL Working Paper No. 56. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:


            This paper explores links between teachers' learning, the politics and practices of education reform, and teacher identity, examining how teachers learn to negotiate the spaces between promises of improvement, effectiveness, and accountability made in heterogeneous discourses of education reform and their experiences with deteriorating material conditions and social relations of schooling. The paper asserts that learning how to work with or against education reform is a complex process of identity making for teachers, where they encounter and utilize contradictory ideas about good teachers and teaching as well as about children, curriculum, pedagogy, and learning. Researchers designed a small study to examine how Ontario teachers were being positioned and how they understood themselves within the milieu of reform. Twelve teachers completed interviews, commenting on contemporary school reform, particularly issues of curriculum, assessment, and reporting (as well as several other topics). In different ways, all respondents expressed strong disagreement with the provincial government and distrust of their initiatives. However, their teaching and assessment methods showed that they could not avoid reform altogether, and reform shaped their work and identities, even when they strongly disagreed with its goals and methods. Several teachers suggested that democratic and open discussion in their schools was very rare.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Change; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Governance; Government Role; Government School Relationship; Politics of Education; Identity Formation; Ontario; Professional Identity; Reform Efforts.


24. Dewe, P., & Trenberth, L. (2004). Work stress and coping: Drawing together research and practice. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 143-156.


            Despite the enthusiasm for coping research, reviewers are concerned that much of the research has failed to live up to expectations as to its practical relevance. Yet the debate about the application of coping research is not short on writers pointing the way forward. By examining a number of issues at the heart of the debate on coping research this paper focuses on what may be ways of bridging the gap between coping research and practice. What follows is a discussion around the belief that if coping research is to become more clinically relevant, then researchers need to make better use of transactional models of stress. More specifically this paper points to the explanatory potential in concepts like appraisal that provide the psychological links between the individual and the stressful encounter. Moreover if coping researchers are to focus on more process-focused models, then what is needed is a time of quiet reconstruction where researchers consider where current methodologies are taking us and what alternative methods can provide. The argument here is that coping research needs to adopt measurement methods that reflect the techniques of clinicians. The emphasis is for coping methods to become more ecologically sensitive, person- and meaning-centred, daily processing and narrative in application.


            KEY WORDS: Coping; Research Needs; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Research Methodology; Psychological Patterns; Emotional Response.


25. DiPardo, A., & Potter, C. (2003). Beyond cognition: A Vygotskian perspective on emotionality and teachers' professional lives. In V. Ageyev, B. Gindis, A. Kozulin & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. New York: Cambridge University Press.


            This chapter draws on and expands Vygotskian theory beyond cognitive aspects and provides a theoretical analysis of "the role of emotions in informal thought and action," in the working lives of teachers. Based on two case studies authors demonstrating that stress and burnout are socially constituted.


            KEY WORDS: Neo-Vygotskian Perspective; Teacher Development; Professional Lives; Role of Emotions; Intellectual Needs.


26. Dussault, M., Deaudelin, C., Royer, N., & Loiselle, J. (1999). Professional isolation and occupational stress in teachers. Psychological Reports, 84(3), 943-946.


            The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the professional isolation of teachers and their occupational stress. A systematic random sample of 1,110 teachers in Quebec were administered French Canadian versions of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress Inventory. The resulting analysis gave, as expected, a positive and significant correlation between isolation and occupational stress. This highlights the importance of looking for ways to reduce professional isolation of teachers.


            KEY WORDS: UCLA Loneliness Scale; Validity; Verson.


27. Easthope, C., & Easthope, G. (2000). Intensification, extension and complexity of teachers' workload. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(1), 43-58.


            In this paper, four teachers in Tasmania, Australia, gave accounts of their experience of increased workload over the years 1984-1994. They reported working longer hours, teaching more students, & having more professional, pastoral, & administrative duties. The reasons for this increased workload include (1) less money being spent on education; (2) changes in student assessment from a norm to a criterion basis; (3) changes in the administrative structure of the state colleges in which most of them taught; & (4) changes in the student population. Their workload was both increased & extended, becoming more complex. Significantly, complexity was also produced by the attempt of teachers to maintain their professional commitment while adapting to the economic rationalist policies of administrators. However, loss of teachers through redundancy, stress, & a move to part-time work has meant that those teachers remaining have had to rationalize their work & reduce their professional commitment.


            KEY WORDS: Teachers; Working Hours; Workplaces; Work Organization; Organizational Commitment; Rationalization; Occupational Stress; Australia.


28. Farwell, R. J. (1999). A study of K-12 teachers in small school districts: Their levels of stress, the source of stress, and the effect of initiating coping strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 60(4), 1074-A.


            This study explored the relationship between K-12 regular education teachers in school districts with fewer than 2,500 students and their levels of stress as it related to the sources of stress, demographic variables, and initiation of coping strategies. Method. The subjects of this study were 329 K-12 teachers. They completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Education form, a demographic/coping mechanism form, and Stressor Source Check List. Results included: (1) Classroom, building, and community issues affected teachers' attitudes toward their profession: Stress levels, as measured by the MBI, were reflected in their identification of sources of stress in the work environment. (2) A teacher's gender was related to the risk of burnout: Female teachers were less likely to experience burnout than were male teachers. (3) A teacher's marital status was related to the risk of burnout: Both divorced and widowed teachers were less likely to approach levels of burnout than married or single teachers. (4) A teacher's teaching assignment was related to the risk of burnout: Elementary teachers were less likely to experience burnout than were high-school teachers, and junior-high/middle-school teachers were more likely to experience burnout than either of the other two groups. (5) A teacher's years of experience were related to the risk of burnout: teachers with 6-15 and 16-25 years of teaching experience were less likely to experience burnout than were teachers with 0-5 and 26-plus years of teaching experience. Thus, it was concluded that: a small school district effect is suggested by the following deviation from literature citations: (1) The subjects in this study placed less significance on stressor issues related to building concerns. (2) Gender- and stress-related findings suggest an effect related to the sense of belonging associated with working in a small community. (3) A stress pattern related to years of teaching experience was found.


            KEY WORDS: Coping; School Districts; Schools; Occupational Stress; Teachers; Elementary Schools; Junior High Schools; High Schools.


29. Francis, B., & Humphreys, J. (2000). Professional education as a structural barrier to lifelong learning in the NHS. Journal of Education Policy, 15(3), 281-292.


            Explores whether lifelong-learning ideals have been reflected in training provisions for UK health-care workers. Although traditional professional boundaries have been eroded in the workplace, there is little recognition of overlap in initial education and ongoing training of various groups. Continuous learning strategies are recommended.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Health Occupations; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Professional Development; Professional Education; Training; England; Learning Communities.


30. Friedman, A., & Phillips, M. (2004). Continuing professional development: Developing a vision. Journal of Education and Work, 17(3), 361 - 376.


            Although Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is widely promoted through the policies and programmes of UK professional associations, it is an ambiguous concept. There is confusion regarding its definition and purpose in both academic and practitioner literature, which extends to professionals themselves. Thirty (18 employees and 12 of their employers) professionals were interviewed concerning their thoughts on the definition and value of CPD, and a further 40 professionals discussed the concepts and value of CPD in focus groups. Professionals have a limited view of CPD - seeing it as training, a means of keeping up-to-date, or a way to build a career. However, professional associations claim that CPD is: part of lifelong learning; a means of gaining career security; a means of personal development; a means of assuring the public that individual professionals are up-to-date; a method whereby professional associations can verify competence; and a way of providing employers with a competent and adaptable workforce. These claims are often made concurrently. We conclude by putting forward some suggestions towards clarifying the definitions and purposes of CPD and linking it more closely with the ideals of professionalism.


