and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Other Topics in
Learning and Work
Working Conditions, Stress & Learning:
Teachers & Other
1. Abel, M. H., &
Sewell, J. (1999). Stress and burnout in rural and urban
secondary school teachers. Journal of Educational Research,
Surveys of rural and urban secondary teachers examined teacher stress and
burnout. Urban teachers experienced significantly more stress from poor
working conditions and staff relations. In both types of schools, student
misbehavior and time pressures caused the highest stress. Working
conditions and time pressures predicted burnout for rural teachers.
Student misbehavior and working conditions predicted burnout for urban
Collegiality; Rural Schools; Rural Urban Differences;
Secondary Education; Secondary School Teachers; Stress Management; Stress
Variables; Student Behavior; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Burnout; Teaching
Conditions; Time Factors (Learning); Urban Schools.
Anderson, V. L., Levinson, E. M., Barker, W., & Kiewra, K. R. (1999).
The effects of meditation on teacher
perceived occupational stress, state and trait anxiety, and burnout.
School Psychology Quarterly, 14(1), 3-25.
Teacher stress has been the focus of educational concern and research for
decades, and has resulted in the development of several teacher stress
scales and various strategies to address the negative effects of stress
and burnout. Few empirical studies have evaluated specific programs
designed to reduce teacher stress. However, promising results have come
from the practice of standardized meditation (SM). The current study
employed a pretest-posttest control group design and used the Teacher's
Stress Inventory (TSI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess the effect of a 5-week
standardized meditation class on the perceived occupational stress of 91
full-time teachers from seven suburban school districts in three states.
Results were consistent with previous studies and offered support for the
hypothesis that SM significantly reduces teachers' perceived stress.
Teachers perceived a reduction in stress using SM only 2-5 times per week.
The use of standardized meditation by school psychologists to assist in
reducing teacher stress is discussed.
Mental-Health-Services; Job-Related Stress; Transcendental
Meditation; Psychological Burnout; Relaxation Techniques; Classroom
Teachers; School Teachers; Management; Inventory; Validity.
3. Baldauf, R. B. (2005).
Coordinating government and community support for community language
teaching in Australia: Overview with special attention to New South Wales.
International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 8(2-3),
overview of formal government language-in-education planning for community
languages (CLs) that has been undertaken in Australia and New South Wales
is provided, moving from the more informal programmes provided in the
1980s to school-oriented programmes and training at the turn of the
century. These programmes depend on community support; for many of the
teachers from the communities, methodological training is needed to
complement their language and cultural skills. At the same time,
Commonwealth (Federal) and State support for CL programmes has improved
their quality and provides students with opportunities to study CLs at the
senior secondary matriculation level. The paper concludes with specific
recommendations for greater recognition of CL schools and for greater
attention to CL teacher preparation.
Foreign Countries; State Aid; Community Support; Teacher
Education; Language Planning; Language Teachers; Second Language
Instruction; Public Policy.
4. Ballet, K., & Kelchtermans,
G. (2002). Intensification and beyond: Bringing professional development
back in the picture. Paper presented at the Paper presented at the Annual
Meeting of the Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA, April
paper reviews the literature on teaching conditions, stress variables, and
demands placed upon teachers, focusing on the situation in Belgium.
Researchers examined whether and how teachers in Flemish elementary
schools experienced intense, stressful, and negative working conditions,
focusing on which forms of stressors and negative conditions existed, the
impact of growing demands and expectations upon teachers, mediating
elements in this process, and characteristics of the school organization
as a mediator. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with a
principal, a part-time teacher, and three classroom teachers, and from
staff room conversations and informal chats with school team members.
Results indicated that hard working team members stimulated each other to
respond to the new demands. This happened without any structuring by the
principal. Teachers evaluated the advantages to students when determining
whether or not an external demand was valuable. Although respondents coped
in different ways, they had one issue in common: all teachers wanted to
balance their professional and personal lives without doing any harm to
Coping; Elementary Education; Faculty Development; Foreign
Countries; Stress Variables; Teacher Collaboration; Teaching Conditions;
5. Black, S. (2003). Stressed
out in the classroom. American School Board Journal, 190(10), 36-38.
teachers feel overwhelmed about meeting the needs of students getting
ready for tests, and about relations with principals. Four exceptionally
high-stress factors that teachers admit carrying into their classrooms are
money management, health, relationships, and care giving. A sidebar lists
tips for administrators to help alleviate teachers' work-related stress.
Educational Environment; Elementary/ Secondary Education;
Principals; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Teacher Administrator
Relationship; Teacher Burnout; Teacher Morale; Teaching Conditions.
6. Boles, J. S., Dean, D. H.,
Ricks, J. M., Short, J. C., & Wang, G. (2000). The dimensionality of the
Maslach burnout inventory across small business owners and educators.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(1), 12-34.
study tested the dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) by
comparing three factor structures (i.e., a one-factor structure, a
three-factor structure, and a higher order factor structure) in two
diverse samples. The comparison of the LISREL measurement models was
extended by a series of measurement invariance tests. Additionally,
constructs related to burnout had a pattern of correlations to the three
MBI dimensions that was similar across the two samples. In aggregate, the
analyses suggested that the three-factor structure of the MBI is the most
plausible model. By using a sample of small business owners, the current
research contributed to existing knowledge on the MBI by establishing the
dimensionality and generalizability of the MBI beyond human service
Occupational Stress; Business Personnel; Industrial
Personnel; Attitudes Toward Work; Small Business; Owners; Teachers; School
7. Boswell, W. R.,
Olson-Buchanan, J. B., & LePine, M. A. (2004). Relations between stress
and work outcomes: The role of felt challenge, job control, and
psychological strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 165-181.
Recent research on reported work stress indicates stress may not always be
deleterious for an individual or organization. Research in this area,
however, has not yet examined a variety of work outcomes, the mechanism by
which stress leads to such outcomes, and the moderators of this effect.
The present study hypothesized that two types of reported stress
(challenge- and hindrance-related) have a divergent relationship with work
outcomes (relating to desirable and undesirable outcomes, respectively)
and a similar (positive) relationship with psychological strain. We also
hypothesize felt challenge as a mechanism through which challenge stress
relates to desirable outcomes and job control as a moderator of the
effect. Results from a heterogeneous sample of university staff employees
(N=461) supported many of the hypotheses. The two types of stress
differentially related to work outcomes yet both positively related to
psychological strain. In addition, felt challenge mediated the
relationship between challenge-related stress and work outcomes, yet the
effect of challenge-related stress did not depend on job control.
Anxiety; Administrators; Job Performance; Burnout; Stress
Variables; Organizational Climate; Heterogeneous Grouping; School
Personnel; Job Satisfaction; College Faculty.
8. Briner, R. B., Harris, C.,
& Daniels, K. (2004). How do work stress and coping work? Toward a
fundamental theoretical reappraisal. British Journal of Guidance and
Counselling, 32(2), 223-234.
main aim of this paper is to make the case for why a fundamental
reappraisal rather than incremental development of work stress and coping
theory is required. In order to do this we present, in simplified form,
some of the basic tenets of theory in this field. These tenets are
questioned and their limitations identified in two ways. The first way is
through contrasting the sort of stories that emerge in counselling and
psychotherapy about the causes of people's distress with the simplified
accounts found in stress and coping theory. The second way is through a
critical examination of the specific ideas that stressors are “out there“
in the work environment and that individuals go through a simple process
of primary and secondary appraisal when dealing with potentially harmful
aspects of the work environment. Drawing on the notion of the employee as
an active crafter and shaper of their job and data showing the complex
ways in which people make sense of potentially negative work
circumstances, we show how these ideas are of very limited value. In
conclusion, we suggest that these limitations are so serious that
fundamental reappraisal rather than development is required.
Coping; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Research;
Theories; Work Environment; Psychological Patterns; Emotional Response.
Brock, B. L., & Grady, M. L. (2002). Avoiding
burnout: A principal's guide to keeping the fire alive. Thousand Oaks, CA:
work of the school administrator is often described as fragmented and
unrelenting. However, what is often left unsaid is that it is lonely. The
issues of administrator stress and burnout form the focus of this book. It
begins with a look at the nature of stress, and an assessment of
individual stress triggers and response mechanisms. Subsequent chapters
outline practical strategies for diminishing stress at home and
capitalizing on work stress with effective time-management and
interpersonal skills. The last chapter offers suggestions for career
renewal and caring for one's personal well-being. In these chapters,
school administrators are offered a "mirror" to look into to see how they
are doing. This mirror comes in the form of voices of administrators who
offer their stories and suggestions about how they handle stress and
burnout. Through this approach, administrators can assess themselves in
relation to how others manage the complexity and pace of school
administration. Resources at the end of the book include: a list of
destructive and constructive responses to stress; a list of realities in
life that must be accepted and possibilities to embrace; a stress
reduction outline for personal change; and a model action plan.
Administrator Guides; Burnout; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Principals; Self Management; Stress Management; Stress
Variables; Time Management.
10. Broman, C. L. (2001). Work
stress in the family life of African Americans. Journal of Black Studies,
paper investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life
among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in
the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively
affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital
harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic financial stress
negatively affected parental well-being.
Blacks; Family Life; Job Satisfaction; Marital
Satisfaction; Parent Attitudes; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Job
Stress; Marital Quality.
11. Brouwers, A., Evers, W. J.
G., & Tomic, W. (2001). Self-efficacy in eliciting social support and
burnout among secondary-school teachers. Journal of Applied Social
Psychology, 31(7), 1474-1491.
nonrecursive model with relationships between perceived lack of social
support, perceived self-efficacy in eliciting support at the workplace,
and the 3 successive burnout dimensions- emotional exhaustion,
depersonalization, and personal accomplishment-was tested in a sample of
277 secondary-school teachers in The Netherlands. Results showed that
teachers' perceived lack of support from colleagues and principals had a
significant effect on their self-efficacy beliefs in eliciting support
from them, while these self-efficacy beliefs were shown to predict their
level of burnout. The hypothesized feedback loop was also confirmed:
teachers' level of burnout predicted the extent to which they feel lack of
support. An additional effect of the personal-accomplishment dimension of
burnout on perceived self-efficacy was suggested. It was concluded that
perceived self-efficacy in eliciting support at the workplace is a usable
construct in the prediction of teacher burnout. Future directions in
research are suggested.
