and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Other Topics in
Learning and Work
Disability, Work and Learning [PDF]
1. Abbas, J.
(2003). Disability and the dimensions of work. Unpublished
Masters, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education,
University of Toronto, Toronto.
People labelled disabled face exclusion in almost all aspects of their
lives. This social exclusion is particularly true in the labour force,
where people with disabilities typically face high rates of unemployment
and underemployment. This research not only seeks to critically analyze
the labour market inequity experienced by bodies marked "disabled", but
also to illustrate the social process behind this "disablement". In doing
so, this research advances an understanding of disability oppression in
which social, cultural, and economic structures are scrutinized and their
role in social exclusion highlighted. In order to illustrate the dynamics
of disability and work, this research will explore in depth the following
three labour market conditions: unemployment, underemployment and unpaid
labour. By doing so, this research illustrates how an sociological
approach to disability oppression uncovers the root causes of labour
market inequity and thus allows us to lay the foundations for social
Disability; Labour Market; Social Exclusion; Unemployment;
Underemployment; Unpaid Labour.
2. Allaire, S.
H., Li, W., & LaValley, M. P. (2003). Work barriers experienced and
job accommodations used by persons with arthritis and other rheumatic
diseases. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46(3), 147-156.
people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the
types of work barriers they experience and their use of job
accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of
accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in
persons with arthritis at risk for work disability.
Physical Disabilities; Vocational Rehabilitation; Work
Environment; Arthritis; Accommodation; Disabilities.
3. Baldwin, M.
L., & Schumacher, E., J. (2002). A note on job mobility among
workers with disabilities. Industrial Relations, 41(3), 430-441.
from the 1990 and 1993 panels of the Survey of Income and Program
Participation are used to analyze relationships between disability status
and job mobility. Individuals who experienced voluntary and involuntary
job separations over a 20-month period were identified to examine the
effect of disability status on rates of job change and wage growth
following a job change. The results show that disabled workers are more
likely to experience involuntary job changes than are non-disabled workers
but there is little difference in the wage effects of job changes by
Disability Status; Job Mobility; Voluntary and Involuntary
Job Separations; Job Change; Wage Effects.
4. Balser, D. B. (2002).
Agency in organizational inequality: Organizational behavior and
individual perceptions of discrimination. Work and Occupations, 29(2),
study examines how disabled employees interpret organizational practices.
Through the viewpoint of disabled workers, the study shows how they
interpret organizational behavior as discriminatory and mobilize the law
to inject agency into inequality processes, albeit cognitively. Disabled
employees perceived discrimination to be based on personal
characteristics, organizational structure and the limited opportunities
for training in organizations. However, employees who worked in
organizations that were focused on disability issues or who were offered
opportunities for training were less likely to perceive discrimination.
The study also indicates employees who worked in organizations with
grievance procedures were more likely to perceive discrimination. Findings
imply disability related human resource management structures play a
symbolic role with little influence on employees' perceptions of
Disabilities; Work; Organizational Practices;
Discrimination; Grievance; Human Resource Management; Employee Perception.
5. Barnes, C., Mercer, G., &
Shakespeare, T. (1999). Exploring disability: A sociological introduction.
Malden, MA: Polity Press.
new and exciting introductory textbook is applicable for anyone studying
disability. It provides an excellent overview of the existing literature
in the area, and it also develops an understanding of disability that has
implications for both sociology and society. In the past 30 years, our
understanding of disability has dramatically changed. Once perceived as a
largely medical problem affecting only a low number of people, it is now a
major social and political issue. Exploring Disability charts both the
traditional and contemporary approaches to the area before focusing on the
social model of disability. The authors look at the relationship between
disabled people and areas such as medical sociology, disability studies,
social policy, politics and culture. The book concludes with an
exploration of the future of theory and research on disability. Exploring
disability will be indispensable for students seeking to better understand
disability within sociology, disability studies, social policy, politics,
cultural studies, and health-related disciplines including medicine.
Disability; "At Risk".
6. Bartlett, D., & Moody, S.
(2000). Dyslexia in the workplace. London: Whurr.
book is designed for both adults with dyslexia and for professionals
concerned with helping them, such as psychologists, tutors, therapists,
researchers, disability advisors, and welfare officers. It also offers
advice to employers on how to help staff with dyslexia. The text covers
the nature of dyslexic difficulties and their effects, both practical and
emotional. Dyspraxic difficulties are also discussed. Assessment tests are
described and reviewed, and recent research is summarized. Detailed advice
is given on tackling the difficulties encountered by adults with dyslexia,
including work organizations and effective work methods, reading and
writing for work purposes, memory skills, oral presentation and
interaction, and dealing with the emotions associated with dyslexia.
Finally, guidance is given on the British Disability Discrimination Act,
and sources of information and help are listed. Throughout the book, there
are numerous case studies designed to capture the immediate experiences of
people with dyslexia at work. Appendices include a dyslexia checklist, a
dyspraxia checklist, a basic relaxation exercise, and visualization
exercises for relaxation.
Adults; Case Studies; Civil Rights Legislation; Clinical
Diagnosis; Disability Discrimination; Dyslexia; Emotional Problems;
Employer Employee Relationship; Employment; Evaluation Methods; Reading
Strategies; Speech Skills; Individual Disorders; Work Environment; Writing
Strategies; Dyspraxia; Great Britain.