            KEY WORDS: UK; Professional Development.


31. Garrick, J., & Clegg, S. (2001). Stressed-out knowledge workers in performative times: A postmodern take on project-based learning. Management Learning, 32(1), 119-134.


            The article takes as its topic recent developments in project-based learning. These are a major response to the changing articulation of the Knowledge-based economy. Corresponding changes to the role of universities, whose mastery of knowledge is now being questioned, are a consequence-one often not anticipated as such. One response to the upsurge in interest in project-based learning for “knowledge work” has been to move the university further into the workplace by legitimizing work-based and more flexible approaches to learning. The article identifies how, from a critically postmodern perspective, some problems occur with this shift, including the performative stresses on “knowledge workers” who are now expected to reflect on their learning through work or project-based ”curricula”'. Critical theories are useful in so far as they go, in bringing workplaces as learning environments into sharper focus. However, it is our argument that they do not go far enough, as (ironically) there are too many uncritical assumptions undergirding critical theory. The focus then switches to a postmodern analysis of project-based learning. From this perspective, project-based learning may be seen as too wedded to instrumental desires for performativity. We argue that postmodern ideas about project-based learning can offer practical organizational options, although we do not assert they are the only good options.


            KEY WORDS: Experiential Learning; Organizational Behavior; Postmodernism; Stress; Work Teams; Organizations; Personnel; Theoretical Interpretation.


32. Griffith, J., Steptoe, A., & Cropley, M. (1999). An investigation of coping strategies associated with job stress in teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 517-531.


            School teaching is regarded as a stressful occupation, but the perception of the job as stressful may be influenced by coping responses and social support. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the associations between teacher stress, psychological coping responses and social support, taking into account the plaintive set engendered by negative affectivity. The method included a questionnaire survey of 780 primary and secondary school teachers (53.5% response rate). In stepwise multiple regression, social support at work and the coping responses behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities predicted job stress independently of age, gender, class size, occupational grade and negative affectivity. High job stress was associated with low social support at work and greater use of coping by disengagement and suppression of competing activities. It is suggested that behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities are maladaptive responses in a teaching environment and may actually contribute to job stress. Coping and social support not only moderate the impact of stressors on well-being but influence the appraisal of environmental demands as stressful.


            KEY WORDS: Secondary-School Teachers; Social Support; Negative Affectivity; Occupational Stress; Mental-Health; Life Events; Work Place; Burnout; Symptoms; Strain.


33. Hammett, N., & Burton, N. (2005). Motivation, stress and learning support assistants: An examination of staff perceptions at a rural secondary school. School Leadership and Management, 25(3), 299-310.


            The context of this study is an "improving" 11-18 secondary school in a small English market town, where the role of Learning Support Assistants (LSAs) is being developed as prime supporters of the renewed emphasis on improving teaching and learning processes. National initiatives, including the teachers workload agreement and national remodelling of schools, have also led to the reconsideration and redefinition of their role. The aim is to advise the school leadership of LSAs perceptions of motivation and stress with regard to current and possible future elements of their role. An analysis of the outcomes of this research will be made using a conceptual framework constructed from theories of motivation, stress and teamwork derived from an educational context. The main findings suggest that the senior management team needs to raise the self-esteem of LSAs through career development opportunities, clarity and consistency of role definition, raising awareness of the role within and beyond the school and professionalisation of the salary structure which includes time allowance for training and administrative duties.


            KEY WORDS: Attitude Measures; Motivation; Secondary Education; Rural Schools; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Foreign Countries; Stress Variables; Working Conditions; Staff Development; England.


34. Hansen, J.-I., & Sullivan, B. A. (2003). Assessment of workplace stress: Occupational stress, its consequences, and common causes of teacher stress. North Carolina.


            This section introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, an overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through organizational and individual initiatives. Finally, it reviews psychological tests that can be used to assess types and sources of stress within schools.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Environment; Evaluation Methods; Job Satisfaction; Measures (Individuals); Psychological Testing; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Teacher Stress.


35. Hansez, I., Bertrand, F., Keyser, V., & Pérée, F. (2005). Career end for teachers: Towards a better understanding of stress and early retirement. Travail humain, 68(3), 193-223.


            An increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liège, Belgium. This aimed to determine what led them to withdraw from their jobs and the degree to which stress contributed to their decisions. Various adjustments were made in favour of elderly workers, such as working time and training. The question of whether these are sufficient to keep them motivated in their job was raised.

            A questionnaire was developed to try and identify the reasons why teachers resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in terms of career-end adjustments. The key concepts included in this tool were personal factors, job-related factors (i.e. working conditions, organizational and structural changes and job recognition) and employment-related factors. This questionnaire was combined with a subjective stress measure (MSP-A, Lemyre & Tessier, 1988).

            Various statistical analyses were carried out. From the results, it was possible to conclude that stress is part of the reason why teachers resign and that personal factors are the most cited reason for taking early retirement. However, the uneasiness expressed obviously has its origin in a perceived depreciation of the job and lack of recognition. Whilst better working conditions are often presented as the solution, these do not seem to solve the problem completely. They offer insufficient motivation and do not diminish or eliminate stress. Since recognition appears to be the only motivating factor among teachers, the restoration of the image of the teaching profession seems to be essential.

            This survey has highlighted the importance of making a thorough diagnosis before deciding on specific actions. Career-end adjustments are very attractive and fairly easy to implement. However, whilst they may suit some categories of workers, they do not seem to respond to the needs of elderly teachers. Their problems should be tackled in another way.


            KEY WORDS: Mental Stress; Early Retirement; Occupations; Causal Analysis; Sociology of Work; Motivation; Psychology; Case Studies; Ergonomics; Belgium; Elderly Workers; Teachers; Stress; Job Retirement Decisions.


36. Harden, R. M. (1999). Stress, pressure and burnout in teachers: Is the swan exhausted? Medical Teacher, 21(3), 245-247.


            This paper discusses teacher stress in medicine and reviews models that address the question of work stress and how individuals respond.


            KEY WORDS: Burnout; Higher Education; Medical Education; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout.


37. Hemmings, B., & Hockley, T. (2002). Student teacher stress and coping mechanisms. Education in Rural Australia, 12(2), 25-35.


            This paper surveys 43 student teachers taking a 9-week practicum in rural Australian primary schools and case studies of four of them found that student teacher stress diminished over time. Five coping strategies were identified: communicating with others, self-help, relaxation/recreation, teaching and managing, and organization.


            KEY WORDS: Case Studies; Coping; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Rural Schools; Social Support Groups; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Student Surveys; Student Teacher Attitudes; Student Teaching; Australia (New South Wales).


38. Hodkinson, P., & Hodkinson, H. (2004). The significance of individuals' dispositions in workplace learning: A case study of two teachers. Journal of Education & Work, 17(2), 167-182.


            This article about workplace learning examines the relationship between, first, individual learners positions and dispositions, and secondly, their working and learning within the workplace community and practices. Drawing on research with secondary school teachers, the article presents case study accounts of two teachers from the same school to illustrate the significance of these relationships. In order to understand these relationships from a broadly participatory perspective, the article then presents a theoretical discussion, extending Lave and Wenger's work on communities of practice, through the use of Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field. It concludes that such a combination offers a valuable means of understanding these relationships, in a wider social, economic and political context. It is necessary to offer an account of learning for work which acknowledges the independence of individuals acting within the interdependence of the social practice of work.