Psychological Burnout; Occupational Stress; Work Stress;
Models; Fit; Cognitions; Depression; Commitment; Goodness; Validity.
12. Brownell, M. T., Ross, D.
D., Colon, E. P., & McCallum, C. L. (2005). Critical features of special
education teacher preparation: "A comparison with general teacher
education". Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242-252.
Policy and program decisions involve choices among different ways of
preparing teachers. These choices are shrouded in increasingly contentious
debates as teacher shortages reach crisis proportions. Yet, research on
special education teacher education is almost nonexistent. Findings from
comparative research documenting the characteristics of effective teacher
education programs can inform these choices, but these findings should be
grounded in what we know from previous research in general teacher
education. To assist educators, we have analyzed literature in general and
special teacher education toward two ends. First, we present a framework,
derived from work in general education, for analyzing teacher education
programs. Second, we use this framework to analyze practice in teacher
education in special education. Specifically, we conducted an exhaustive
review of special education program descriptions and evaluations. We
conclude by describing steps necessary to improve the special education
teacher education research base.
Specialists; Program Descriptions; Teacher Education
Programs; Teacher Education; Teacher Shortage; Special Education; Special
Education Teachers; Regular and Special Education Relationship.
13. Butcher, J., Howard, P.,
Labone, E., Bailey, M., Smith, S. G., McFadden, M., et al. (2003). Teacher
education, community service learning and student efficacy for community
engagement. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 31(2), 109-124.
Student backgrounds and the increasing number of school students from low
socio-economic areas requires teachers to have an understanding of
students' worlds and to be committed to social justice both within school
structures and curriculum as well as in the life of the wider community.
Social engagement with marginalised people can be confronting for students
as it is usually outside their previous life experience. Examines the role
of community service learning within teacher education nationally and
internationally. First, the article focuses on national and international
perspectives regarding community engagement, teacher education and service
learning. Next, the article describes three Australian case studies of
community service learning as purposeful workplace learning. Finally, the
authors findings relate to student teachers' efficacy for community
engagement from one of these case study sites. We propose that the role of
community service learning must be at the centre of debates about how
teacher education should be reformed. Furthermore, the article argues that
community engagement of staff and students is also an expression of the
corporate citizenship of the university.
Community Services; Teacher Education; Curriculum;
14. Carlyle, D. E. E. (2002).
Emotion and stress-related illness among secondary teachers. Dissertation
Abstracts International, C: Worldwide, 63(3), 415-C.
the last decade there have been sharp increases in recorded levels of
occupational stress. Reports of the growing incidence of stress-related
illness within the teaching profession continue, the numbers of teachers
pursuing litigation to secure compensation for injury to health
increasing. Based on qualitative empirical data gathered from in-depth
longitudinal interviews guided by humanist counselling frameworks, this
study focuses on the phenomenological experiences of 21 secondary school
teachers (and their families) diagnosed as suffering stress-related
illness. It shows how stress cascaded through school systems from
government directives to the chalkface, and on into family systems,
leading, in some cases, to family burnout. Analysis through the sociology
and psychology of emotion emphasises the central position of emotions in
the aetiology of stress-related illness. This research shows that emotions
are social processes, playing a vital role as communicators both to the
self and to others. Emotional climates within schools and the home,
individual and organisational emotional competencies, emotional labouring,
emotion management and emotion rules were key themes contributing to the
experience of stress-related illness. This study finally deals with the
struggle for survival and identity reconstruction processes within the
self-renewal journey. Some teachers, profoundly damaged by the experience
of stress, were unable to return to the teaching world. Some emerged with
a renewed and strengthened sense of self. Implications are drawn regarding
student achievement, individual and collective emotional literacy, and the
retention, training and professional development of teachers.
Emotions; Affective Illness; Occupational Stress; Secondary
Schools; Teachers; Sociology of Health; Social Psychiatry; Mental Health.
15. Chan, D. W. (2003).
Hardiness and its role in the stress-burnout relationship among
prospective Chinese teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education,
paper assessed hardiness, stress, and burnout among Chinese preservice
teachers. Different responses to positively and negatively worded
hardiness items suggested positive and negative hardiness stress
resilience and stress vulnerability. Stress, positive hardiness, and
negative hardiness had main, independent significant impact on emotional
exhaustion and depersonalization. Only positive hardiness had significant
main effect on personal accomplishment. Respondents indicated an erosion
of their original excitement when first pursuing a teaching career.
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher
Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Resilience (Personality); Stress
Variables; Student Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Burnout; Hardiness; Hong
Chan, K. B., Lai, G., Ko, Y. C., & Boey, K. W. (2000).
Work stress among six professional groups: The Singapore
experience. Social Science & Medicine, 50(10), 1415-1432.
Recent developments in stress research have called for attention to how
social structures influence the stress and coping processes. This paper
examines the experience of work stress among professionals in Singapore
and argues that workers' experiences in the workplace are influenced not
only by individual personality and job nature, but also by structural
forces shaping the profession, the social organization of work
institutions and the development of the economy.
were collected from a survey of professionals in Singapore conducted in
1989–1990. The sample consisted of 2570 men and women from six different
professions and para-professions, namely general practitioners, lawyers,
engineers, teachers, nurses and life insurance personnel. Results showed
that performance pressure and work-family conflicts were perceived to be
the most stressful aspects of work. These two stressors also significantly
contributed to the experience of overall work stress. Further, stress
arising from work-family conflicts, performance pressure and poor job
prospects was negatively associated with the level of work satisfaction.
These findings were discussed in the contexts of increasing
professionalization and de-professionalization and the growing emphases on
productivity and efficiency in a quickly developing economy.
Occupational Stress; Professionals; Singapore; Engineers;
General Practitioners; Nurses; Sales Personnel; Teachers.
17. Cheetham, G., & Chivers,
G. (2001). How professionals learn in practice: An investigation of
informal learning amongst people working in professions. Journal of
European Industrial Training, 25(5), 247-292.
Reviews theories, concepts, and learning approaches relevant to the
development of professionals and reports on the range of experiences and
events that practitioners have found formative in helping them become
fully competent. The review is based on empirical research conducted
across 20 professions.
Adult Development; Adult Education; Cognitive Style;
Informal Education; Mentors; Models; Professional Continuing Education;
Professional Development; Professional Occupations; Theory Practice
18. Coniam, D. (2002).
Technology as an awareness-raising tool for sensitizing teachers to
features of stress and rhythm in English. Language Awareness, 11(1),
paper discusses language awareness activities for sensitizing trainee
English-language teachers to suprasegmental phonological features in
English, with particular reference to features associated with the concept
of "stress timing." It discusses stress timing and how it relates to
English, and examines the quasi-authentic material drawn from a television
program as source material for the language awareness exercises on
Computer Software; Consciousness Raising; English (Second
Language); Language Rhythm; Language Teachers; Metalinguistics; Preservice
Teacher Education; Second Language Instruction; Second Language Learning;
Stress (Phonology); Suprasegmentals.
19. Darling-Hammond, L.
(1998). Teachers and teaching: Testing policy hypotheses from a National
Commission Report. Educational Researcher, 27(1), 5-15.
article reviews research that supports the National Commission on Teaching
and America's Future's analysis and recommendations on school reform. It
outlines the research and programmatic work needed to test the policy
hypothesis offered by the commission's report to advance the field of
educational reform in teaching, teacher education, and schooling.
Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Educational
Policy; Educational Research; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Hypothesis
Testing; Professional Development; Teacher Improvement; Teaching
20. Darling-Hammond, L.
(2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher
Education, 57(3), 300-314.
of what teachers need to know to be successful is invisible to lay
observers, leading to the view that teaching requires little formal study
and to frequent disdain for teacher education programs. The weakness of
traditional program models that are collections of largely unrelated
courses reinforce this low regard. This article argues that we have
learned a great deal about how to create stronger, more effective teacher
education programs. Three critical components of such programs include
tight coherence and integration among courses and between course work and
clinical work in schools, extensive and intensely supervised clinical work
integrated with course work using pedagogies that link theory and
practice, and closer, proactive relationships with schools that serve
diverse learners effectively and develop and model good teaching. The
article also urges that schools of education should resist pressures to
water down preparation, which ultimately undermine the preparation of
entering teachers, the reputation of schools of education, and the
strength of the profession.
Teacher Education; Teacher Education Programs; Teaching
Methods; Teaching Models; Schools of Education; Student Teaching; Teacher
21. Day, C. (2000). The life
and work of teachers: International perspectives in changing times.
London; New York: Falmer Press.
book explores how learning opportunities are affected by three key issues:
policy, leadership and teaching. It draws conclusions about teaching
practice and the impact of change that can be applied on an
internationally scale. The book also outlines critical and conceptual
approaches to understanding and coping successfully with change.
Contributors from around the world explore factors that significantly
influence quality learning opportunities for students: namely policy,
school leadership and teaching / teachers' lives. Drawing on a range of
critical conceptual and empirical perspectives, the authors show how
experiences can be similar. The book provides much-needed information of
the effects of mandated change on school leaders and teachers, both
nationally and internationally. It also illustrates how teachers have
coped and/or flourished in the changing circumstances under which they
Teaching; Schools; Education; Educational Change;
Educational Leadership; Teachers.
del Pozo, M. R., Martinez-Aznar, M., Rodrigo, M., & Varela, P. (2004).
A comparative study of the professional and
curricular conceptions of the secondary education science teacher in
Spain. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 193-213.
article presents a comparison between the professional and curricular
conceptions of two samples of secondary education science teachers in
Spain, who differed in their years of teaching experience and in whether
or not they had participated in a long-duration scientific-pedagogical
refresher course. Using the data from their responses to a questionnaire,
aspects of their professionalism as teachers (motivation and work
satisfaction) and aspects of the curriculum related to content, teaching
methods and evaluation were analyzed. The results show a broader
professionalism and a higher level of satisfaction in the case of the
teachers with more experience and a higher level of professional training.
The study found significant differences in whether the pupils' ideas were
regarded as erroneous, and in whether laboratory practical work was used
to test theory. It concludes by setting out a series of reflections with
the aim of working towards improving teachers' "professional development."