7. Benjamin, S. (2002).
Reproducing traditional femininities? The social relations of 'special
educational needs' in a girls' comprehensive school. Gender and Education,
charity/tragedy discourse of disability and traditional versions of
femininity bear some striking resemblances. Both are associated with
dependence and helplessness and with resultant practices that are
implicated in the enduring reproduction of social and material
inequalities. This article looks at the “identity work” of a group of
girls, all of whom had been identified as having “special educational
needs”, in a mainstream school in the UK. Using findings from an
ethnographic study, the article explores how the girls position themselves
in relation to the subject “special needs student”. The findings suggest
that historical meanings associated with femininity and disability combine
with contemporary schooling practices to produce a constrained range of
subject positions around which the girls have limited room for manoeuvre.
Charity; Disability; Femininity; Dependence; Helplessness;
Reproduction of Social Inequalities; Special Educational Needs.
8. Bevan, R. (2003). Another
way on? A search for an alternative path into learning for people with a
learning difficulty or disability. British Journal of Special Education,
article explores alternative routes in further education and attainment of
qualifications for people with disabilities, focusing on the potential
uses of information technology and more flexible approaches to learning.
Findings from interviews with students are used to develop
student-centered maps to goal attainment for such students.
Adults; Disabilities; Information Technology; Job
Placement; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Secondary
Education; Self Actualization; Self Determination; Student Attitudes.
9. Bricout, J., & Bentley, K.
(2000). Disability status and perceptions of employability by employers.
Social Work Research, 24(2), 12-23.
study uses a correlational design to examine the discrepancies among
employers' employability ratings of hypothetical job applicants with
different disability statuses. A survey packet was mailed to a random
sample of 1,000 employers selected from a national membership list of
human resource professionals. The survey included a standardized measure
for rating employers' impressions of job applicants' employability with
respect to 22 key employment-related traits. Employers were asked to rate
the job applicants' suitability for employment in a hypothetical
administrative assistant position. Findings show that job applicants
without a disability received the highest mean employability ratings. Job
applicants with an acquired brain injury were rated substantially the same
as those with schizophrenia. Implications for social work practice and
research are discussed.
Disability Status; Employability; Job Applicants;
10. Cameron, L., & Murphy, J.
(2002). Enabling young people with a learning disability to make choices
at a time of transition. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3),
study examined whether Talking Mats, a light-technology augmentative
framework, could be used successfully with 12 young adults with a learning
and communication disability. Participants were able to indicate likes and
dislikes and express views about the choices available to them. Some
expressed opinions not previously known to their carers.
Assistive Technology; Augmentative and Alternative
Communication; Decision-Making; Interpersonal Communication; Mental
Retardation; Personal Autonomy; Pictorial Stimuli; Secondary Education;
Self Determination; Transitional Programs; Young Adults.
11. Charlton, J. I. (2000).
Nothing about us without us: Disability oppression and empowerment.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
book examines the lived oppression that people with disabilities have
experienced and continue to experience as a human rights tragedy. There
are a number of unifying arguments that run throughout this book which
attempt to synthesize both the conditions of disability oppression and the
exigencies of its resistance: 1) the oppression of 500 million people with
disabilities is rooted in the political-economic and cultural dimensions
of everyday life; 2) the poverty, isolation, indignity, and dependence of
these 500 million people with disabilities is evidence of a major human
rights catastrophe and a fundamental critique of the existing world
system; 3) the scant attempts to theorize the conditions of everyday life
for people with disabilities are either incomplete or fundamentally flawed
as a result of the medicalization/depoliticization of disability and the
failure to account form the vast majority of people with disabilities who
live in the Third World; 4) a disability-based consciousness and
organization is emerging throughout the world which has begun to contest
both the oppression people with disabilities experience and the
depoliticization of that experience; 5) the political-economic and
socio-cultural dimensions of disability oppression determine who is
affected and the form resistance takes; 6) notwithstanding the importance
of political-economic and socio-cultural differences, all the individuals
and organizations that have taken up the cause of disability rights in the
last twenty years have embraced the concepts of empowerment and human
rights, independence and integration, and self-help and
self-determination; and 7) these leitmotifs suggest a necessarily
fundamental reordering of global priorities and resources based on
equality, respect, and control of resources by the people and communities
that need them.
Disability Oppression; Disability Rights; Empowerment;
Political Economy; Consciousness; Alienation; Self-determination.
12. Church, K. (2001).
Learning to walk between worlds: Informal learning in psychiatric
survivor-run businesses: A retrospective re-reading of research process
and results from 1993-1999. NALL Working Paper No. 20. Toronto: Centre for
the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
a new lens of informal learning, Church revisits processes and results of
six years of research with psychiatric survivors working in psychiatric
survivor-run businesses. Church reports on three dimensions of social
learning: solidarity learning, reshaping the definition of self, and
organizational learning. Key aspects of organizational learning that she
reports include peer training, on-the-job learning, trial and error
learning, and "failing forward."
author concludes by presenting examples of successful learning and
management practices such as: using membership and team meetings to
communicate background information, spending time with employee board
members before board meetings, reading feedback through body language, and
staying connected to your workforce and key employees.
Disability; Illness; Informal Learning; Organizational
13. Church, K., Frazee, C.,
Luciani, T., Panitch, M., & Seeley, P. (2006). Dressing corporate
subjectivities: Learning what to wear to the bank. In S. Billett, M.