            KEY WORDS: Work and Learning; High School Teachers.


39. Horn, I. S. (2005). Learning on the job: A situated account of teacher learning in high school mathematics departments. Cognition and Instruction, 23(2), 207-236.


            To investigate teachers' everyday on-the-job learning, I used a comparative case study design and examined the work of mathematics teachers in 2 high schools. Analysis of interviews, classroom observations, and teachers' conversations highlighted 3 key resources for learning: (a) reform artifacts oriented the teachers' attention to key concepts of a reform, whereas the interactions surrounding them established local meanings; (b) conversation-based classification systems communicated pedagogical assumptions; and (c) the rendering of classroom interactions in conversations shaped opportunities for teachers to consult with and learn from colleagues. Taken together, these learning resources provide a conceptual infrastructure for teachers to make sense of their practice. This research highlights the social and situated nature of teachers' pedagogical reasoning and specifies the role of teacher community in teacher learning.


            KEY WORDS: Secondary Education; Secondary School Mathematics; Educational Change; Experiential Learning; Mathematics Teachers; Faculty Development; Teacher Collaboration.


40. Howe, E. R. (2005). Japan's teacher acculturation: Critical analysis through comparative ethnographic narrative. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(2), 121-131.


            Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In contrast, Japan's teachers have opportunities for reflection, collegiality and collaboration. Moreover, effective induction practices have evolved gradually, becoming a tacit part of teaching culture. Japan's teacher acculturation is characterized by significant teacher relationships; leadership and guidance; and further cultivated through professional development. However, undeveloped pre-service programmes, one-way, “top-down" pedagogical exchanges, and ineffective mentors are contentious issues, hampering teacher education reforms. Nevertheless, Japanese induction practices challenge us to ameliorate teacher education to focus more on the needs of beginning teachers.


            KEY WORDS: Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Beginning Teachers; Teacher Orientation; Educational Change; Ethnography; Collegiality; Acculturation; Preservice Teacher Education; Comparative Analysis.


41. Howes, C., James, J., & Ritchie, S. (2003). Pathways to effective teaching. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18(1), 104-120.


            This article examines strategies for effective teaching among African-American and Latino early childhood teachers serving low-income children. Findings indicate that after controlling for formal education, that responsive involvement in the field is associated with a teacher's staying in the field for the community, being mentored, and being supervised. Engaging in language play was positively related to formal education and supervision; those engaged in language arts activities tended to have formal education and were mentored and supervised.


            KEY WORDS: Caregiver Child Relationship; Child Care; Early Childhood Education; Educational Attainment; Predictor Variables; Preschool Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.


42. Ito, M. (2000). Burnout among teachers: Teaching experience and type of teacher. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 48(1), 12-20.


            One purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of some factors on burnout among teachers. Out of 525 elementary and middle school teachers, 208 responded to questionnaire on (1) personality characteristics, (2) evaluation of their own ability as a teacher, and their image of the ideal teacher, (3) stress in their work, (4) support, (5) image of their co- workers, and (6) burnout. The results indicated that a lack of personal accomplishment was negatively associated with "self- evaluated teaching ability" and "human relation." Emotional exhaustion was suppressed by "human relations", and promoted by "worry." A comparison of new and experienced teachers showed that the new ones felt lower personal accomplishment, and evaluated themselves more poorly on their ability to guide their classes. The second purpose of the present study was to compare 2 types of teachers: (a) those oriented to class guidance, emphasizing class management, and (b) those oriented to relationships, emphasizing their relations with their pupils. Self-evaluated teaching ability was a factor in burnout in the former group, whereas relations with colleagues played an important role in preventing burnout in the latter.


            KEY WORDS: Burnout; Teaching Experience; Two Types of Teachers; Elementary and Middle School Teachers; Impact.


43. Johnston, R., & Chappell, C. (2000). Constructing a picture of the organisational training and development professional. Working paper. Australia; New South Wales: Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.


            A survey was designed to assist in constructing a picture of new vocational education and training professionals working in organizational settings in Australia. They were practitioners whose positional titles included training and development (T&D), human resource development, or human resource practitioners who work within organizational settings or as consultants to organizations. The subscriber data base for "Managing T&D" was used as a research sample. Of 1,200 surveys circulated throughout Australia, 197 usable responses were received. Results indicated respondents perceived that training is increasingly being afforded a high priority in Australian workplaces; 80 percent worked in organizations that employed T&D staff; the naming or labeling of the profession as practiced in organizations is not consistent and could be seen as an indicator that this is still an evolving field of practice in organizations; the lack of requirement by organizations of a constant or specialist qualification of its practitioners could also be seen as supporting the claim the field is still evolving; there was considerable consistency in the nominated current skill requirements for practitioners and in perceptions about current areas of high importance to organizations and predictions about future areas that would be of high importance to organizations; and there was a relatively commonly held sense of the purpose of this field of professional practice.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Developed Nations; Educational Research; Emerging Occupations; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Human Resources; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Occupational Information; Organizational Objectives; Postsecondary Education; Professional Occupations; Professional Recognition; Teacher Qualifications; Trainers; Vocational Education.


44. Karakaya, S. (2004). A comparative study: English and Turkish teachers' conceptions of their professional responsibility. Educational Studies, 30(3), 195-216.


            This paper discusses some of the findings pertaining to how teachers see their work, produced by a comparative study of 120 English and 120 Turkish primary school teachers. The sample was drawn from schools in four different types of matched catchment areas - rural, inner city, suburban and affluent suburban - in Leicestershire. England, and in Erzurum, Turkey. Four major dimensions of difference between the two national contexts are identified in terms of the range of professional activities undertaken, the ambiguity of relative importance to teachers of the process as against the products of learning. Against a background of contemporary policy changes which seem likely to effect different teaching and learning activities in the two countries, the paper argues that attempts to change teachers' practice without due regard to those conceptions of professional responsibility which are deeply rooted in particular national traditions, as well as more general classroom realities, will result in a lowering of morale and decreased effectiveness.


            KEY WORDS: Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Teacher Effectiveness; Educational Policy; Teacher Attitudes; Elementary School Teachers; Teacher Responsibility; Educational Change; Teacher Morale.


45. Karasek, R. A. (2004). An analysis of 19 international case studies of stress prevention through work reorganization using the demand/control model. Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 24(5), 446-456.


            In this paper, nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case studies can be categorized as high-strain jobs according to the demand/control model. Common trends in terms of why the interventions were initiated and by whom, the type of intervention chosen, and the results are analyzed. It is found that in general, worker participation, open communication between labor and management, and a learning approach to stress are keys to preventing stress at work and also tend to increase productivity.


            KEY WORDS: Prevention; Occupations; Productivity; Case Studies; Stress Management; Foreign Countries; Job Development.


46. Klapan, A., & Lavrnja, I. (2001). General and professional education within the conception of the lifelong learning: University of Rijeka, Croatia.