Secondary Education; Science Teachers; Secondary School
Teachers; Secondary School Science; Science Instruction; Foreign
Countries; Teaching Experience; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods; Job
Satisfaction; Teacher Motivation; Science Curriculum.
23. Delhi, K., & Fumia, D.
(2002). Teachers' informal learning, identity and contemporary education
"reform". NALL Working Paper No. 56. Toronto: Centre for the Study of
Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
paper explores links between teachers' learning, the politics and
practices of education reform, and teacher identity, examining how
teachers learn to negotiate the spaces between promises of improvement,
effectiveness, and accountability made in heterogeneous discourses of
education reform and their experiences with deteriorating material
conditions and social relations of schooling. The paper asserts that
learning how to work with or against education reform is a complex process
of identity making for teachers, where they encounter and utilize
contradictory ideas about good teachers and teaching as well as about
children, curriculum, pedagogy, and learning. Researchers designed a small
study to examine how Ontario teachers were being positioned and how they
understood themselves within the milieu of reform. Twelve teachers
completed interviews, commenting on contemporary school reform,
particularly issues of curriculum, assessment, and reporting (as well as
several other topics). In different ways, all respondents expressed strong
disagreement with the provincial government and distrust of their
initiatives. However, their teaching and assessment methods showed that
they could not avoid reform altogether, and reform shaped their work and
identities, even when they strongly disagreed with its goals and methods.
Several teachers suggested that democratic and open discussion in their
schools was very rare.
Educational Change; Elementary/ Secondary Education;
Governance; Government Role; Government School Relationship; Politics of
Education; Identity Formation; Ontario; Professional Identity; Reform
24. Dewe, P., & Trenberth, L.
(2004). Work stress and coping: Drawing together research and practice.
British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 143-156.
Despite the enthusiasm for coping research, reviewers are concerned that
much of the research has failed to live up to expectations as to its
practical relevance. Yet the debate about the application of coping
research is not short on writers pointing the way forward. By examining a
number of issues at the heart of the debate on coping research this paper
focuses on what may be ways of bridging the gap between coping research
and practice. What follows is a discussion around the belief that if
coping research is to become more clinically relevant, then researchers
need to make better use of transactional models of stress. More
specifically this paper points to the explanatory potential in concepts
like appraisal that provide the psychological links between the individual
and the stressful encounter. Moreover if coping researchers are to focus
on more process-focused models, then what is needed is a time of quiet
reconstruction where researchers consider where current methodologies are
taking us and what alternative methods can provide. The argument here is
that coping research needs to adopt measurement methods that reflect the
techniques of clinicians. The emphasis is for coping methods to become
more ecologically sensitive, person- and meaning-centred, daily processing
and narrative in application.
Coping; Research Needs; Stress Management; Stress
Variables; Work Environment; Research Methodology; Psychological Patterns;
25. DiPardo, A., & Potter, C.
(2003). Beyond cognition: A Vygotskian perspective on emotionality and
teachers' professional lives. In V. Ageyev, B. Gindis, A. Kozulin & S.
Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. New
York: Cambridge University Press.
chapter draws on and expands Vygotskian theory beyond cognitive aspects
and provides a theoretical analysis of "the role of emotions in informal
thought and action," in the working lives of teachers. Based on two case
studies authors demonstrating that stress and burnout are socially
Neo-Vygotskian Perspective; Teacher Development;
Professional Lives; Role of Emotions; Intellectual Needs.
Dussault, M., Deaudelin, C., Royer, N., & Loiselle, J. (1999).
Professional isolation and occupational stress in
teachers. Psychological Reports, 84(3), 943-946.
aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the
professional isolation of teachers and their occupational stress. A
systematic random sample of 1,110 teachers in Quebec were administered
French Canadian versions of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress
Inventory. The resulting analysis gave, as expected, a positive and
significant correlation between isolation and occupational stress. This
highlights the importance of looking for ways to reduce professional
isolation of teachers.
UCLA Loneliness Scale; Validity; Verson.
27. Easthope, C., & Easthope,
G. (2000). Intensification, extension and complexity of teachers'
workload. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(1), 43-58.
this paper, four teachers in Tasmania, Australia, gave accounts of their
experience of increased workload over the years 1984-1994. They reported
working longer hours, teaching more students, & having more professional,
pastoral, & administrative duties. The reasons for this increased workload
include (1) less money being spent on education; (2) changes in student
assessment from a norm to a criterion basis; (3) changes in the
administrative structure of the state colleges in which most of them
taught; & (4) changes in the student population. Their workload was both
increased & extended, becoming more complex. Significantly, complexity was
also produced by the attempt of teachers to maintain their professional
commitment while adapting to the economic rationalist policies of
administrators. However, loss of teachers through redundancy, stress, & a
move to part-time work has meant that those teachers remaining have had to
rationalize their work & reduce their professional commitment.
Teachers; Working Hours; Workplaces; Work Organization;
Organizational Commitment; Rationalization; Occupational Stress;
28. Farwell, R. J. (1999). A
study of K-12 teachers in small school districts: Their levels of stress,
the source of stress, and the effect of initiating coping strategies.
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social
Sciences, 60(4), 1074-A.
study explored the relationship between K-12 regular education teachers in
school districts with fewer than 2,500 students and their levels of stress
as it related to the sources of stress, demographic variables, and
initiation of coping strategies. Method. The subjects of this study were
329 K-12 teachers. They completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Education
form, a demographic/coping mechanism form, and Stressor Source Check List.
Results included: (1) Classroom, building, and community issues affected
teachers' attitudes toward their profession: Stress levels, as measured by
the MBI, were reflected in their identification of sources of stress in
the work environment. (2) A teacher's gender was related to the risk of
burnout: Female teachers were less likely to experience burnout than were
male teachers. (3) A teacher's marital status was related to the risk of
burnout: Both divorced and widowed teachers were less likely to approach
levels of burnout than married or single teachers. (4) A teacher's
teaching assignment was related to the risk of burnout: Elementary
teachers were less likely to experience burnout than were high-school
teachers, and junior-high/middle-school teachers were more likely to
experience burnout than either of the other two groups. (5) A teacher's
years of experience were related to the risk of burnout: teachers with
6-15 and 16-25 years of teaching experience were less likely to experience
burnout than were teachers with 0-5 and 26-plus years of teaching
experience. Thus, it was concluded that: a small school district effect is
suggested by the following deviation from literature citations: (1) The
subjects in this study placed less significance on stressor issues related
to building concerns. (2) Gender- and stress-related findings suggest an
effect related to the sense of belonging associated with working in a
small community. (3) A stress pattern related to years of teaching
experience was found.
Coping; School Districts; Schools; Occupational Stress;
Teachers; Elementary Schools; Junior High Schools; High Schools.
29. Francis, B., & Humphreys,
J. (2000). Professional education as a structural barrier to lifelong
learning in the NHS. Journal of Education Policy, 15(3), 281-292.
Explores whether lifelong-learning ideals have been reflected in training
provisions for UK health-care workers. Although traditional professional
boundaries have been eroded in the workplace, there is little recognition
of overlap in initial education and ongoing training of various groups.
Continuous learning strategies are recommended.
Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Health Occupations;
Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Professional Development;
Professional Education; Training; England; Learning Communities.
30. Friedman, A., & Phillips,
M. (2004). Continuing professional development: Developing a vision.
Journal of Education and Work, 17(3), 361 - 376.
Although Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is widely promoted
through the policies and programmes of UK professional associations, it is
an ambiguous concept. There is confusion regarding its definition and
purpose in both academic and practitioner literature, which extends to
professionals themselves. Thirty (18 employees and 12 of their employers)
professionals were interviewed concerning their thoughts on the definition
and value of CPD, and a further 40 professionals discussed the concepts
and value of CPD in focus groups. Professionals have a limited view of CPD
- seeing it as training, a means of keeping up-to-date, or a way to build
a career. However, professional associations claim that CPD is: part of
lifelong learning; a means of gaining career security; a means of personal
development; a means of assuring the public that individual professionals
are up-to-date; a method whereby professional associations can verify
competence; and a way of providing employers with a competent and
adaptable workforce. These claims are often made concurrently. We conclude
by putting forward some suggestions towards clarifying the definitions and
purposes of CPD and linking it more closely with the ideals of
UK; Professional Development.
31. Garrick, J., & Clegg, S.
(2001). Stressed-out knowledge workers in performative times: A postmodern
take on project-based learning. Management Learning, 32(1), 119-134.
article takes as its topic recent developments in project-based learning.
These are a major response to the changing articulation of the
Knowledge-based economy. Corresponding changes to the role of
universities, whose mastery of knowledge is now being questioned, are a
consequence-one often not anticipated as such. One response to the upsurge
in interest in project-based learning for “knowledge work” has been to
move the university further into the workplace by legitimizing work-based
and more flexible approaches to learning. The article identifies how, from
a critically postmodern perspective, some problems occur with this shift,
including the performative stresses on “knowledge workers” who are now
expected to reflect on their learning through work or project-based
”curricula”'. Critical theories are useful in so far as they go, in
bringing workplaces as learning environments into sharper focus. However,
it is our argument that they do not go far enough, as (ironically) there
are too many uncritical assumptions undergirding critical theory. The
focus then switches to a postmodern analysis of project-based learning.
From this perspective, project-based learning may be seen as too wedded to
instrumental desires for performativity. We argue that postmodern ideas
about project-based learning can offer practical organizational options,
although we do not assert they are the only good options.
Experiential Learning; Organizational Behavior;
Postmodernism; Stress; Work Teams; Organizations; Personnel; Theoretical
32. Griffith, J., Steptoe, A.,
& Cropley, M. (1999). An investigation of coping strategies associated
with job stress in teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology,
School teaching is regarded as a stressful occupation, but the perception
of the job as stressful may be influenced by coping responses and social
support. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the associations between
teacher stress, psychological coping responses and social support, taking
into account the plaintive set engendered by negative affectivity. The
method included a questionnaire survey of 780 primary and secondary school
teachers (53.5% response rate). In stepwise multiple regression, social
support at work and the coping responses behavioural disengagement and
suppression of competing activities predicted job stress independently of
age, gender, class size, occupational grade and negative affectivity. High
job stress was associated with low social support at work and greater use
of coping by disengagement and suppression of competing activities. It is
suggested that behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing
activities are maladaptive responses in a teaching environment and may
actually contribute to job stress. Coping and social support not only
moderate the impact of stressors on well-being but influence the appraisal
of environmental demands as stressful.