Somerville & T. Fenwick (Eds.), Work, Subjectivity and Learning. New York:
this Chapter the authors convey the research team's learning about their
own subjectivity - of who they are - which emerged in the course of doing
a study with a large financial institution ("Everybank") of learning
practices of disabled employees. The authors discuss a variety of
practices the team learned for fitting in when entering corporate spaces
and interacting with corporate managers: how to dress, how to write, how
to speak, and how to disappear. Subheadings like "Melanie gets dressed"
give specific examples of team members' experiences of learning (or being
trained) in relation to corporate culture. The authors credit this ongoing
learning, and the data each team member's "subjective shifts" generates
(p. 11), with drawing the team's attention to areas of employee
experience, like clothing practices, they might otherwise have overlooked.
Through learning who they, the research team, are in the corporate
environment they discovered a question they should ask themselves in the
course of their research with Everybank: "What kind of self do I need to
(learn to) become to be a successful worker in this environment?"
Corporate Culture; Disability; Identity; Informal Learning;
14. Church, K., & Luciani, T.
(2005). "Stepping to the rhythm of circumstance:" A choreography of
corporate disability: Reprise. Paper presented at the 2005 annual
conference of the Research Network on Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL),
Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of
Toronto. Retrieved September 29, 2006 from
Church and Luciani report findings from the study "Doing Disability at the
Bank." The purpose of the study is to discover learning strategies that
disabled people initiate and rely on to keep jobs within corporate
environments during global restructuring. The inductive inquiry was
designed around conversations: individual interviews with a standpoint
sample of disabled people with substantial work histories, focus groups
with self-identified disabled bank workers and non-disabled co-workers,
participant observation, and documentary analysis. The study exhibited
three characteristics of second wave feminist epistemology and
methodology: reflexivity, emotionality, and innovation in the face of
exclusion. Church and Luciani highlighted four kinds of work: the work of
keeping up, which highlights effects of the pace of work and expectations
for productivity; the work of waiting, which explores waiting for
equipment and waiting to be understood; the work of hiding, which explores
ways in which employees manage disclosure; and the work of keeping it
light, which uncovers disabled employees use of humour to teach and to
create an impression of cheeriness.
Body; Corporate Culture; Disability; Informal Learning;
Methods; Workplace Learning.
15. Church, K., Panitch, M.,
Frazee, C., & Luciani, T. (2006). Recognizing the invisible work of doing
corporate disability. Paper presented at the 2006 annual conference of the
Network on Work and Lifelong Learning, Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for
Studies in Education/University of Toronto. Retrieved September 29, 2006
from http://www.wallnetwork.ca/ resources/workingpapers.htm
Findings from the study "Doing disability at the bank: Discovering the
learning/teaching strategies used by disabled bank employees" are
presented. The authors analyzed conversations of employees who identified
as ”disabled,“ and another for coworker/manager ”others”, from seven focus
groups in three Canadian cities to learn about what it's like to work in a
corporate bank environment. The researchers learned that disability is
both a bodily experience and an organizational construct, with distinct
purposes within and for the organization. From coworker groups they
observed that the perfect employee has a lean and mean lifestyle. They saw
the corporation's commitment to a diverse workforce in tension with the
drive for revenue. From disabled groups they learned that disabled
employees prefer to stay hidden. Learning to conceal parts of themselves
and their bodies was a form of work that had to be learned through trial
and error - learning to create a virtual, able-bodied identity. The
authors conclude that informal learning practices conceal an underlying
politics of personal responsibility in which disabled employees hesitate
to ask for workplace accommodations, and where humour is a key quality of
success in a corporate environment. The result of self-deprecating humour
combined with politics of individual responsibility is disabled employees
who make working in a corporate environment look easy.
Attitudes; Corporate Culture; Disability; Informal
16. Delin, A. (2002). Handbook
of good practice: Employing disabled people. London: Arts Council of
document has extracts from the Arts Council of England publication
"Handbook of Good Practice-Employing Disabled People". This Handbook takes
employers, advisors and employees through all aspects of recruitment and
retention. Excerpts focus on in-depth case studies, a section for
Associates and mentors providing information and advice for anyone taking
on a supporting role, recruitment and learning programme documents, and a
directory of contact details for a wide range of arts, disability,
employment & training organisations.
People with Disabilities; Employment; England; Affirmative
Action Programs; People with Disabilities in Art; Apprenticeship Programs;
17. Duckett, P. S. (2000).
Disabling employment interviews: Warfare to work. Disability & Society,
Employment interview research displays a greater concern for refining
employment interviews to benefit employers rather than prospective
employees. The interviewee's perspective is often overlooked. Further,
generally scant attention has been paid to the interview experiences of
disabled interviewees. This study presents findings from a project that
sought to understand disabled interviewees' experiences of employment
interviews. The analysis suggests that such experiences were dominated by
feelings of anxiety and manipulation, especially when contextualized
within contemporary labour market conditions. The need for ethical rather
than technical concerns into employment interviews and how innovations in
interview techniques may be having a negative affect on interviewees was
examined. The study stressed the need to reject victim blaming ideologies
when researching disabled interviewees' experiences of employment
interviews to counter the over emphasis of past research into changing the
disabled person rather than the disabling interview environment.