            General and professional education is important in a learning society. Most pedagogy has been devoted to developing general education, while professional education is seen as a type of optional education. General and professional education have always been divided; the former has been oriented toward acquisition of knowledge and values, while the latter has been geared toward the acquisition of working skills and professional knowledge. This view of professional education has not been intentional but a consequence of the development of the wider social and historical context. Although making distinctions between general and professional education may be necessary, any distinction between the two is damaging and unnatural. This is particularly true today, as scientific-technical development, more than ever before, introduces significant changes into communal life and activity. We need to reconsider the relationship between general and professional education. The emphasis ought to be on the link between gaining knowledge and values and acquiring vocational skills and appreciation for learning in a learning society. This is because educated experts and specialists will be better able to follow technological and social changes if they have a general education.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Articulation (Education); Change Strategies; Conventional Instruction; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Developing Nations; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Practices; Educational Principles; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; General Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Linking Agents; Nonformal Education; Postsecondary Education; Professional Education; Systems Approach; Technical Education; Technological Advancement; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Learning Society.


47. Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2001). How do education and experience affect teachers of young children? Research in review. Young Children, 56(4), 85-91.


            This article synthesizes research on the relationship between general education, specialized education, and experiences and early childhood professionals' teaching practices. The study reveals that teachers' formal education influences classroom quality and effective teacher behavior. Causally related to classroom quality, specialized education is also correlated with effective teacher behavior. On the other hand, a teacher's experience cannot be consistently linked to classroom quality or effective behavior.


            KEY WORDS: Classroom Environment; Early Childhood Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Quality; Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.


48. Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53(1), 27-35.


            Research on teacher stress has become a major area of international research interest. This paper reviews research findings on teacher stress and suggests five directions for future research: (i) monitoring the extent to which particular educational reforms are generating high levels of teacher stress; (ii) exploring why some teachers are able to successfully negotiate periods of career reappraisal and retain a positive commitment to the work, whilst others are not; (iii) clarifying the nature of the stress process in term of two types of triggers: one based on excessive demands and the other based on a concern with self-image; (iv) assessing the effectiveness of particular intervention strategies to reduce teacher stress; (v) exploring the impact of teacher-pupil interaction and classroom climate on teacher stress.


            KEY WORDS: Secondary-School Teachers; Burnout; Model; Strategies; Symptoms.


49. Lieberman, A., & Miller, L. (1999). Teachers: Transforming their world and their work. New York; London: Teachers College Press.


            In this sequel to Teachers - Their World and Their Work, the authors bring the reader up to date by addressing the contemporary realities of schools and teaching, focusing on both the constraints and the possibilities embedded in practice. The words and experiences of teachers and principals are used by the authors to show what growth and change look like from the inside - the teacher's perspective: what change requires, how differences in context and personnel are accommodated, what people learn as they change, and what it feels like in the process.


            KEY WORDS: Public Schools; United States; Teacher Effectiveness; Educational Change; Teaching.



50. Locke, T., Vulliamy, G., Webb, R., & Hill, M. (2005). Being a "professional" primary school teacher at the beginning of the 21st century: A comparative analysis of primary teacher professionalism in New Zealand and England. Journal of Education Policy, 20(5), 555-581.


            This article analyses findings from two studies conducted collaboratively across two educational settings, New Zealand and England, in 2001-2002. These studies examined the impact of national educational policy reforms on the nature of primary teachers' work and sense of their own professionalism and compared these impacts across the two countries. Adopting a policy ethnography approach, using in-depth interview data from samples of teachers in each country, it is argued that there have been discursive shifts in the meaning of the three key terms, autonomy, altruism and knowledge, embodied in the classical professionalism triangle. These shifts reflect policy-makers' moves from a "professional-contextualist conception" of teacher professionalism towards the "technocratic-reductionist" conception that accompanies neoliberal educational reforms in many countries. Teachers in both countries experienced increasing constraints on their autonomy as they became far more subject to "extrinsic" accountability demands. Whether these demands were perceived as enhancing or diminishing teacher professionalism depended on the manner in which they were filtered through the profession's defining quality, namely teachers' altruistic concerns for the welfare of the children in their care.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Ethnography; Altruism; Educational Policy; Educational Change; Elementary School Teachers; Personal Autonomy; Knowledge Base for Teaching.


51. Lohman, M. C. (2000). Environmental inhibitors to informal learning in the workplace: A case study of public school teachers. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(2), 83-101.


            From interviews and site visits with 22 teachers, four environmental inhibitors to informal workplace learning emerged: lack of time for learning, lack of proximity to learning resources, lack of meaningful rewards, and limited decision-making power in school management. Ways to facilitate teachers' learning include strategic classroom assignments, unencumbered time, access to communications technology, and revision of reward systems.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Educational Environment; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Informal Education; Public Schools; Teachers; Work Environment.


52. Mann, S. (2004). ”People-work”: Emotion management, stress and coping. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 205-221.


            Workers involved in ”people-work” are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers while at the same time, perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be lost as they choose to take their business to a competitor; however, within the “caring” business, such as the counselling and guidance professions, a failure to display the appropriate emotion (e.g. sympathy) or a leakage of an inappropriate one (e.g. boredom) can have much more serious implications for the well-being of the client and their continued relationship with the professional. This paper will thus argue that emotion management or “emotional labour” is a vital skill within the counselling and guidance professions, but one that can also be a significant source of work stress. Strategies for coping with the stress of performing emotional labour are suggested.


            KEY WORDS: Guidance; Coping; Emotional Response; Interpersonal Relationship; Burnout; Stress Management; Employees; Employee Attitudes.


53. McNess, E. (2004). Culture, context and the quality of education: Evidence from a small-scale extended case study in England and Denmark. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 34(3), 315-327.


            Much recent education policy-making around the world has focused on a restructuring of the role of the classroom teacher in a bid to increase the “quality“ of the educational experience and raise pupil attainment. However, the definition of quality, as expressed through policy, may not always accord with the aims and aspirations of individual teachers who work within a specific cultural context. The rhetoric and intent expressed in policy texts may even have the potential to restrict the quality of what teachers do. This paper draws on some of the findings from a small-scale comparative study of teachers' work in England and Denmark which used an extended case study approach, set in a socio-cultural framework, to examine the relationship of policy trends to teacher values and professional practice. Evidence from the study is used to discuss the issue of “quality“, highlighting contextually specific variations which impact on the implementation of national policy at the local level. Through a discussion of the study's methodology, attention is also drawn to the need for a more contextually sensitive approach to the creation and evaluation of policy which, while recognising universal concerns, also pays heed to local priorities and teacher values.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis Cultural Context; Teaching Experience; Case Studies; Values; Teacher Effectiveness; Policy Formation; Educational Policy; Educational Quality.


54. McWilliams, S., Cannon, P., Farrar, M., Tubbert, B., Connolly, C., & McSorley, F. (2006). Comparison and evaluation of aspects of teacher education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(1), 67-79.


            This paper critically considers teacher education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It was stimulated by an exchange programme between student teachers from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland for a period of school-based work in each other's jurisdictions. It examines recent curricular developments, partnership with schools, college requirements and cultural diversity. It also contrasts the effects these have had on student teacher preparation, classroom delivery and tutor involvement in student teacher development. The highly prescribed and assessed Northern Ireland curriculum will be contrasted with that of the Republic of Ireland, which appears to offer more in terms of freedom, flexibility and independence in planning. Different supervisory practices and responsibilities for the assessment of student teachers' practical teaching will be compared in both jurisdictions. The tutors in the Republic of Ireland exercise more control over student teachers' preparation and professional development for teaching, while in Northern Ireland the partnership arrangements have given more influence to schools. The paper illuminates the shift of locus of control and influence of Colleges of Education in Northern Ireland in the education of student teachers, while in the Republic of Ireland Colleges of Education have retained their influence. The curricular expertise of supervisors in the Republic of Ireland is recognized and accepted by the schools, while in Northern Ireland the rise in significance of curriculum expertise in the Curriculum Advisory and Support Service (CASS) of the Education and Library Boards has undermined the influence and expertise of college tutors.