Secondary-School Teachers; Social Support; Negative
Affectivity; Occupational Stress; Mental-Health; Life Events; Work Place;
Burnout; Symptoms; Strain.
33. Hammett, N., & Burton, N.
(2005). Motivation, stress and learning support assistants: An examination
of staff perceptions at a rural secondary school. School Leadership and
Management, 25(3), 299-310.
context of this study is an "improving" 11-18 secondary school in a small
English market town, where the role of Learning Support Assistants (LSAs)
is being developed as prime supporters of the renewed emphasis on
improving teaching and learning processes. National initiatives, including
the teachers workload agreement and national remodelling of schools, have
also led to the reconsideration and redefinition of their role. The aim is
to advise the school leadership of LSAs perceptions of motivation and
stress with regard to current and possible future elements of their role.
An analysis of the outcomes of this research will be made using a
conceptual framework constructed from theories of motivation, stress and
teamwork derived from an educational context. The main findings suggest
that the senior management team needs to raise the self-esteem of LSAs
through career development opportunities, clarity and consistency of role
definition, raising awareness of the role within and beyond the school and
professionalisation of the salary structure which includes time allowance
for training and administrative duties.
Attitude Measures; Motivation; Secondary Education; Rural
Schools; Paraprofessional School Personnel; Foreign Countries; Stress
Variables; Working Conditions; Staff Development; England.
34. Hansen, J.-I., & Sullivan,
B. A. (2003). Assessment of workplace stress: Occupational stress, its
consequences, and common causes of teacher stress. North Carolina.
section introduces teachers and other education professionals to the
assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of
what occupational stress is, an overview of the consequences of prolonged
stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it
presents methods for reducing occupational stress through organizational
and individual initiatives. Finally, it reviews psychological tests that
can be used to assess types and sources of stress within schools.
Educational Environment; Evaluation Methods; Job
Satisfaction; Measures (Individuals); Psychological Testing; Stress
Variables; Work Environment; Teacher Stress.
35. Hansez, I., Bertrand, F.,
Keyser, V., & Pérée, F. (2005). Career end for teachers: Towards a better
understanding of stress and early retirement. Travail humain, 68(3),
increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement
age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was
conducted among teachers working in the city of Liège, Belgium. This aimed
to determine what led them to withdraw from their jobs and the degree to
which stress contributed to their decisions. Various adjustments were made
in favour of elderly workers, such as working time and training. The
question of whether these are sufficient to keep them motivated in their
job was raised.
questionnaire was developed to try and identify the reasons why teachers
resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in
terms of career-end adjustments. The key concepts included in this tool
were personal factors, job-related factors (i.e. working conditions,
organizational and structural changes and job recognition) and
employment-related factors. This questionnaire was combined with a
subjective stress measure (MSP-A, Lemyre & Tessier, 1988).
Various statistical analyses were carried out. From the results, it was
possible to conclude that stress is part of the reason why teachers resign
and that personal factors are the most cited reason for taking early
retirement. However, the uneasiness expressed obviously has its origin in
a perceived depreciation of the job and lack of recognition. Whilst better
working conditions are often presented as the solution, these do not seem
to solve the problem completely. They offer insufficient motivation and do
not diminish or eliminate stress. Since recognition appears to be the only
motivating factor among teachers, the restoration of the image of the
teaching profession seems to be essential.
survey has highlighted the importance of making a thorough diagnosis
before deciding on specific actions. Career-end adjustments are very
attractive and fairly easy to implement. However, whilst they may suit
some categories of workers, they do not seem to respond to the needs of
elderly teachers. Their problems should be tackled in another way.
Mental Stress; Early Retirement; Occupations; Causal
Analysis; Sociology of Work; Motivation; Psychology; Case Studies;
Ergonomics; Belgium; Elderly Workers; Teachers; Stress; Job Retirement
36. Harden, R. M. (1999).
Stress, pressure and burnout in teachers: Is the swan exhausted? Medical
Teacher, 21(3), 245-247.
paper discusses teacher stress in medicine and reviews models that address
the question of work stress and how individuals respond.
Burnout; Higher Education; Medical Education; Stress
Management; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout.
37. Hemmings, B., & Hockley,
T. (2002). Student teacher stress and coping mechanisms. Education in
Rural Australia, 12(2), 25-35.
paper surveys 43 student teachers taking a 9-week practicum in rural
Australian primary schools and case studies of four of them found that
student teacher stress diminished over time. Five coping strategies were
identified: communicating with others, self-help, relaxation/recreation,
teaching and managing, and organization.
Case Studies; Coping; Elementary Education; Foreign
Countries; Higher Education; Rural Schools; Social Support Groups; Stress
Management; Stress Variables; Student Surveys; Student Teacher Attitudes;
Student Teaching; Australia (New South Wales).
38. Hodkinson, P., & Hodkinson,
H. (2004). The significance of individuals' dispositions in workplace
learning: A case study of two teachers. Journal of Education & Work,
article about workplace learning examines the relationship between, first,
individual learners positions and dispositions, and secondly, their
working and learning within the workplace community and practices. Drawing
on research with secondary school teachers, the article presents case
study accounts of two teachers from the same school to illustrate the
significance of these relationships. In order to understand these
relationships from a broadly participatory perspective, the article then
presents a theoretical discussion, extending Lave and Wenger's work on
communities of practice, through the use of Bourdieu's concepts of habitus,
capital and field. It concludes that such a combination offers a valuable
means of understanding these relationships, in a wider social, economic
and political context. It is necessary to offer an account of learning for
work which acknowledges the independence of individuals acting within the
interdependence of the social practice of work.
Work and Learning; High School Teachers.
39. Horn, I. S. (2005).
Learning on the job: A situated account of teacher learning in high school
mathematics departments. Cognition and Instruction, 23(2), 207-236.
investigate teachers' everyday on-the-job learning, I used a comparative
case study design and examined the work of mathematics teachers in 2 high
schools. Analysis of interviews, classroom observations, and teachers'
conversations highlighted 3 key resources for learning: (a) reform
artifacts oriented the teachers' attention to key concepts of a reform,
whereas the interactions surrounding them established local meanings; (b)
conversation-based classification systems communicated pedagogical
assumptions; and (c) the rendering of classroom interactions in
conversations shaped opportunities for teachers to consult with and learn
from colleagues. Taken together, these learning resources provide a
conceptual infrastructure for teachers to make sense of their practice.
This research highlights the social and situated nature of teachers'
pedagogical reasoning and specifies the role of teacher community in
Secondary Education; Secondary School Mathematics;
Educational Change; Experiential Learning; Mathematics Teachers; Faculty
Development; Teacher Collaboration.
40. Howe, E. R. (2005).
Japan's teacher acculturation: Critical analysis through comparative
ethnographic narrative. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(2), 121-131.
Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported.
Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher
acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in
isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is
little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In
contrast, Japan's teachers have opportunities for reflection, collegiality
and collaboration. Moreover, effective induction practices have evolved
gradually, becoming a tacit part of teaching culture. Japan's teacher
acculturation is characterized by significant teacher relationships;
leadership and guidance; and further cultivated through professional
development. However, undeveloped pre-service programmes, one-way,
“top-down" pedagogical exchanges, and ineffective mentors are contentious
issues, hampering teacher education reforms. Nevertheless, Japanese
induction practices challenge us to ameliorate teacher education to focus
more on the needs of beginning teachers.
Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Beginning Teachers;
Teacher Orientation; Educational Change; Ethnography; Collegiality;
Acculturation; Preservice Teacher Education; Comparative Analysis.
41. Howes, C., James, J., &
Ritchie, S. (2003). Pathways to effective teaching. Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 18(1), 104-120.
article examines strategies for effective teaching among African-American
and Latino early childhood teachers serving low-income children. Findings
indicate that after controlling for formal education, that responsive
involvement in the field is associated with a teacher's staying in the
field for the community, being mentored, and being supervised. Engaging in
language play was positively related to formal education and supervision;
those engaged in language arts activities tended to have formal education
and were mentored and supervised.
Caregiver Child Relationship; Child Care; Early Childhood
Education; Educational Attainment; Predictor Variables; Preschool
Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Student
Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.
42. Ito, M. (2000). Burnout
among teachers: Teaching experience and type of teacher. Japanese Journal
of Educational Psychology, 48(1), 12-20.
purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of some factors on
burnout among teachers. Out of 525 elementary and middle school teachers,
208 responded to questionnaire on (1) personality characteristics, (2)
evaluation of their own ability as a teacher, and their image of the ideal
teacher, (3) stress in their work, (4) support, (5) image of their co-
workers, and (6) burnout. The results indicated that a lack of personal
accomplishment was negatively associated with "self- evaluated teaching
ability" and "human relation." Emotional exhaustion was suppressed by
"human relations", and promoted by "worry." A comparison of new and
experienced teachers showed that the new ones felt lower personal
accomplishment, and evaluated themselves more poorly on their ability to
guide their classes. The second purpose of the present study was to
compare 2 types of teachers: (a) those oriented to class guidance,
emphasizing class management, and (b) those oriented to relationships,
emphasizing their relations with their pupils. Self-evaluated teaching
ability was a factor in burnout in the former group, whereas relations
with colleagues played an important role in preventing burnout in the
Burnout; Teaching Experience; Two Types of Teachers;
Elementary and Middle School Teachers; Impact.
43. Johnston, R., & Chappell,
C. (2000). Constructing a picture of the organisational training and
development professional. Working paper. Australia; New South Wales:
Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.
survey was designed to assist in constructing a picture of new vocational
education and training professionals working in organizational settings in
Australia. They were practitioners whose positional titles included
training and development (T&D), human resource development, or human
resource practitioners who work within organizational settings or as
consultants to organizations. The subscriber data base for "Managing T&D"
was used as a research sample. Of 1,200 surveys circulated throughout
Australia, 197 usable responses were received. Results indicated
respondents perceived that training is increasingly being afforded a high
priority in Australian workplaces; 80 percent worked in organizations that
employed T&D staff; the naming or labeling of the profession as practiced
in organizations is not consistent and could be seen as an indicator that
this is still an evolving field of practice in organizations; the lack of
requirement by organizations of a constant or specialist qualification of
its practitioners could also be seen as supporting the claim the field is
still evolving; there was considerable consistency in the nominated
current skill requirements for practitioners and in perceptions about
current areas of high importance to organizations and predictions about
future areas that would be of high importance to organizations; and there
was a relatively commonly held sense of the purpose of this field of
Adult Education; Developed Nations; Educational Research;
Emerging Occupations; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Human
Resources; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Occupational
Information; Organizational Objectives; Postsecondary Education;
Professional Occupations; Professional Recognition; Teacher
Qualifications; Trainers; Vocational Education.