Employment Interviews; Interview Techniques; Negative
Effects; Anxiety; Manipulation; Labour Market Conditions.
18. Dudley-Marling, C. (2004).
The social construction of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 37(6), 482-489.
Underpinning the technical gaze that dominates learning disabilities
theory and practice is the assumption that learning disabilities are a
pathology that resides in the heads of individual students, with the
corollary that remedial efforts also focus on what goes on in the heads of
students classified as learning disabled. This article begins with a
critique of the ideology of individualism that situates individual success
and failure in the heads of individuals as a means of introducing an
alternative perspective - social constructivism - that locates learning
and learning problems in the context of human relations and activity.
Extended examples are used to illustrate how the performative aspects of
learning disabilities emerge in the context of human relationships. The
primary argument developed here is that one cannot be learning disabled on
one's own. It takes a complex system of interactions performed in just the
right way, at the right time, on the stage we call school to make a
learning disability. The article concludes with a brief consideration of
the instructional implications of a social constructivist stance.
Pathology; Learning Problems; Human Relations;
Constructivism; Learning Disabilities.
19. Dyck, I., & Jongbloed, L.
(2000). Women with multiple sclerosis and employment issues: A focus on
social and institutional environment. Canadian Journal of Occupational
Therapy, 67(5), 337-346.
Examines employment issues for women with multiple sclerosis. Focuses on
experiences of women managing their disability and demonstrates the
importance of the social and institutional dimensions of environment in
shaping occupational performance.
Adults; Disabilities; Employed Women; Females; Occupational
Therapy; Organizational Climate; Work Environment; Multiple Sclerosis.
20. England, K. (2003).
Disabilities, gender and employment: Social exclusion, employment equity
and Canadian banking. The Canadian Geographer, 47(4), 429-450.
Investigates the numerical representation and occupational distribution of
women and men with disabilities compared to their non-disabled
counterparts working in six of Canada's large banking institutions under
the federal government's Employment Equity Act. It accesses the banks'
progress towards identifying and eliminating discriminatory disabling
barriers. Results from the 2001 Employment Equity Report shows the
representation of persons with disabilities declined in 2003, which
continues a declining trend from 1996. Furthermore, of all the designated
groups, people with disabilities have had the least progress under the
Act. The study closes with a discussion on workplace culture and locates
the Act in the context of a broader discussion on the need for a network
of economic and social change that includes challenging ableism.
Accommodation; Disability; Diversity; Workplace Culture;
Employment Equity Act; Numerical Representation; Occupational
Distribution; Banking Institutions; Canada; Discrimination; Employment
21. Fawcett, G. (2000).
Breaking down the barriers: The labour market and women with disabilities
in Ontario. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.
report provides statistics on working-age women with disabilities in
Ontario. It employs quantitative and qualitative research and provides
insights into the complex interplay of factors that create employment
barriers for women with disabilities. While women and men with
disabilities are typically both affected by the same barriers to
employment, they are not always affected to the same degree or in the same
way. Because of both their gender and their disability, women often face a
unique obstacle course when trying to navigate their way through the world
of paid work. Findings show women with disabilities have the lowest rates
of labour force success and one of the highest rates of poverty. This
report comes at a time when programs and policies in Ontario and across
Canada are changing and evolving in response to In Unison, the latest
vision paper for persons with disabilities.
Employment Barriers; Ontario; Working-age Women;
Disabilities; Labour Market; Discrimination; Earnings; Poverty.
22. Ferri, B. A., Hendrick
Keefe, C., & Gregg, N. (2001). Teachers with learning disabilities: A view
from both sides of the desk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(1),
qualitative multi-case study explores the perceptions of individuals who
have experiences from both sides of the special education desk as students
and then as teachers with learning disabilities. The study focused on how
participants' past experiences with receiving special education services
influenced their current practice as special education teachers.
Participants' views on service delivery models, the importance of teacher
expectations, and the value of conceiving a learning disability as a tool
rather than a deficit were discussed.
Special Education; Students with Disabilities; Teachers
with Learning Disabilities; Service Delivery Models; Teacher Expectations.
23. Gates, L. B. (2000).
Workplace accommodation as a social process. Journal of Occupational
Rehabilitation, 10(1), 85-98.
Successful sustained employment for people with disabilities is a function
of a complex array of factors. Key among these factors is appropriate
accommodation at the workplace. Current approaches to accommodation,
however, are often unsuccessful. Research suggests that this is due, in
part, to the limited view of accommodation as technical changes to the
job. An approach to accommodation that does not take into account the
social context ignores the consequences of the process on work group
morale and individual self-esteem and well-being. This has repercussions
for individual job performance, job satisfaction and work retention, as
well as overall work group productivity. An intervention was designed to
take into account the social nature of the accommodation process and pilot
tested with 12 workers who were out on a short term disability leave with
a psychiatric diagnosis and their work groups. Based on a
psychoeducational model, the intervention educates the work group about
what it means to work with a disability, provides a safe environment where
the worker with disability and coworkers can share concerns about the
impact of accommodation on the group, informs about the accommodation
process and specifies strategies to help the worker with disability best
meet job requirements.
Accommodation; Disabilities; Psychoeducation; Employment;
Return to Work; "At Risk".