            KEY WORDS: Cultural Pluralism; Foreign Countries; Student Teaching; Preservice Teacher Education; Partnerships in Education; Student Diversity; Higher Education; Elementary School Mathematics; English; Student Teacher Supervision; International Educational Exchange; Comparative Analysis.


55. Mearns, J., & Cain, J. E. (2003). Relationships between teachers' occupational stress and their burnout and distress: Roles of coping and negative mood regulation expectancies. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 16(1), 71-82.


            Teaching school is a highly stressful occupation. Consequences of this stress are burnout, physical and emotional distress, and choosing to leave the profession. Research on teacher stress and burnout has largely focused on environmental and contextual factors while ignoring personality characteristics of teachers that may have an impact on relationships between job stress and its consequences. The current study has a cross-sectional self-report design, focusing on teachers' negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies as predictors of their coping, burnout and distress, in response to occupational stress. NMR expectancies are people's beliefs that they can control the negative moods they experience. Participants were 86 primary and secondary school teachers, who filled out questionnaire measures of teacher stress, NMR expectancies, coping, burnout, and distress. Simultaneous regression analyses showed that higher stress on the job did indeed predict greater burnout and distress. Additionally, stronger NMR expectancies predicted more active coping. NMR expectancies also predicted less burnout and distress, independent of stress level and coping. Believing one could control one's negative moods was associated with more adaptive outcomes for teachers. Results argue for the value of examining individual difference variables in research on occupational stress, in particular negative mood regulation expectancies.


            KEY WORDS: Occupational Stress; Teaching; Negative Mood Regulation; Teachers; Burnout; Distress; Coping; Negative Mood Regulation.


56. Menter, I., Mahony, P., & Hextall, I. (2004). Ne'er the twain shall meet? Modernizing the teaching profession in Scotland and England. Journal of Education Policy, 19(2), 195-214.


            This paper considers two examples of recent policies affecting teachers' work, Performance Threshold Assessment in England and Chartered Teacher status in Scotland. Through tracing their origins and motivations, a comparative analysis is offered, which seeks to explore the extent of the influence of national contexts on developments in the restructuring process. Both policies purport to meet the professional needs of teachers who are a few years into their careers, yet the Scottish example is strongly oriented towards professional development, while the English example is oriented towards performativity and teacher assessment.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Teaching (Occupation); Faculty Development; Teacher Education; Teacher Evaluation; Educational Policy; Teacher Improvement.


57. Miettinen, R. (1999). Transcending traditional school learning: Teachers' work and networks of learning. In Y. Engeström & R. Miettinen (Eds.), Perspectives on activity theory. Learning in doing: Social, cognitive, and computational perspectives (pp. 325-344). New York: Cambridge University Press.


            Exceeding the limitations of traditional school learning, requires an analysis of the nature and conditions of school learning as well as the new kinds of teaching and learning occurring within the school. This chapter explores the problem of learning at school both theoretically and empirically. Analyzing the object and the subject of learning at school, facilitates ongoing theoretical discussions about learning. Grounded in the results of the author's study of business teachers' work at the Finnish Businessmen's Commercial College, the discussion draws on other examples of new kinds of teaching in Finland, Sweden, and England.


            KEY WORDS: School Learning; Social Networks; Theories of Education.


58. Morony, W. (1999). Teacher professional associations as key contributors to the effectiveness of teachers' work. Paper presented at the Fifth UNESCO-ACEID International Conference Entitled: Reforming Learning, Curriculum and Pedagogy: Innovative Visions for the New Century, Thailand.


            The Australian experience is that teacher professional associations form the third side of the triangle of support for teachers' work; the others being teachers' formal education (initial preparation to be a teacher and ongoing study) and input from their employer. This third side is inherently democratic and empowering for teachers - they are in control. It also gives teachers a “voice“ and contributes to their overall professional standing. This paper outlines the ways in which associations of teachers of mathematics operate in Australia as an example of the ways in which teacher subject associations can contribute to the knowledge and skills of their members. Discussion centers on the capacity for sharing insights and approaches with colleagues in the Asia-Pacific region, and learning from them, in the context of increasing globalization and improving access to information and communication technologies.


            KEY WORDS: Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Mathematics Teachers; Professional Associations; Professional Development; Teacher Effectiveness.


59. Morrill, R. (2003). Denmark: Lessons for American principals and teachers? Phi Delta Kappan, 84(6), 460-463.


            Describes positive aspects of Denmark's "class teacher" system wherein the same group of students, evenly divided by sex, remain together with the same teacher from grades 1 through 9. Includes description of testing, school and classroom discipline, and group work. Compares Danish schools with American schools.


            KEY WORDS: Child Development; Classroom Techniques; Comparative Analysis; Discipline; Educational Testing; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Grouping (Instructional Purposes); Principals.


60. Morris, J. E., & Long, B. C. (2002). Female clerical workers' occupational stress: The role of person and social resources, negative affectivity, and stress appraisals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(4), 395-410.


            In this paper, relations among person and social resources, work-stress appraisals, and depression were examined with data from 2 longitudinal studies of female clerical workers. Results were consistent with predictions that primary appraisals contribute to change in depression beyond the effects of person and social resources and negative affectivity. There was modest evidence that control appraisals moderate the effects of optimism and work support.


            KEY WORDS: Clerical Workers; Counseling; Depression (Psychology); Females; Job Satisfaction; Personnel Evaluation; Self Esteem; Social Support Groups; Stress Variables.


61. Nagel, L., & Brown, S. (2003). The ABCs of managing teacher stress. Clearing House, 76(5), 255-258.


            This paper describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. It outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication, and notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and reflect on their teaching.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Strategies; Higher Education; Interpersonal Communication; Stress Management; Student Motivation; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Student Relationship.


62. Nelson, J. R., Maculan, A., Roberts, M. L., & Ohlund, B. J. (2001). Sources of occupational stress for teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9(2), 123-130.


            Teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are at particular risk for experiencing stress on the job. Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with EBD was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics. working conditions. and ability to work with children with EBD as factors in the analysis. All working condition variables (principal-teacher relationship, capacity to contribute to decisions, and working relationships), as well as years of professional experience and ability to work with externalizing children, had a significant effect on occupational stress. Additionally, within-inventory analyses pointed to ability to contribute to decisions as more influential than positive relationships with principals or colleagues. Results and implications are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Special Educators; Job-Satisfaction; Stay; Intent; Commitment.


63. Peterson, M., & Wilson, J. F. (2002). The culture-work-health model and work stress. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(1), 16-24.


            This paper examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions.


            KEY WORDS: Employer Employee Relationship; Interpersonal Relationship; Organizational Climate; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Employee Health; Job Stress; Organizational Culture.


64. Phil James, & Walters, D. (2004). Health and safety: Revitalised or reversed? London: Institute of Employment Rights.


            The booklet compares the original IER recommendations of 1997 to the proposals put forward by the government in 1998 for improving the system for health and safety at work. Rather than being revitalised, there are signs that standards of health and safety have, in fact, been reversed over the last three years.


            KEY WORDS: Health and Safety; Health Policy; Standards.