44. Karakaya, S. (2004). A
comparative study: English and Turkish teachers' conceptions of their
professional responsibility. Educational Studies, 30(3), 195-216.
paper discusses some of the findings pertaining to how teachers see their
work, produced by a comparative study of 120 English and 120 Turkish
primary school teachers. The sample was drawn from schools in four
different types of matched catchment areas - rural, inner city, suburban
and affluent suburban - in Leicestershire. England, and in Erzurum,
Turkey. Four major dimensions of difference between the two national
contexts are identified in terms of the range of professional activities
undertaken, the ambiguity of relative importance to teachers of the
process as against the products of learning. Against a background of
contemporary policy changes which seem likely to effect different teaching
and learning activities in the two countries, the paper argues that
attempts to change teachers' practice without due regard to those
conceptions of professional responsibility which are deeply rooted in
particular national traditions, as well as more general classroom
realities, will result in a lowering of morale and decreased
Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis;
Teacher Effectiveness; Educational Policy; Teacher Attitudes; Elementary
School Teachers; Teacher Responsibility; Educational Change; Teacher
45. Karasek, R. A. (2004). An
analysis of 19 international case studies of stress prevention through
work reorganization using the demand/control model. Bulletin of Science
Technology and Society, 24(5), 446-456.
this paper, nineteen international case studies of workplace stress
prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span
a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through
work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It
is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case
studies can be categorized as high-strain jobs according to the
demand/control model. Common trends in terms of why the interventions were
initiated and by whom, the type of intervention chosen, and the results
are analyzed. It is found that in general, worker participation, open
communication between labor and management, and a learning approach to
stress are keys to preventing stress at work and also tend to increase
Prevention; Occupations; Productivity; Case Studies; Stress
Management; Foreign Countries; Job Development.
46. Klapan, A., & Lavrnja, I.
(2001). General and professional education within the conception of the
lifelong learning: University of Rijeka, Croatia.
General and professional education is important in a learning society.
Most pedagogy has been devoted to developing general education, while
professional education is seen as a type of optional education. General
and professional education have always been divided; the former has been
oriented toward acquisition of knowledge and values, while the latter has
been geared toward the acquisition of working skills and professional
knowledge. This view of professional education has not been intentional
but a consequence of the development of the wider social and historical
context. Although making distinctions between general and professional
education may be necessary, any distinction between the two is damaging
and unnatural. This is particularly true today, as scientific-technical
development, more than ever before, introduces significant changes into
communal life and activity. We need to reconsider the relationship between
general and professional education. The emphasis ought to be on the link
between gaining knowledge and values and acquiring vocational skills and
appreciation for learning in a learning society. This is because educated
experts and specialists will be better able to follow technological and
social changes if they have a general education.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Articulation (Education);
Change Strategies; Conventional Instruction; Delivery Systems; Developed
Nations; Developing Nations; Educational Change; Educational History;
Educational Practices; Educational Principles; Educational Theories;
Educational Trends; General Education; Informal Education; Lifelong
Learning; Linking Agents; Nonformal Education; Postsecondary Education;
Professional Education; Systems Approach; Technical Education;
Technological Advancement; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis;
Vocational Education; Learning Society.
Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2001). How
do education and experience affect teachers of young children? Research in
review. Young Children, 56(4), 85-91.
article synthesizes research on the relationship between general
education, specialized education, and experiences and early childhood
professionals' teaching practices. The study reveals that teachers' formal
education influences classroom quality and effective teacher behavior.
Causally related to classroom quality, specialized education is also
correlated with effective teacher behavior. On the other hand, a teacher's
experience cannot be consistently linked to classroom quality or effective
Classroom Environment; Early Childhood Education;
Educational Attainment; Educational Quality; Preschool Education;
Preschool Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher
Student Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.
48. Kyriacou, C. (2001).
Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53(1),
Research on teacher stress has become a major area of international
research interest. This paper reviews research findings on teacher stress
and suggests five directions for future research: (i) monitoring the
extent to which particular educational reforms are generating high levels
of teacher stress; (ii) exploring why some teachers are able to
successfully negotiate periods of career reappraisal and retain a positive
commitment to the work, whilst others are not; (iii) clarifying the nature
of the stress process in term of two types of triggers: one based on
excessive demands and the other based on a concern with self-image; (iv)
assessing the effectiveness of particular intervention strategies to
reduce teacher stress; (v) exploring the impact of teacher-pupil
interaction and classroom climate on teacher stress.
Secondary-School Teachers; Burnout; Model; Strategies;
49. Lieberman, A., & Miller,
L. (1999). Teachers: Transforming their world and their work. New York;
London: Teachers College Press.
this sequel to Teachers - Their World and Their Work, the authors bring
the reader up to date by addressing the contemporary realities of schools
and teaching, focusing on both the constraints and the possibilities
embedded in practice. The words and experiences of teachers and principals
are used by the authors to show what growth and change look like from the
inside - the teacher's perspective: what change requires, how differences
in context and personnel are accommodated, what people learn as they
change, and what it feels like in the process.
Public Schools; United States; Teacher Effectiveness;
Educational Change; Teaching.
50. Locke, T., Vulliamy, G.,
Webb, R., & Hill, M. (2005). Being a "professional" primary school teacher
at the beginning of the 21st century: A comparative analysis of primary
teacher professionalism in New Zealand and England. Journal of Education
Policy, 20(5), 555-581.
article analyses findings from two studies conducted collaboratively
across two educational settings, New Zealand and England, in 2001-2002.
These studies examined the impact of national educational policy reforms
on the nature of primary teachers' work and sense of their own
professionalism and compared these impacts across the two countries.
Adopting a policy ethnography approach, using in-depth interview data from
samples of teachers in each country, it is argued that there have been
discursive shifts in the meaning of the three key terms, autonomy,
altruism and knowledge, embodied in the classical professionalism
triangle. These shifts reflect policy-makers' moves from a "professional-contextualist
conception" of teacher professionalism towards the "technocratic-reductionist"
conception that accompanies neoliberal educational reforms in many
countries. Teachers in both countries experienced increasing constraints
on their autonomy as they became far more subject to "extrinsic"
accountability demands. Whether these demands were perceived as enhancing
or diminishing teacher professionalism depended on the manner in which
they were filtered through the profession's defining quality, namely
teachers' altruistic concerns for the welfare of the children in their
Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Ethnography;
Altruism; Educational Policy; Educational Change; Elementary School
Teachers; Personal Autonomy; Knowledge Base for Teaching.
51. Lohman, M. C. (2000).
Environmental inhibitors to informal learning in the workplace: A case
study of public school teachers. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(2), 83-101.
interviews and site visits with 22 teachers, four environmental inhibitors
to informal workplace learning emerged: lack of time for learning, lack of
proximity to learning resources, lack of meaningful rewards, and limited
decision-making power in school management. Ways to facilitate teachers'
learning include strategic classroom assignments, unencumbered time,
access to communications technology, and revision of reward systems.
Adult Learning; Educational Environment; Elementary/
Secondary Education; Informal Education; Public Schools; Teachers; Work
52. Mann, S. (2004).
”People-work”: Emotion management, stress and coping. British Journal of
Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 205-221.
Workers involved in ”people-work” are expected to engage in a great deal
of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions
(which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers while at
the same time, perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion
management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be lost
as they choose to take their business to a competitor; however, within the
“caring” business, such as the counselling and guidance professions, a
failure to display the appropriate emotion (e.g. sympathy) or a leakage of
an inappropriate one (e.g. boredom) can have much more serious
implications for the well-being of the client and their continued
relationship with the professional. This paper will thus argue that
emotion management or “emotional labour” is a vital skill within the
counselling and guidance professions, but one that can also be a
significant source of work stress. Strategies for coping with the stress
of performing emotional labour are suggested.
Guidance; Coping; Emotional Response; Interpersonal
Relationship; Burnout; Stress Management; Employees; Employee Attitudes.
53. McNess, E. (2004).
Culture, context and the quality of education: Evidence from a small-scale
extended case study in England and Denmark. Compare: A Journal of
Comparative Education, 34(3), 315-327.
recent education policy-making around the world has focused on a
restructuring of the role of the classroom teacher in a bid to increase
the “quality“ of the educational experience and raise pupil attainment.
However, the definition of quality, as expressed through policy, may not
always accord with the aims and aspirations of individual teachers who
work within a specific cultural context. The rhetoric and intent expressed
in policy texts may even have the potential to restrict the quality of
what teachers do. This paper draws on some of the findings from a
small-scale comparative study of teachers' work in England and Denmark
which used an extended case study approach, set in a socio-cultural
framework, to examine the relationship of policy trends to teacher values
and professional practice. Evidence from the study is used to discuss the
issue of “quality“, highlighting contextually specific variations which
impact on the implementation of national policy at the local level.
Through a discussion of the study's methodology, attention is also drawn
to the need for a more contextually sensitive approach to the creation and
evaluation of policy which, while recognising universal concerns, also
pays heed to local priorities and teacher values.
Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis Cultural Context;
Teaching Experience; Case Studies; Values; Teacher Effectiveness; Policy
Formation; Educational Policy; Educational Quality.
54. McWilliams, S., Cannon,
P., Farrar, M., Tubbert, B., Connolly, C., & McSorley, F. (2006).