24. Gerber, P. J., & Price, L.
A. (2003). Persons with learning disabilities in the workplace: What we
know so far in the Americans with Disabilities Act era. Learning
Disabilities: Research & Practice, 18(2), 132-136.
paper synthesizes empirical studies from the past 12 years concerning the
realities of the workplace for adults with learning disabilities (LD).
Employer perspectives address awareness and knowledge, productivity,
training, self-advocacy, and reasonable accommodations. Employee
perspectives cover advocacy, disclosure, self-knowledge, and reasonable
Adult Education; Adults; Civil Rights Legislation; Employee
Attitudes; Employer Attitudes; Employer Employee Relationship; Federal
Legislation; Learning Disabilities; Work Environment Americans with
Disabilities Act 1990; "At Risk".
25. Gerber, P. J., Price, L.
A., Mulligan, R., & Shessel, I. (2004). Beyond transition: A comparison of
the employment experiences of American and Canadian adults with LD.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(4), 283-291.
the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in the United States
and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, there is a new work
environment for individuals with learning disabilities (LD) in North
America. This qualitative study sought to compare the employment
experiences of 25 U.S. adults with LD and 24 Canadian adults with LD.
Areas of comparison were job getting, experiences on the job, and job
advancement. Remarkably, the U. S. and Canadian adults with LD had nearly
the same employment experiences. In essence, each set of data mirrored the
other despite marked differences in U.S. and Canadian federal disability
Work Environment; Employment Experience; Learning
Disabilities; Accessibility; Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; North
America; United States.
26. Gosling, V., & Cotterill,
L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people
with learning difficulties? Disability & Society, 15(7), 1001-1018.
Government policy to reduce social exclusion focuses on increasing
employment opportunities and incentives, especially for disadvantaged
groups. This paper evaluates a project in the North West of England for
people with learning difficulties which sought to create opportunities for
paid and/or integrated employment. Findings suggest that this goal can be
undermined by many factors such as the isolation of social care services
from employers and the disinclination of service organizations to include
users, carers and staff in the development of new service approaches.
Social welfare policies also mitigate against this aim, by failing to
enable providers to translate the rhetoric of social inclusion into a
reality. It concludes by discussing some obstacles that prevent people
with learning difficulties from inclusion into mainstream employment and
the overall impact of these results on the North West project.
Social Exclusion; Disabled People; England; Paid
Employment; Learning Difficulties; Social Welfare Policies.
27. Grover, C., & Piggott, L.
(2005). Disabled people, the reserve army of labour and welfare reform.
Disability & Society, 20(7), 705-717.
Explaining why in contemporary society there has been many changes to
income maintenance and labour market policy for disabled people. From a
regulation approach theoretical framework. This article focuses on the
debate over whether disabled people can be considered part of the reserve
army of labour. Rejecting approaches that suggest that all disabled people
are part of the reserve army, it contends that the policy changes have
been aimed at reconstructing unemployed disabled people as an important
part of the reserve army at a time when labour markets are becoming
tighter. Disabled people are seen to be crucial to New Labour's regulation
of neo-liberal accumulation.
Disabilities; Disabled (Attitudes Toward); Employment
Status; Government Policy Making; Welfare Services (Government); Income
Level; Supported Employment; "At Risk".
28. Hall, E. (1999).
Workspaces: Refiguring the disability - employment debate. In R. Butler &
H. Parr (Eds.), Mind and body spaces: Geographies of illness, impairment
and disability (pp. 138-154). New York: Routledge.
refigures the disability employment debate, introducing an idea of
embodiment into discussions that previously focused on either the medical
or social model of disability. He argues that we need an approach to
disability that allows the everyday experiences of disabled people in. He
says disability is not exclusively an individual pathology nor a socially
constructed concept. Using McDowell (1994) and Hochschild (1983)'s studies
of body normalization, and codes and rules of the body in employment, Hall
studies a major high-street banking company, and specifically one woman
experience, to illustrate the value of an embodied approach. Hall draws
three key issues from the case study discussion: Employment has real
effects on the employee's body and the body then has real effects on
employment, these interactions and expectations take place within a
framework of rules, codes, and performance about which bodies are
acceptable and which aren't, and employment operates within certain work
spaces, and employees work out their position and identity within these
spaces. According to Hall the relationship between the body and work in
space lies at the heart of the disability-employment relationship.
Body; Disability; Work.
29. Howard, M. (Ed.). (2002).
Not just the job. Report of a working group on disabled people using
personal assistance and work incentives. York; North Yorkshire: Joseph
book involves an examination of the issues around work incentives for
disabled people using personal assistance and around charging for support
packages. This book examines issues around work incentives and charging
for support packages in the light of new guidance to social services
authorities. Drawing on the experience of a working group, set up by the
Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the National Centre for Independent Living and
the Disability Rights Commission, the author examines the context within
which organisations like the Independent Living Fund and social services
departments calculate an individual’s financial contribution towards their
support package. The book looks at the impact on the individual, as well
as specific barriers to work faced by personal assistance users, including
negative assumptions about disability and work. A key objective considered
by the working group was a ‘level playing field’ between those who use
assistance and those who do not. The book explores the principles that the
group felt flowed from this objective and against which policy options
could be measured.
Disabled Workers; "At Risk".
30. Jolly, D. (2000). A
critical evaluation of the contradictions for disabled workers arising
from the emergence of the flexible labour market in Britain. Disability &
Society, 15(5), 795-810.