65. Pisanti, R., Gagliardi, M. P., Razzino, S., & Bertini, M. (2003). Occupational stress and wellness among Italian secondary school teachers. Psychology & Health, 18(4), 523-536.


            As a part of a larger cross-cultural investigation (Euroteach) which involves 11 European countries and 2 182 secondary school teachers, two were the aims of the present study: (1) to examine the relationship between job conditions and wellness/health outcomes on a group of 169 Italian secondary school teachers, by using the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) Model (Karasek and Theorell, 1990 ); (2) to analyse the differences with other European countries in the light of specific cultural differences. Controlling for age and gender, results of hierarchical regression indicated that job control and social support combine in different additive patterns with job demands to explain the well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, somatic complaints). The predictor's linearity check indicated that the job demands variable is curvilinearly associated both with emotional exhaustion (p <0.005) and with somatic symptoms (p <0.01). As compared to the average of the other European countries, on the positive side, the Italian teachers manifest both a higher degree of personal accomplishment and a lesser degree of depersonalisation; on the other hand, they claim a lesser degree of social support and a higher degree of somatic complaints.


            KEY WORDS: Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) Model; Burnout; Non-linear Associations; Teachers; Additive or Interactive Hypothesis; Italy; Europe.


66. Pithers, R. T., & Soden, R. (1999). Person-environment fit and teacher stress. Educational Research, 41(1), 51-61.


            This study examines the relationship between person-environment fit and occupational stress and strain for a group of 300 Australian and Scottish vocational teachers. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain a measure of predominant work interest type for each individual. Teachers were allocated to the congruent group on the basis of reporting a predominantIy Social interest type; Social types are seen to be most congruent with teaching. Teachers were allocated to the incongruent group on the basis of reporting a predominantly Practical interest type. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to measure various aspects of occupational stress, strain and coping resources. Significant betweengroup effects (congruent vs incongruent) were found for of the four strain subscales of the OSI. The implications of person- environment fit and strain for teachers is discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Teacher Stress; Strain; Person-Environment Fit; Secondary-School Teachers; Occupational Stress; Congruence; Burnout; Model.


67. Rasku, A., & Kinnunen, U. (2003). Job conditions and wellness among Finnish upper secondary school teachers. Psychology & Health, 18(4), 441-456.


            The aim of the present study was to compare the work situation of Finnish upper secondary school teachers to that of average European teachers and to examine to what extent various job conditions and coping strategies explain their well-being. The Finnish data (n = 232) were gathered in the spring term of 1998 by postal questionnaires (response rate 62%). The European reference sample consisted of 1950 upper secondary school teachers from ten European countries. The Finnish upper secondary school teachers assessed, in particular, their job conditions (e.g., lower job demands and higher job control), but also their well-being (higher level of job satisfaction and lower level of depersonalisation and somatic complaints) as better than their European colleagues. Job demands and control had only main effects on well-being: high demands explained low job satisfaction, high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalisation, and high control explained high job satisfaction and high personal accomplishment. The additional job conditions and coping strategies increased the explained variance of somatic complaints, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment.


            KEY WORDS: Work Conditions; Teachers; Wellness; Burnout; Job Demand; Control; Social Support; Stress; Europe.


68. Ruhland, S. K. (2002). An examination of secondary business teachers' retention factors, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA, April 1-5, 2002.


            A study investigated from a national perspective factors that influence the attrition and retention of newly hired secondary business teachers in the public sector. It also identified factors important to determine a business teacher's interest in continuing or not continuing in the teaching profession. The survey developed for the study consisted of these four sections: educational preparation, teaching experience, skills and interests in teaching, and demographics. Of 424 deliverable surveys, 163 (34%) were returned. Findings were the following: (1) the retention rate of respondents was very good; (2) 86 percent were still teaching; (3) secondary business teachers who initially did not have a strong commitment to the teaching profession were more likely to leave the teaching profession; (4) 54 percent reported their mentoring experience as having a positive influence toward their attitude as a beginning teacher; (5) 43 percent who remained in the teaching profession reported satisfaction with their current teaching positions; (6) participants identified salaries (57 percent), lack of job advancement (30 percent), licensure requirements (26 percent), stress (26 percent), and classroom management issues (26 percent) as major reasons for secondary business teachers leaving the teaching profession; and (7) 5 of 14 factors important to continue teaching (pleasant working conditions, positive teaching experience, sense that they are doing a good job, positive interactions with students, time to complete job responsibilities) differed significantly between teachers who did not enter or chose to leave and those who remained in the teaching profession.


            KEY WORDS: Beginning Teachers; Business Education Teachers; Labor Turnover; Mentors; National Surveys; Secondary Education; Secondary School Teachers; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Persistence; Teaching Conditions.


69. Ryan, J. (2003). Continuous professional development along the continuum of lifelong learning. Nurse Education Today, 23(7), 498-508.


            Of 300 surveyed, responses from 94 nurses, 38 occupational therapists, and 50 physical therapists indicated that professional knowledge was a prime motivation for continuing professional development, followed by updating qualifications, increasing the status of the profession, and demonstrating professional competence. No differences were observed among the professions.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Attitudes; Lifelong Learning; Nurses; Occupational Therapists; Physical Therapists; Professional Continuing Education; Self Motivation.


70. Santagata, R., & Barbieri, A. (2005). Mathematics teaching in Italy: A cross-cultural video analysis. Mathematical Thinking & Learning: An International Journal, 7(4), 291-312.


            This study investigates the cultural nature of teaching. It compares a sample of 39 videotaped Italian mathematics lessons to German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons videotaped in TIMSS. This study expands on earlier work that was based on a smaller sample; analysis is also extended to the nature of the mathematical content presented. The results confirm the existence of an Italian cultural pattern for mathematics teaching, whose features we outline here. Italian teachers prefer whole-class instruction to individual seatwork; they engage in teacher talk/demonstration to transmit information; and they often call on students to solve problems at the board before the rest of the class. Italian lessons are characterized by the inclusion of a large number of mathematical principles and properties. These are explained 50% of the time, and simply stated the rest of the time. This study adds yet another perspective from which mathematics teaching can be studied, and, by acknowledging the difficulty to change cultural practices, it offers practical implications for teacher learning.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Mathematics Instruction; Teaching Methods; Mathematics Teachers; Videotape Recordings; Comparative Analysis; Cultural Differences; Cross Cultural Studies.


71. Schaarschmidt, U., Kieschke, U., & Fischer, A. W. (1999). Patterns of teacher's occupational stress. Psychologie in Erziehung Und Unterricht, 46(4), 244-268.


            In several studies we focused on the rule played by teacher's personal resources in coping with professional demands. This approach aims at exploring indicators of mental health. They are assessed by the psychometric instrument AVEM, which allows variable-oriented evaluations, as well as the classification of persons into four patterns (types) of coping (G, S, A, B) determined by cluster-analysis. The relevance of this typology in terms of health-related behavior and experience was demonstrated by various studies. Distinguishing between these patterns (types) makes it possible to point out problematic tendencies of professional engagement, moreover our approach is especially suitable to lay the foundation for preventive measures. Up until now we have investigated a sample of about 4000 teachers and teacher students. Longitudinal data are also available.


            KEY WORDS: Teacher Research; Personal Resources; Coping Styles.


72. Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S., & Tang, C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural validation of the Maslach burnout inventory. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 13(3), 309-326.