Comparison and evaluation of aspects of teacher education in Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. European Journal of Teacher
Education, 29(1), 67-79.
paper critically considers teacher education in Northern Ireland and the
Republic of Ireland. It was stimulated by an exchange programme between
student teachers from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland for a
period of school-based work in each other's jurisdictions. It examines
recent curricular developments, partnership with schools, college
requirements and cultural diversity. It also contrasts the effects these
have had on student teacher preparation, classroom delivery and tutor
involvement in student teacher development. The highly prescribed and
assessed Northern Ireland curriculum will be contrasted with that of the
Republic of Ireland, which appears to offer more in terms of freedom,
flexibility and independence in planning. Different supervisory practices
and responsibilities for the assessment of student teachers' practical
teaching will be compared in both jurisdictions. The tutors in the
Republic of Ireland exercise more control over student teachers'
preparation and professional development for teaching, while in Northern
Ireland the partnership arrangements have given more influence to schools.
The paper illuminates the shift of locus of control and influence of
Colleges of Education in Northern Ireland in the education of student
teachers, while in the Republic of Ireland Colleges of Education have
retained their influence. The curricular expertise of supervisors in the
Republic of Ireland is recognized and accepted by the schools, while in
Northern Ireland the rise in significance of curriculum expertise in the
Curriculum Advisory and Support Service (CASS) of the Education and
Library Boards has undermined the influence and expertise of college
Cultural Pluralism; Foreign Countries; Student Teaching;
Preservice Teacher Education; Partnerships in Education; Student
Diversity; Higher Education; Elementary School Mathematics; English;
Student Teacher Supervision; International Educational Exchange;
55. Mearns, J., & Cain, J. E.
(2003). Relationships between teachers' occupational stress and their
burnout and distress: Roles of coping and negative mood regulation
expectancies. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 16(1),
Teaching school is a highly stressful occupation. Consequences of this
stress are burnout, physical and emotional distress, and choosing to leave
the profession. Research on teacher stress and burnout has largely focused
on environmental and contextual factors while ignoring personality
characteristics of teachers that may have an impact on relationships
between job stress and its consequences. The current study has a
cross-sectional self-report design, focusing on teachers' negative mood
regulation (NMR) expectancies as predictors of their coping, burnout and
distress, in response to occupational stress. NMR expectancies are
people's beliefs that they can control the negative moods they experience.
Participants were 86 primary and secondary school teachers, who filled out
questionnaire measures of teacher stress, NMR expectancies, coping,
burnout, and distress. Simultaneous regression analyses showed that higher
stress on the job did indeed predict greater burnout and distress.
Additionally, stronger NMR expectancies predicted more active coping. NMR
expectancies also predicted less burnout and distress, independent of
stress level and coping. Believing one could control one's negative moods
was associated with more adaptive outcomes for teachers. Results argue for
the value of examining individual difference variables in research on
occupational stress, in particular negative mood regulation expectancies.
Occupational Stress; Teaching; Negative Mood Regulation;
Teachers; Burnout; Distress; Coping; Negative Mood Regulation.
56. Menter, I., Mahony, P., &
Hextall, I. (2004). Ne'er the twain shall meet? Modernizing the teaching
profession in Scotland and England. Journal of Education Policy, 19(2),
paper considers two examples of recent policies affecting teachers' work,
Performance Threshold Assessment in England and Chartered Teacher status
in Scotland. Through tracing their origins and motivations, a comparative
analysis is offered, which seeks to explore the extent of the influence of
national contexts on developments in the restructuring process. Both
policies purport to meet the professional needs of teachers who are a few
years into their careers, yet the Scottish example is strongly oriented
towards professional development, while the English example is oriented
towards performativity and teacher assessment.
Foreign Countries; Teaching (Occupation); Faculty
Development; Teacher Education; Teacher Evaluation; Educational Policy;
57. Miettinen, R. (1999).
Transcending traditional school learning: Teachers' work and networks of
learning. In Y. Engeström & R. Miettinen (Eds.), Perspectives on activity
theory. Learning in doing: Social, cognitive, and computational
perspectives (pp. 325-344). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Exceeding the limitations of traditional school learning, requires an
analysis of the nature and conditions of school learning as well as the
new kinds of teaching and learning occurring within the school. This
chapter explores the problem of learning at school both theoretically and
empirically. Analyzing the object and the subject of learning at school,
facilitates ongoing theoretical discussions about learning. Grounded in
the results of the author's study of business teachers' work at the
Finnish Businessmen's Commercial College, the discussion draws on other
examples of new kinds of teaching in Finland, Sweden, and England.
School Learning; Social Networks; Theories of Education.
58. Morony, W. (1999). Teacher
professional associations as key contributors to the effectiveness of
teachers' work. Paper presented at the Fifth UNESCO-ACEID International
Conference Entitled: Reforming Learning, Curriculum and Pedagogy:
Innovative Visions for the New Century, Thailand.
Australian experience is that teacher professional associations form the
third side of the triangle of support for teachers' work; the others being
teachers' formal education (initial preparation to be a teacher and
ongoing study) and input from their employer. This third side is
inherently democratic and empowering for teachers - they are in control.
It also gives teachers a “voice“ and contributes to their overall
professional standing. This paper outlines the ways in which associations
of teachers of mathematics operate in Australia as an example of the ways
in which teacher subject associations can contribute to the knowledge and
skills of their members. Discussion centers on the capacity for sharing
insights and approaches with colleagues in the Asia-Pacific region, and
learning from them, in the context of increasing globalization and
improving access to information and communication technologies.
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries;
Mathematics Teachers; Professional Associations; Professional Development;
59. Morrill, R. (2003).
Denmark: Lessons for American principals and teachers? Phi Delta Kappan,
Describes positive aspects of Denmark's "class teacher" system wherein the
same group of students, evenly divided by sex, remain together with the
same teacher from grades 1 through 9. Includes description of testing,
school and classroom discipline, and group work. Compares Danish schools
with American schools.
Child Development; Classroom Techniques; Comparative
Analysis; Discipline; Educational Testing; Elementary Education; Foreign
Countries; Grouping (Instructional Purposes); Principals.
60. Morris, J. E., & Long, B.
C. (2002). Female clerical workers' occupational stress: The role of
person and social resources, negative affectivity, and stress appraisals.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(4), 395-410.
this paper, relations among person and social resources, work-stress
appraisals, and depression were examined with data from 2 longitudinal
studies of female clerical workers. Results were consistent with
predictions that primary appraisals contribute to change in depression
beyond the effects of person and social resources and negative
affectivity. There was modest evidence that control appraisals moderate
the effects of optimism and work support.
Clerical Workers; Counseling; Depression (Psychology);
Females; Job Satisfaction; Personnel Evaluation; Self Esteem; Social
Support Groups; Stress Variables.
61. Nagel, L., & Brown, S.
(2003). The ABCs of managing teacher stress. Clearing House, 76(5),
paper describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies
that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. It outlines the ABCs
of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication, and
notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional
strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation,
and reflect on their teaching.
Educational Strategies; Higher Education; Interpersonal
Communication; Stress Management; Student Motivation; Teacher Attitudes;
Teacher Student Relationship.
62. Nelson, J. R., Maculan,
A., Roberts, M. L., & Ohlund, B. J. (2001). Sources of occupational stress
for teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal
of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9(2), 123-130.
Teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are at
particular risk for experiencing stress on the job. Occupational stress
ratings from 415 teachers of students with EBD was modeled by regression,
using teacher demographic characteristics. working conditions. and ability
to work with children with EBD as factors in the analysis. All working
condition variables (principal-teacher relationship, capacity to
contribute to decisions, and working relationships), as well as years of
professional experience and ability to work with externalizing children,
had a significant effect on occupational stress. Additionally,
within-inventory analyses pointed to ability to contribute to decisions as
more influential than positive relationships with principals or
colleagues. Results and implications are discussed.
Special Educators; Job-Satisfaction; Stay; Intent;
63. Peterson, M., & Wilson, J.
F. (2002). The culture-work-health model and work stress. American Journal
of Health Behavior, 26(1), 16-24.
paper examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of
workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model.
A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture
is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating
effective organizational stress interventions.
Employer Employee Relationship; Interpersonal Relationship;
Organizational Climate; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Employee
Health; Job Stress; Organizational Culture.
64. Phil James, & Walters, D.
(2004). Health and safety: Revitalised or reversed? London: Institute of
booklet compares the original IER recommendations of 1997 to the proposals
put forward by the government in 1998 for improving the system for health
and safety at work. Rather than being revitalised, there are signs that
standards of health and safety have, in fact, been reversed over the last
Health and Safety; Health Policy; Standards.
Pisanti, R., Gagliardi, M. P., Razzino, S., & Bertini, M. (2003).
Occupational stress and wellness among Italian
secondary school teachers. Psychology & Health, 18(4), 523-536.
part of a larger cross-cultural investigation (Euroteach) which involves
11 European countries and 2 182 secondary school teachers, two were the
aims of the present study: (1) to examine the relationship between job
conditions and wellness/health outcomes on a group of 169 Italian
secondary school teachers, by using the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS)
Model (Karasek and Theorell, 1990 ); (2) to analyse the differences with
other European countries in the light of specific cultural differences.
Controlling for age and gender, results of hierarchical regression
indicated that job control and social support combine in different
additive patterns with job demands to explain the well-being outcomes (job
satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, somatic
complaints). The predictor's linearity check indicated that the job
demands variable is curvilinearly associated both with emotional
exhaustion (p <0.005) and with somatic symptoms (p <0.01). As compared to
the average of the other European countries, on the positive side, the
Italian teachers manifest both a higher degree of personal accomplishment
and a lesser degree of depersonalisation; on the other hand, they claim a
lesser degree of social support and a higher degree of somatic complaints.
Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) Model; Burnout;
Non-linear Associations; Teachers; Additive or Interactive Hypothesis;
66. Pithers, R. T., & Soden,
R. (1999). Person-environment fit and teacher stress. Educational
Research, 41(1), 51-61.
study examines the relationship between person-environment fit and
occupational stress and strain for a group of 300 Australian and Scottish
vocational teachers. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain a
measure of predominant work interest type for each individual. Teachers
were allocated to the congruent group on the basis of reporting a
predominantIy Social interest type; Social types are seen to be most
congruent with teaching. Teachers were allocated to the incongruent group
on the basis of reporting a predominantly Practical interest type. The
Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to measure various aspects of
occupational stress, strain and coping resources. Significant betweengroup
effects (congruent vs incongruent) were found for of the four strain
subscales of the OSI. The implications of person- environment fit and
strain for teachers is discussed.