Britain, as in all industrialized countries “paid work” or employment is
central to the economy of the state. This perspective raises important
implications for theories of disability and work and for further research
in this area. This paper attempts to provide a critical evaluation of the
contradictions arising from the flexible labour market for disabled
workers and how the concept of the Disabled State has been eroded along
with notions of disabled people as the “deserving poor”'. Policies now
demonstrate a commitment to a labour market free from restrictive
practices and regulation. It appears that new technologies and specific
personal communication skills, initiative, flexibility and adaptability
will play an increasing part in new labour working trends. In short,
theories of disability and work must change focus from “production” to
Workers with Disabilities; Labour Market; Britain;
'Deserving Poor'; New Technologies.
31. Jongbloed, L. (2003).
Disability policy in Canada: An overview. Journal of Policy Studies,
the last century there has been a shift from conceptualizing disability as
a challenge to law and order to viewing disability as a medical and/or
economic deficit and then as a socio-political issue. In Canada, these
changing conceptualizations of disability have been reflected in the
development of disability policies, which form part of general Canadian
social policies. Each model of disability captures a particular aspect of
disability and focuses on particular goals and each depicts a different
account of what society owes people with disabilities. However, the lack
of linkages between the models and their conceptual bases means that no
one model can be used to guide disability policy development. Decision
making about the goals of disability policy and the rights of people with
disabilities requires the development of a normative foundation.
Disability; Social Policies; Canada; People with
32. Kerka, S. (2002). Learning
disabilities and career development. Washington, DC: Office of Educational
Research and Improvement (ED).
lifelong process of career development poses special challenges for people
with learning disabilities (LD). Literature on employment issues for
adults with LD frames on-the-job problems in terms of individual deficits
or recasts the issues as a function of the significant societal barriers
faced by those who do not fit the norm. Research on high school and
college students with LD shows a multifaceted career development program
is needed. Many lacked clear understanding of their disability and its
impact on career choices and ability to perform a job; many youth with LD
had unrealistic or no career ambitions; and a large number were not
actively engaged in career development and believed they had little
control over career decision making. A model for career success of adults
with LD is comprised of these seven factors: internal decisions (powerful
desire to succeed, clear sense of goal orientation, reframing the LD
experience) and external manifestations (persistence, goodness of fit,
learned creativity, social network providing support). Practices to assist
persons with LD gain and maintain employment are accurate self knowledge;
world-of-work knowledge; self-efficacy enhancement; self-advocacy skills;
job search skills; and development of personal qualities. Programs
illustrating them are Pathways to Satisfaction; Fashion Institute of
Technology career development support for students with LD; and Life
Development Institute's SCANS-based transition-to-postsecondary program.
Adult Education; Career Choice; Career Development;
Colleges; Demonstration Programs; Education Work Relationship; Employment;
Goal Orientation; High Schools; Higher Education; Learning Disabilities;
Models; Occupational Aspiration; Program Descriptions; Program
Development; Self Concept; Self Evaluation; Self Management; Social
Support Groups; Tenure.
33. Kilsby, M. S., & Beyer, S.
(2002). Enhancing self-determination in job matching in supported
employment for people with learning disabilities: An intervention study.
Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17(2), 125-135.
study examines effectiveness of interventions aimed to assist job seekers
with mental retardation to increase vocational choices. Results indicate
possibility for increased vocational choices through short, even a 1-day
Job Search; Learning Disabilities; Mental Retardation; Self
Determination; Supported Employment; Coaches; Occupational Choice; "At
34. Klinger, M. G. M. (2002).
Organizational culture and people with disabilities. Disability Studies
Quarterly, 22(1), 21-25.
Klinger's article applies identifies two reasons why we have not solved
the problem of diversity in the workplace specifically to people with
disabilities: perceptual and attitudinal barriers (stereotyping, fear),
and employers perceive a legal barrier (does hiring a person with a
disability mean she can never be fired?). According to Klinger, in the
workplace people with disabilities often need better qualifications than
people without disabilities to achieve comparable employment. Klinger
offers recommendations for how to counteract perceptual barriers. She
suggests educational internships as a way to produce cultural change. More
broadly she calls for employers to accept the burden of "fitting in,"
rather than the new employee.
Disability; Diversity; Organizational Culture.
35. Krahn, H.,
Derwing, T., & Wilkinson, L. (2000). Educated and underemployed:
Refugee integration into the Canadian labour market. International Journal
of Migration Review, 1(1), 59-84.
study explores issues of access to high-status occupations in the Canadian
labor market, with particular emphasis on refugees who were in
professional or managerial positions prior to their arrival in Canada. The
study is based on interviews with a sample of 525 adult refugees who were
initially resettled in the province of Alberta between 1992 & 1997. About
two thirds of the respondents came from the former Yugoslavia, the
remainder from countries in the Middle East, Central America, Africa, &
Southeast Asia. Despite the generally high educational attainment of these
refuges, the results show that they experience much higher rates of
unemployment, part-time employment, & temporary employment than do
Canadian-born individuals. A variety of structural factors operating in a
segmented Canadian labor market help to explain the downward mobility of
these highly qualified refugees. The policy implications of these results
are examined in detail.