            Teacher burnout is a world-wide phenomenon that draws the attention of educational psychologists and stimulates efforts in construct elaboration and measurement. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (cynicism), and lack of personal accomplishments are three dimensions that constitute the burnout syndrome. Levels of this burnout syndrome were compared among 542 German and Chinese teachers. It turned out that there were only minor differences between the Germans and the Chinese, but major differences between those two groups and the U.S. American normative data. Moreover, stress resource factors were measured, namely perceived self-efficacy and proactive attitude. Their negative intercorrelations with burnout supported the validity of the burnout measure, although the associations were much closer in the German subsample. An attempt to replicate the American three-factorial structure of the burnout construct failed in both subsamples, which is in line with previous evidence and calls for a revision of the original measure.


            KEY WORDS: Burnout; Self-Efficacy; Proactive; Chinese; Self-Beliefs; Stress; Health.


73. Smith, J. (2001). Critical politics of teachers' work: An Australian perspective. New York: Peter Lang.


            This book examines the damage that has been systematically inflicted upon teachers' work globally over the past two or more decades. The author chronicles and traces the major policy maneuvers in what can only be described as "difficult times." The consequences are not hard to see in the language of the new technologies of power: competencies, vocationalization of the curriculum, appraisal, testing, accountability, restructuring, enterprise culture, and self-management, as well as through the cooption of progressive categories like collegiality, teacher development, and other reflective approaches to teaching. While these discourses mark out the oppressive contours of teaching there is considerable space to imagine and live out alternative discourses and practices. The way out of the miasma, the authors argues, is to robustly confront and vigorously supplant dominant managerialist discourses with agenda and practices that are more democratic, educative, and socially just.


            KEY WORDS: Paid Employment; Formal Education.


74. Stanton, J. M., Bachiochi, P. D., Robie, C., Perez, L. M., & Smith, P. C. (2002). Revising the JDI work satisfaction subscale: Insights into stress and control. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(5), 877-895.


            This paper studied the Work Satisfaction subscale of the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) to determine the difference between measuring work stress and measuring work satisfaction. Results from samples of 1,623 and 314 adults provide evidence on JDI improvement.


            KEY WORDS: Adults; Measures (Individuals); Stress Variables; Test Construction; Test Items; Job Descriptive Index.


75. Stanton, J. M., Balzer, W. K., Smith, P. C., Parra, L.-F., & Ironson, G. (2001). A general measure of work stress: The stress in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(5), 866-888.


            This paper developed the Stress in General Scale and studied its validity with three samples of adult workers (n=4,322; n=574; and n=34). Evidence converged on the existence of two distinct subscales, each of which measured a different aspect of general work stress. Studies also resulted in meaningful patterns of correlations with stressor measures.


            KEY WORDS: Adults; Correlation; Employees; Measurement Techniques; Stress Variables; Validity.


76. Stephens, P., Tonnessen, F. E., & Kyriacou, C. (2004). Teacher "training" and teacher "education" in England and Norway: A comparative study of policy goals. Comparative Education, 40(1), 109-130.


            In this paper, we examine the complementary and differing state-defined roles of beginning schoolteachers in England and Norway by investigating centrally mandated initial teacher preparation programmes in both countries. Through comparative analysis, we get to see the roles that the policy-makers in London and Oslo seek to confer upon the educators of future generations of schoolchildren, as well as exploring opportunities for cross-cultural policy learning. In broad terms, we found that centrally prescribed initial teacher training in England is, as its name implies, a training model that seeks to induct trainee teachers into the practical skills and willingness necessary for: instructing pupils in National Curriculum subjects, managing classroom activities, setting homework to consolidate and extend classroom work and providing pupils with a safe learning environment. Centrally prescribed initial teacher education in Norway is, as its name implies, an educative model whose goal is to help student teachers to: reflect and act upon the practical implications of educational theory, instruct pupils in National Curriculum subjects, display leadership in the classroom, act as a member of a caring profession, promote Norwegian values and provide pupils with a safe learning environment.


            KEY WORDS: Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Students; Learning Activities; Educational Environment; Class Activities; Student Teachers; National Curriculum; Preservice Teacher Education.


77. Thomas, N., Clarke, V., & Lavery, J. (2003). Self-reported work and family stress of female primary teachers. Australian Journal of Education, 47(1), 73-87.


            Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other.


            KEY WORDS: Elementary School Teachers; Employed Women; Faculty Workload; Family-Work Relationship; Females; Foreign Countries; Primary Education; Stress Variables; Teacher Morale; Teaching Conditions; Australia.


78. Thornton, M., & Reid, I. (2001). Primary school teaching as a career: The views of the successfully recruited. Journal of Education for Teaching, 27(1), 111-112.


            Explored British student teachers' views about their choice of elementary school teaching as a career. Data from surveys and interviews indicated that virtually all respondents had always wanted to teach, enjoyed working with children, felt that teaching brought job satisfaction, and considered teaching a good career that would be challenging. Some respondents also reported negative feelings about previous noneducational work.


            KEY WORDS: Career; Recruitment; Student Teachers.


79. Trenberth, L., & Dewe, P. (2005). An exploration of the role of leisure in coping with work- related stress using sequential tree analysis. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 33(1), 101-116.


            The past three decades have seen an explosion of interest into the nature, causes and consequences of stress in both work and non-work settings. Given that leisure is of growing importance in most people's lives and that the impact of stress influences the way in which leisure is used, then the role that leisure plays as a means of coping with stress represents an important research agenda. In order to explore leisure's role in coping with work stress this research explored, using a sample of secondary school principals and deputy principals, three issues: (1) why an involvement in leisure was important, (2) what reasons were given as to why leisure was important to cope with stress, and (3) what coping strategies were actually used to cope with stress in relation to whether or not leisure had always been regarded as an important part of life. Each of these issues was explored using a technique called sequential tree analysis. This technique identifies patterns of data and arranges them in hierarchical order to provide a visual display that captures the richness of relationships not always present when more traditional methods are used. The different patterns that emerged point to the complex role that leisure plays. The results also point to the need to better understand combinations and patterns before it is possible to determine the exact nature of the presumed emotion-focused role that leisure may play in coping with work stress. These findings have implications for stress management interventions and the role of leisure in them and the need to distinguish between the meanings people give to the importance of leisure as distinct from the actual use of leisure as a coping strategy.


            KEY WORDS: Stress Management; Principals; Coping; Leisure Time; Intervention; Statistical Analysis.


80. Tytherleigh, M. Y., Webb, C., Cooper, C. L., & Ricketts, C. (2005). Occupational stress in UK higher education institutions: A comparative study of all staff categories. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(1), 41-61.


            The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out using a stratified random sample of all categories of staff (academic and non-academic) from 14 UK universities and colleges. Levels of occupational stress were measured using the ASSET model. The results showed that the most significant source of stress for all higher education staff (irrespective of category of employee) was job insecurity. In comparison to the normative data, staff also reported significantly higher levels of stress relating to work relationships, control, and resources and communication, and significantly lower levels of commitment both from and to their organization. However, they also reported significantly lower levels of stress relating to work-life balance, overload and job overall, and lower levels of physical ill-health. Significant differences were identified between staff working at Old versus New universities and by category of employee. These results support the growing evidence that universities no longer provide the low stress working environments they once did.


            KEY WORDS: Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Job Security; Stress Variables; Educational Change; College Faculty; Work Environment; Measures (Individuals); United Kingdom.


81. van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2001). Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), 243-259.