Teacher Stress; Strain; Person-Environment Fit;
Secondary-School Teachers; Occupational Stress; Congruence; Burnout;
67. Rasku, A., & Kinnunen, U.
(2003). Job conditions and wellness among Finnish upper secondary school
teachers. Psychology & Health, 18(4), 441-456.
aim of the present study was to compare the work situation of Finnish
upper secondary school teachers to that of average European teachers and
to examine to what extent various job conditions and coping strategies
explain their well-being. The Finnish data (n = 232) were gathered in the
spring term of 1998 by postal questionnaires (response rate 62%). The
European reference sample consisted of 1950 upper secondary school
teachers from ten European countries. The Finnish upper secondary school
teachers assessed, in particular, their job conditions (e.g., lower job
demands and higher job control), but also their well-being (higher level
of job satisfaction and lower level of depersonalisation and somatic
complaints) as better than their European colleagues. Job demands and
control had only main effects on well-being: high demands explained low
job satisfaction, high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalisation,
and high control explained high job satisfaction and high personal
accomplishment. The additional job conditions and coping strategies
increased the explained variance of somatic complaints, emotional
exhaustion, and personal accomplishment.
Work Conditions; Teachers; Wellness; Burnout; Job Demand;
Control; Social Support; Stress; Europe.
68. Ruhland, S. K. (2002). An
examination of secondary business teachers' retention factors, Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association. New Orleans, LA, April 1-5, 2002.
study investigated from a national perspective factors that influence the
attrition and retention of newly hired secondary business teachers in the
public sector. It also identified factors important to determine a
business teacher's interest in continuing or not continuing in the
teaching profession. The survey developed for the study consisted of these
four sections: educational preparation, teaching experience, skills and
interests in teaching, and demographics. Of 424 deliverable surveys, 163
(34%) were returned. Findings were the following: (1) the retention rate
of respondents was very good; (2) 86 percent were still teaching; (3)
secondary business teachers who initially did not have a strong commitment
to the teaching profession were more likely to leave the teaching
profession; (4) 54 percent reported their mentoring experience as having a
positive influence toward their attitude as a beginning teacher; (5) 43
percent who remained in the teaching profession reported satisfaction with
their current teaching positions; (6) participants identified salaries (57
percent), lack of job advancement (30 percent), licensure requirements (26
percent), stress (26 percent), and classroom management issues (26
percent) as major reasons for secondary business teachers leaving the
teaching profession; and (7) 5 of 14 factors important to continue
teaching (pleasant working conditions, positive teaching experience, sense
that they are doing a good job, positive interactions with students, time
to complete job responsibilities) differed significantly between teachers
who did not enter or chose to leave and those who remained in the teaching
Beginning Teachers; Business Education Teachers; Labor
Turnover; Mentors; National Surveys; Secondary Education; Secondary School
Teachers; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Persistence; Teaching Conditions.
69. Ryan, J. (2003).
Continuous professional development along the continuum of lifelong
learning. Nurse Education Today, 23(7), 498-508.
300 surveyed, responses from 94 nurses, 38 occupational therapists, and 50
physical therapists indicated that professional knowledge was a prime
motivation for continuing professional development, followed by updating
qualifications, increasing the status of the profession, and demonstrating
professional competence. No differences were observed among the
Educational Attitudes; Lifelong Learning; Nurses;
Occupational Therapists; Physical Therapists; Professional Continuing
Education; Self Motivation.
70. Santagata, R., & Barbieri,
A. (2005). Mathematics teaching in Italy: A cross-cultural video analysis.
Mathematical Thinking & Learning: An International Journal, 7(4), 291-312.
study investigates the cultural nature of teaching. It compares a sample
of 39 videotaped Italian mathematics lessons to German, Japanese, and U.S.
lessons videotaped in TIMSS. This study expands on earlier work that was
based on a smaller sample; analysis is also extended to the nature of the
mathematical content presented. The results confirm the existence of an
Italian cultural pattern for mathematics teaching, whose features we
outline here. Italian teachers prefer whole-class instruction to
individual seatwork; they engage in teacher talk/demonstration to transmit
information; and they often call on students to solve problems at the
board before the rest of the class. Italian lessons are characterized by
the inclusion of a large number of mathematical principles and properties.
These are explained 50% of the time, and simply stated the rest of the
time. This study adds yet another perspective from which mathematics
teaching can be studied, and, by acknowledging the difficulty to change
cultural practices, it offers practical implications for teacher learning.
Foreign Countries; Mathematics Instruction; Teaching
Methods; Mathematics Teachers; Videotape Recordings; Comparative Analysis;
Cultural Differences; Cross Cultural Studies.
71. Schaarschmidt, U.,
Kieschke, U., & Fischer, A. W. (1999). Patterns of teacher's occupational
stress. Psychologie in Erziehung Und Unterricht, 46(4), 244-268.
several studies we focused on the rule played by teacher's personal
resources in coping with professional demands. This approach aims at
exploring indicators of mental health. They are assessed by the
psychometric instrument AVEM, which allows variable-oriented evaluations,
as well as the classification of persons into four patterns (types) of
coping (G, S, A, B) determined by cluster-analysis. The relevance of this
typology in terms of health-related behavior and experience was
demonstrated by various studies. Distinguishing between these patterns
(types) makes it possible to point out problematic tendencies of
professional engagement, moreover our approach is especially suitable to
lay the foundation for preventive measures. Up until now we have
investigated a sample of about 4000 teachers and teacher students.
Longitudinal data are also available.
Teacher Research; Personal Resources; Coping Styles.
Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S., & Tang, C. (2000).
Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural
validation of the Maslach burnout inventory. Anxiety Stress and Coping,
Teacher burnout is a world-wide phenomenon that draws the attention of
educational psychologists and stimulates efforts in construct elaboration
and measurement. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (cynicism), and
lack of personal accomplishments are three dimensions that constitute the
burnout syndrome. Levels of this burnout syndrome were compared among 542
German and Chinese teachers. It turned out that there were only minor
differences between the Germans and the Chinese, but major differences
between those two groups and the U.S. American normative data. Moreover,
stress resource factors were measured, namely perceived self-efficacy and
proactive attitude. Their negative intercorrelations with burnout
supported the validity of the burnout measure, although the associations
were much closer in the German subsample. An attempt to replicate the
American three-factorial structure of the burnout construct failed in both
subsamples, which is in line with previous evidence and calls for a
revision of the original measure.
Burnout; Self-Efficacy; Proactive; Chinese; Self-Beliefs;
73. Smith, J. (2001). Critical
politics of teachers' work: An Australian perspective. New York: Peter
book examines the damage that has been systematically inflicted upon
teachers' work globally over the past two or more decades. The author
chronicles and traces the major policy maneuvers in what can only be
described as "difficult times." The consequences are not hard to see in
the language of the new technologies of power: competencies,
vocationalization of the curriculum, appraisal, testing, accountability,
restructuring, enterprise culture, and self-management, as well as through
the cooption of progressive categories like collegiality, teacher
development, and other reflective approaches to teaching. While these
discourses mark out the oppressive contours of teaching there is
considerable space to imagine and live out alternative discourses and
practices. The way out of the miasma, the authors argues, is to robustly
confront and vigorously supplant dominant managerialist discourses with
agenda and practices that are more democratic, educative, and socially
Paid Employment; Formal Education.
Stanton, J. M., Bachiochi, P. D., Robie, C., Perez, L. M., & Smith, P. C.
(2002). Revising the JDI work satisfaction
subscale: Insights into stress and control. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 62(5), 877-895.
paper studied the Work Satisfaction subscale of the Job Descriptive Index
(JDI) to determine the difference between measuring work stress and
measuring work satisfaction. Results from samples of 1,623 and 314 adults
provide evidence on JDI improvement.
Adults; Measures (Individuals); Stress Variables; Test
Construction; Test Items; Job Descriptive Index.
Stanton, J. M., Balzer, W. K., Smith, P. C., Parra, L.-F., & Ironson, G.
(2001). A general measure of work stress: The
stress in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(5),
paper developed the Stress in General Scale and studied its validity with
three samples of adult workers (n=4,322; n=574; and n=34). Evidence
converged on the existence of two distinct subscales, each of which
measured a different aspect of general work stress. Studies also resulted
in meaningful patterns of correlations with stressor measures.
Adults; Correlation; Employees; Measurement Techniques;
Stress Variables; Validity.
Stephens, P., Tonnessen, F. E., & Kyriacou, C. (2004).
Teacher "training" and teacher "education" in England and
Norway: A comparative study of policy goals. Comparative Education, 40(1),
this paper, we examine the complementary and differing state-defined roles
of beginning schoolteachers in England and Norway by investigating
centrally mandated initial teacher preparation programmes in both
countries. Through comparative analysis, we get to see the roles that the
policy-makers in London and Oslo seek to confer upon the educators of
future generations of schoolchildren, as well as exploring opportunities
for cross-cultural policy learning. In broad terms, we found that
centrally prescribed initial teacher training in England is, as its name
implies, a training model that seeks to induct trainee teachers into the
practical skills and willingness necessary for: instructing pupils in
National Curriculum subjects, managing classroom activities, setting
homework to consolidate and extend classroom work and providing pupils
with a safe learning environment. Centrally prescribed initial teacher
education in Norway is, as its name implies, an educative model whose goal
is to help student teachers to: reflect and act upon the practical
implications of educational theory, instruct pupils in National Curriculum
subjects, display leadership in the classroom, act as a member of a caring
profession, promote Norwegian values and provide pupils with a safe
Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis;
Students; Learning Activities; Educational Environment; Class Activities;
Student Teachers; National Curriculum; Preservice Teacher Education.
77. Thomas, N., Clarke, V., &
Lavery, J. (2003). Self-reported work and family stress of female primary
teachers. Australian Journal of Education, 47(1), 73-87.
Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary
teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family
stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and
responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress
and home stress both impacted on each other.
Elementary School Teachers; Employed Women; Faculty
Workload; Family-Work Relationship; Females; Foreign Countries; Primary
Education; Stress Variables; Teacher Morale; Teaching Conditions;
78. Thornton, M., & Reid, I.
(2001). Primary school teaching as a career: The views of the successfully
recruited. Journal of Education for Teaching, 27(1), 111-112.