Canada; Alberta; Labor Market; Refugees; Underemployment;
Employment Opportunities; Occupational Mobility; Labor Market
36. Lee, C. M. (2005).
Evolution. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 182.
this article the author shares his personal experiences beginning in early
childhood with his own learning disabilities. As an adult with learning
disabilities, he describes how he has learned to manage his language and
memory barriers through assistive technology and outside support, and he
nourishes himself through therapy or simply surrounding himself with
family and friends who understand his innovative use of language. Shortly
after graduating from college, he developed a personal action plan that
came to include standard tools, modifications and accommodations of task
and expectations, and assistive technology. Today, individuals with
disabilities have access to assistive technology through legislation,
including the Assistive Technology Act of 1998. This law affirms that
technology is a valuable tool for improving the lives of Americans with
disabilities. It also affirms the federal role in funding and promoting
access to assistive technology devices and services for individuals with
disabilities. Neuropsychologists today are helping to provide answers to
cognition. Over time, this information will slowly funnel its way into
academic and employment settings. The landscape of the brain is one of the
most important areas of training for individuals with learning
disabilities, parents, service providers, and employers. Through such
newfound research and understanding, the field of learning disabilities
will evolve to new heights in providing services and teaching students and
employees. As more specifics on the workings of the brain emerge, a shift
in education will occur, which will help define and unify the voices of
individuals with learning disabilities.
Coping; Assistive Technology; Special Education; Personal
Narratives; Learning Disabilities; Federal Aid; Brain; Cognitive
Processes; Memory; Federal Legislation; Education for All; Handicapped
Children Act; "At Risk".
37. Madous, J. W., Foley, T.
E., McGuire, J. M., & Ruban, L. M. (2002). Employment self-disclosure of
postsecondary graduates with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 35(4), 364-369.
One hundred and
thirty-two graduates with learning disabilities (LD) of a large public
competitive postsecondary institution were surveyed to determine if they
had self-disclosed their LD to their current employer and to provide the
reasons for choosing to self-disclose or not to self-disclose. Based on a
response rate of 67.4%, the results indicated that 86.5% of the
respondents were employed full-time. While nearly 90% of the respondents
stated that their LD affected their work in some way, only 30.3%
self-disclosed to their employer. Of those who had not self-disclosed, the
majority reported that there was no reason or need to self-disclose.
However, 46.1% reported not self-disclosing due to fear of a potentially
negative impact in the workplace or due to a concern for job security. The
results indicate that specific rationales for disclosure and the use of
accommodations and strategies are used by disabled workers.
Post-secondary Graduates; Learning Disabilities;
Self-disclosure; Job Security; Workplace Discrimination; Accommodations.
38. Magee, W. (2004). Effects
of illness and disability on job separation. Social Science & Medicine,
Effects of illness and disability on job separation result from both
voluntary and involuntary processes. Voluntary processes range from the
reasoned actions of workers who weigh illness and disability in their
decision-making, to reactive stress-avoidance responses. Involuntary
processes include employer discrimination against ill or disabled workers.
Analyses of the effects of illness and disability that differentiate
reasons for job separation can illuminate the processes involved. This
paper reports on an evaluation of effects of illness and disability on job
separation predicted by theories of reasoned action, stress and employer
discrimination against ill and disabled workers. Effects of four
illness/disability conditions on the rate of job separation for 12 reasons
are estimated using data from a longitudinal study of a representative
sample of the Canadian population - the Survey of Labour and Income
Dynamics (SLID). Two of the four effects that are statistically
significant (under conservative Bayesian criteria for statistical
significance) are consistent with the idea that workers weigh illness and
disability as costs and calculate the costs and benefits of continuing to
work with an illness or disability: (1) disabling illness increases the
hazard of leaving a job in order to engage in caregiving, and (2)
work-related disability increases the hazard of leaving a job due to poor
pay. The other two significant effects indicate that: (3) disabling
illness decreases the hazard of layoff, and (4) non-work disability
increases the hazard of leaving one job to take a different job. This last
effect is consistent with a stress-interruption process. Other effects are
statistically significant under conventional criteria for statistical
significance, and most of these effects are also consistent with
cost-benefit and stress theories. Some effects of illness and disability
are sex and age-specific and reasons for the specificity of these effects
Health Selection; Canada; Employer Discrimination; Job
Separation; Labour Force Participation; Disability; Illness Behaviour;
39. Mason, M. G. (2004).
Working against odds: Stories of disabled women's work lives. Boston:
Northeastern University Press.
conducts an ethnographic study of 18 disabled women's relationships with
work. She organizes the narratives under three chapter headings: the way
we see ourselves, containing stories about integration, body image,
identity and dependency; the way the world sees us, with stories about
marginalization, "passing", and social constructions of disability; and
the way we work, with stories about discrimination and strategies for
self-sufficiency. Other themes addressed include confronting social
marginalization, integration, claiming disability, coming to terms with
the need for having caregivers, dealing with discrimination, and living in
Accommodation; Attitudes; Disability; Organizational
40. McAlpine, D., D., &
Warner, L. (2002). Barriers to employment among persons with mental
illness: A review of the literature. Minneapolis: Rutgers State
is a strong relationship between mental illness and work-related
disability. Psychiatric illnesses comprise the largest diagnostic category
among working-aged adults who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
or Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Moreover, many persons
with disabilities related to other general medical conditions also have
psychiatric co-morbidities that complicate return to work. Yet, while it
is clear that mental illness is associated with difficulties in vocational
preparation, work entry, and continued employment, many persons with such
conditions are able to secure and maintain employment. This review seeks
to summarize what is known about barriers to work that may explain why
some persons with mental illness and significant symptoms experience a
work-related disability, while others do not. Additionally,
characteristics of vocational programs that are associated with return to
work among persons with psychiatric conditions are examined. The review
summarizes what is known about barriers to employment in four areas: a)
illness characteristics; b) client characteristics; c) access to services
and mental health treatment; and d) characteristics of workplace and
labour market. It is argued that there is a need for more general
population studies considering how these barriers shape work-disability
among persons with primary and co-morbid psychiatric conditions.