            School teaching seems to be particularly stressful. The stress model of Lazarus and colleagues and its adaptation to educational settings by Kyriacou and Sutcliffe is the basis for an analysis of antecedents and consequences of teacher stress. The first aim of this study was to test the theoretical model of teacher stress on a large sample using structural equation statistics (study I). The results should then be cross-validated and the model enlarged by additional operationalisations (study II). This study was conducted using heterogeneous samples of German school teachers (study I: N = 356, study II: N = 201). In study I, standardised questionnaires measuring workload and mobbing as stressors, physical symptoms as stress reactions, and social support and self-efficacy as moderating variables. In addition to these concepts, coping strategies, burnout and absenteeism were assessed in study II. The structural equation modelling in study I revealed that the predications of the stress model hold true: workload and mobbing lead to stress reactions, whereas principal support reduces the perception of workload and mobbing. Global support and self-efficacy moderate the relationships between the variables. These results were confirmed in study II and the model was enlarged by burnout and coping strategies. With all concepts, 12% of the variance of absenteeism can be explained. Limitations of the studies, using cross-sectional data and self-reported measures are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Teacher Stress; Workload; Mobbing; Stress Reactions; Social Support; Self Efficacy; Coping Strategies; Burnout; Absenteeism.


82. Van Horn, J. E., Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2001). Lack of reciprocity among Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to stress and well-being. Work & Stress, 15(3), 191-213.


            This research presents the results of two related studies on the convergent and construct validity of three measures of reciprocity in exchange relationships at work. In Study 1, 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed about their specific investments and outcomes in the exchange relationships with their students, colleagues and school. ANOVA revealed that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a function of the type of exchange relationship. Building on these results, multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity at a detailed level for each of the three exchange relationships. Study 2 validated these specific reciprocity measures by relating them to two global assessments of reciprocity (convergent validity) as well as to measures of job stress and well-being (construct validity). LISREL-analysis of data obtained from a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange relationship there were significant, consistent and meaningful relationships among the three reciprocity measures. Further, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the reciprocity measures were differentially related to job stressors and measures of well-being. Implications are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Reciprocity; Equity; Theory; Teachers; Work Stress; Well-Being.


83. Vettor, S. M., & Kosinski, F. A., Jr. (2000). Work-stress burnout in emergency medical technicians and the use of early recollections. Journal of Employment Counseling, 37(4), 216-228.


            Numerous studies have indicated a high work-stress burnout rate of emergency medical technicians, although none have used techniques predicting work-stress burnout. This paper discusses early memories that are representative of emergency medical technicians who may be susceptible to burnout, and memories that may indicate an individual's resistance to burnout. It proposes research to substantiate effectiveness of early recollections in predicting burnout.


            KEY WORDS: Burnout; Career Counseling; Emergency Medical Technicians; Recall (Psychology); Stress Variables; Emergency Medical Services; Memory Span.


84. Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 314-334.


            Study 1 analyzed 68 studies, identifying three constructs: workplace stressors, strains, and social support. In study 2, models of social support in the workplace were tested, finding that social support reduced strains, mitigated perceived stressors, and moderated the relationship between stressors and strain.


            KEY WORDS: Interpersonal Relationship; Meta Analysis; Social Support Groups; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Job Stress.


85. Weinraub, M., Shlay, A. B., Harmon, M., & Tran, H. (2005). Subsidizing child care: How child care subsidies affect the child care used by low-income African American families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(4), 373-392.


            To evaluate the type and quality of child care used by low-income families who were either receiving or not receiving subsidized child care, we interviewed 111 African American parents from a randomly selected sample of low-income families. We inquired about their child-care use, satisfaction with care, work stress, and employment history. Using standardized assessment instruments, independent observers in the children's child-care setting evaluated the quality of the care and characteristics of the providers. We found that families using subsidized child care were more likely to use center care and other more formal types of care, while families not using subsidized child care were more likely to use a relative in the relative's home. Families using subsidized care tended to use licensed and registered child-care arrangements more than non-subsidized families. Also, subsidized families spent approximately half as much out-of-pocket money for child care. However, we found no evidence that the care used by families using subsidized care was of any higher quality than that used by non-subsidized families. We examine the possibility that child-care subsidy programs may not be adequately designed or funded to increase the availability of quality child care to low-income families. Educators and policy makers may want to consider additional means of increasing access to quality care in low-income families.


            KEY WORDS: Low Income Groups; Child Care; African American Family; Grants; Community Programs; African Americans; Social Services; Caregivers; Satisfaction.


86. Williams, A. (2003). Informal learning in the workplace: A case study of new teachers. Educational Studies, 29(2-3), 207-219.


            Focuses on the learning of new teachers in England to identify aspects of workplace learning that may not be accommodated within the statutory induction year. Draws from interview and survey data. Concludes that the new teachers' learning is informal, reactive, and collaborative.


            KEY WORDS: Beginning Teachers; Case Studies; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Interviews; Learning Experience; Professional Development; Surveys; Teaching Experience; England.


87. Wilson, V., & Hall, J. (2002). Running twice as fast? A review of the research literature on teachers' stress. Scottish Educational Review, 34(2), 175-187.


            A literature review of teacher stress in Scotland found that hours worked by teachers have not changed significantly over the last decade, but the number of unpopular tasks over which teachers have little control has increased, resulting in increased stress. Being forced to implement mandated changes also increases teacher stress.


            KEY WORDS: Academic Standards; Collegiality; Coping; Educational Change; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Faculty Mobility; Foreign Countries; Job Satisfaction; Quality of Working Life; Social Support Groups; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout; Scotland; Teacher Stress.


88. Wilson, V., Schlapp, U., & Davidson, J. (2003). Prescription for learning? Meeting the development needs of the pharmacy profession. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(4), 380-395.


            A survey (n=947) of pharmacists and instructors was compared with 1999 results. Over 90% of both high and low users of formal continuing education also engaged in informal learning. Low users received the most employer support for training. Differences among high, medium, and low users and nonusers suggest a need for diverse formats and services, including distance learning.


            KEY WORDS: Educational Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Pharmaceutical Education; Pharmacy; Professional Continuing Education.


89. Wood, T., & McCarthy, C. (2002). Understanding and preventing teacher burnout. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).


            This digest explains that burnout results from the chronic perception that one is unable to cope with daily life demands. Teachers must face classrooms full of students every day; negotiate potentially stressful interactions with parents, administrators, counselors, and other teachers; contend with relatively low pay and shrinking school budgets; and ensure students meet increasingly strict standards. This can result in a form of burnout at some point in their careers. The digest looks at the nature of the stress response, describes the development of the burnout construct, and examines several types of prevention that can be useful in helping teachers contend with an occupation that puts them at risk for burnout. Primary prevention includes organizational practices which allow teachers some control over their daily challenges. Secondary prevention focuses on early detection of problems before they emerge as full-blown disorders. Tertiary prevention involves ameliorating symptoms of burnout. The digest concludes that primary prevention is preferable, but all types can be effective.


            KEY WORDS: Elementary/ Secondary Education; Stress Management; Teacher Burnout; Teacher Responsibility; Teaching Conditions; Primary Prevention.




About the CFI Project

1. General Resources
for Work & Learning

2. Work

3. Learning

4. Work & Learning

5. Other Topics  in
    Learning & Work

   5.1Technological Change

   5.2 Immigrants

   5.3 Disability

   5.4 Working Conditions

        and Stress


  |About WALLRB|General Resources |Work |Learning |Work & Learning |Other Topics |