Explored British student teachers' views about their choice of elementary
school teaching as a career. Data from surveys and interviews indicated
that virtually all respondents had always wanted to teach, enjoyed working
with children, felt that teaching brought job satisfaction, and considered
teaching a good career that would be challenging. Some respondents also
reported negative feelings about previous noneducational work.
Career; Recruitment; Student Teachers.
79. Trenberth, L., & Dewe, P.
(2005). An exploration of the role of leisure in coping with work- related
stress using sequential tree analysis. British Journal of Guidance and
Counselling, 33(1), 101-116.
past three decades have seen an explosion of interest into the nature,
causes and consequences of stress in both work and non-work settings.
Given that leisure is of growing importance in most people's lives and
that the impact of stress influences the way in which leisure is used,
then the role that leisure plays as a means of coping with stress
represents an important research agenda. In order to explore leisure's
role in coping with work stress this research explored, using a sample of
secondary school principals and deputy principals, three issues: (1) why
an involvement in leisure was important, (2) what reasons were given as to
why leisure was important to cope with stress, and (3) what coping
strategies were actually used to cope with stress in relation to whether
or not leisure had always been regarded as an important part of life. Each
of these issues was explored using a technique called sequential tree
analysis. This technique identifies patterns of data and arranges them in
hierarchical order to provide a visual display that captures the richness
of relationships not always present when more traditional methods are
used. The different patterns that emerged point to the complex role that
leisure plays. The results also point to the need to better understand
combinations and patterns before it is possible to determine the exact
nature of the presumed emotion-focused role that leisure may play in
coping with work stress. These findings have implications for stress
management interventions and the role of leisure in them and the need to
distinguish between the meanings people give to the importance of leisure
as distinct from the actual use of leisure as a coping strategy.
Stress Management; Principals; Coping; Leisure Time;
Intervention; Statistical Analysis.
M. Y., Webb, C., Cooper, C. L., & Ricketts, C. (2005). Occupational stress
in UK higher education institutions: A comparative study of all staff
categories. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(1),
higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant
change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external
scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with
this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also
increased. The study reported here was carried out using a stratified
random sample of all categories of staff (academic and non-academic) from
14 UK universities and colleges. Levels of occupational stress were
measured using the ASSET model. The results showed that the most
significant source of stress for all higher education staff (irrespective
of category of employee) was job insecurity. In comparison to the
normative data, staff also reported significantly higher levels of stress
relating to work relationships, control, and resources and communication,
and significantly lower levels of commitment both from and to their
organization. However, they also reported significantly lower levels of
stress relating to work-life balance, overload and job overall, and lower
levels of physical ill-health. Significant differences were identified
between staff working at Old versus New universities and by category of
employee. These results support the growing evidence that universities no
longer provide the low stress working environments they once did.
Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Job Security;
Stress Variables; Educational Change; College Faculty; Work Environment;
Measures (Individuals); United Kingdom.
81. van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2001).
Stress and strain in teaching:
A structural equation approach. British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 71(2), 243-259.
School teaching seems to be particularly stressful. The stress model of
Lazarus and colleagues and its adaptation to educational settings by
Kyriacou and Sutcliffe is the basis for an analysis of antecedents and
consequences of teacher stress. The first aim of this study was to test
the theoretical model of teacher stress on a large sample using structural
equation statistics (study I). The results should then be cross-validated
and the model enlarged by additional operationalisations (study II). This
study was conducted using heterogeneous samples of German school teachers
(study I: N = 356, study II: N = 201). In study I, standardised
questionnaires measuring workload and mobbing as stressors, physical
symptoms as stress reactions, and social support and self-efficacy as
moderating variables. In addition to these concepts, coping strategies,
burnout and absenteeism were assessed in study II. The structural equation
modelling in study I revealed that the predications of the stress model
hold true: workload and mobbing lead to stress reactions, whereas
principal support reduces the perception of workload and mobbing. Global
support and self-efficacy moderate the relationships between the
variables. These results were confirmed in study II and the model was
enlarged by burnout and coping strategies. With all concepts, 12% of the
variance of absenteeism can be explained. Limitations of the studies,
using cross-sectional data and self-reported measures are discussed.
Teacher Stress; Workload; Mobbing; Stress Reactions; Social
Support; Self Efficacy; Coping Strategies; Burnout; Absenteeism.
82. Van Horn, J.
E., Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2001). Lack of reciprocity among
Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to
stress and well-being. Work & Stress, 15(3), 191-213.
research presents the results of two related studies on the convergent and
construct validity of three measures of reciprocity in exchange
relationships at work. In Study 1, 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed
about their specific investments and outcomes in the exchange
relationships with their students, colleagues and school. ANOVA revealed
that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that
the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a
function of the type of exchange relationship. Building on these results,
multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity at a detailed level
for each of the three exchange relationships. Study 2 validated these
specific reciprocity measures by relating them to two global assessments
of reciprocity (convergent validity) as well as to measures of job stress
and well-being (construct validity). LISREL-analysis of data obtained from
a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange
relationship there were significant, consistent and meaningful
relationships among the three reciprocity measures. Further, hierarchical
regression analysis showed that the reciprocity measures were
differentially related to job stressors and measures of well-being.
Implications are discussed.
Reciprocity; Equity; Theory; Teachers; Work Stress;
83. Vettor, S. M., & Kosinski, F. A., Jr.
(2000). Work-stress burnout in
emergency medical technicians and the use of early recollections.
Journal of Employment Counseling, 37(4), 216-228.
Numerous studies have indicated a high work-stress burnout rate of
emergency medical technicians, although none have used techniques
predicting work-stress burnout. This paper discusses early memories that
are representative of emergency medical technicians who may be susceptible
to burnout, and memories that may indicate an individual's resistance to
burnout. It proposes research to substantiate effectiveness of early
recollections in predicting burnout.
Burnout; Career Counseling; Emergency Medical Technicians;
Recall (Psychology); Stress Variables; Emergency Medical Services; Memory
84. Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (1999).
The role of social support in
the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 54(2), 314-334.
1 analyzed 68 studies, identifying three constructs: workplace stressors,
strains, and social support. In study 2, models of social support in the
workplace were tested, finding that social support reduced strains,
mitigated perceived stressors, and moderated the relationship between
stressors and strain.
Interpersonal Relationship; Meta Analysis; Social Support
Groups; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Job Stress.
85. Weinraub, M.,
Shlay, A. B., Harmon, M., & Tran, H. (2005). Subsidizing child care: How
child care subsidies affect the child care used by low-income African
American families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(4),
evaluate the type and quality of child care used by low-income families
who were either receiving or not receiving subsidized child care, we
interviewed 111 African American parents from a randomly selected sample
of low-income families. We inquired about their child-care use,
satisfaction with care, work stress, and employment history. Using
standardized assessment instruments, independent observers in the
children's child-care setting evaluated the quality of the care and
characteristics of the providers. We found that families using subsidized
child care were more likely to use center care and other more formal types
of care, while families not using subsidized child care were more likely
to use a relative in the relative's home. Families using subsidized care
tended to use licensed and registered child-care arrangements more than
non-subsidized families. Also, subsidized families spent approximately
half as much out-of-pocket money for child care. However, we found no
evidence that the care used by families using subsidized care was of any
higher quality than that used by non-subsidized families. We examine the
possibility that child-care subsidy programs may not be adequately
designed or funded to increase the availability of quality child care to
low-income families. Educators and policy makers may want to consider
additional means of increasing access to quality care in low-income
Low Income Groups; Child Care; African American Family;
Grants; Community Programs; African Americans; Social Services;
86. Williams, A.
(2003). Informal learning in the workplace: A case study of new teachers.
Educational Studies, 29(2-3), 207-219.
Focuses on the learning of new teachers in England to identify aspects of
workplace learning that may not be accommodated within the statutory
induction year. Draws from interview and survey data. Concludes that the
new teachers' learning is informal, reactive, and collaborative.
Beginning Teachers; Case Studies; Educational Research;
Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Interviews; Learning Experience;
Professional Development; Surveys; Teaching Experience; England.
87. Wilson, V., &
Hall, J. (2002). Running twice as fast? A review of the research
literature on teachers' stress. Scottish Educational Review, 34(2),
literature review of teacher stress in Scotland found that hours worked by
teachers have not changed significantly over the last decade, but the
number of unpopular tasks over which teachers have little control has
increased, resulting in increased stress. Being forced to implement
mandated changes also increases teacher stress.
Academic Standards; Collegiality; Coping; Educational
Change; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Faculty Mobility; Foreign
Countries; Job Satisfaction; Quality of Working Life; Social Support
Groups; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout; Scotland; Teacher Stress.
88. Wilson, V., Schlapp, U., & Davidson, J. (2003).
Prescription for learning?
Meeting the development needs of the pharmacy profession. International
Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(4), 380-395.
survey (n=947) of pharmacists and instructors was compared with 1999
results. Over 90% of both high and low users of formal continuing
education also engaged in informal learning. Low users received the most
employer support for training. Differences among high, medium, and low
users and nonusers suggest a need for diverse formats and services,
including distance learning.
Educational Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Informal
Education; Pharmaceutical Education; Pharmacy; Professional Continuing
89. Wood, T., &
McCarthy, C. (2002). Understanding and preventing teacher burnout.
Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).
digest explains that burnout results from the chronic perception that one
is unable to cope with daily life demands. Teachers must face classrooms
full of students every day; negotiate potentially stressful interactions
with parents, administrators, counselors, and other teachers; contend with
relatively low pay and shrinking school budgets; and ensure students meet
increasingly strict standards. This can result in a form of burnout at
some point in their careers. The digest looks at the nature of the stress
response, describes the development of the burnout construct, and examines
several types of prevention that can be useful in helping teachers contend
with an occupation that puts them at risk for burnout. Primary prevention
includes organizational practices which allow teachers some control over
their daily challenges. Secondary prevention focuses on early detection of
problems before they emerge as full-blown disorders. Tertiary prevention
involves ameliorating symptoms of burnout. The digest concludes that
primary prevention is preferable, but all types can be effective.
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Stress Management; Teacher
Burnout; Teacher Responsibility; Teaching Conditions; Primary Prevention.