Work-related Barriers; United States; Employment; Persons
with Mental Illness; Literature Review.
41. Perry, D. A. (Ed.).
(2004). Moving forward: Toward decent work for people with disabilities
examples of good practices in vocational training and employment from Asia
and the Pacific. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
volume offers policymakers, people with disabilities and especially
service providers in Asia and the Pacific with examples of good practices
related to various aspects of vocational training and employment. While
each country needs to and should adopt policies based on equal
opportunities and inclusion, this book primarily addresses practices.
However, several of the examples demonstrate how national legislation,
policies and government funding are needed to create an environment in
which effective practices can flourish.
Disability Studies; Asia; Vocational Education; Government
Policy; "At Risk".
42. Price, L., Gerber, P. J.,
& Mulligan, R. (2003). The Americans with Disabilities Act and adults with
learning disabilities employees: The realities of the workplace. Remedial
and Special Education, 24(6), 350-358.
Twenty-five adults with learning disabilities were queried to examine
their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Results suggest that Title 1 of
the ADA is underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the
workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare and reasonable
accommodations were infrequently used.
Adults; Civil Rights Legislation; Compliance; Employee
Attitudes; Employees; Learning Disabilities; Self Disclosure; Work
Environment; Americans with Disabilities Act 1990.
43. Riddell, S., Baron, S., &
Wilson, A. (2001). The significance of the learning society for women and
men with learning difficulties. Gender and Education, 13(1), 57-73.
project, "The Meaning of the Learning Society for Adults with Learning
Difficulties," focused on lifelong learning opportunities available to
people with learning difficulties & experiences of these services. The
article begins by examining theories of late modernity, their use by
feminist & disability studies theorists, & their relationship to ideas of
a learning society. Using case study material, it is argued that the
identities of people with learning difficulties are not chosen freely from
a range of options but are socially ascribed. The status of learning
difficulties is used as a dominant category to justify deprivation of
basic political & economic rights. In addition, the lives of people with
learning difficulties are structured by gender & class, & these intersect
with the category of learning difficulties. For women & men, advantages of
middle-class social & economic capital are overridden by the negative
category of learning difficulties. In relation to gender, men with
learning difficulties are more likely to receive post-school training, but
in inappropriate areas of the labor market. Their domestic needs are also
likely to be attended to by others, but in the absence of employment, they
find themselves without any valued social role. Women with learning
difficulties are also likely to be excluded from the labor market, but are
more likely to be involved in reciprocal, albeit limited, social
relationships. It is concluded that postmodernist theories are inadequate
to describe the structuring of the lives of people with learning
Learning Disabilities; Social Class; Social Identity;
Disadvantaged; Sex Differences; Social Closure; Social Inequality;
Postmodernism; Theoretical Problems; Scotland; "At Risk".
44. Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2002).
Sociocultural contexts of learning among adults with disabilities. New
Directions for Adult and Continuing Education(96), 47-57.
sociocultural constructs of race, class, and gender combined with
disability create a powerful influence on education and work for adults
with disabilities. The emergence of disability studies, rights, and
culture challenges adult educators to consider the sociocultural
implications of disability.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Civil Rights; Cultural
Context; Disabilities; Race; Sex; Social Class; Sociocultural Patterns.
45. Roulstone, A. (2002).
Disabling pasts, enabling futures? How does the changing nature of
capitalism impact on the disabled worker and job seeker? Disability &
Society, 17(6), 627-642.
Disability scholars have invested much in a stage theory of capitalism,
which affords little scope for disabled workers and job seekers this side
of Socialism. Parallel discussions of choices and empowerment rarely
penetrates the world of paid employment. Mainstream policy writers
meanwhile have been concerned with an atheoretical appraisal of enhancing
access to an retention of employment. Neither approach has entered into an
examination of the changing nature of employment and the impact of wider
relationship between state and capitalism. In this way, the important
shift to new social movements in progressing identity and social rights
may have overlooked the monumental, but not irreversible loss of power in
the enabling state and of old social movements. The article offers a
starting point in our understanding of the changing nature of employment,
its likely impact on disabled people, whilst asking for a reappraisal of
the possible links between old and new social movements.
Employment Trends; Capitalism; Paid Employment;
Disabilities; Social Movements.
46. Russell, M. (2002). What
disability civil rights cannot do: Employment and political economy.
Disability & Society, 17(2), 117-135.
study examines the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and claims it is
both a liberal civil rights bill and a labour economics bill meant to
increase the employment of disabled persons. The study suggests that the
source of unemployment is in discriminatory attitudes of employers and
physical barriers in the work environment. It suggests an inclusive
society could be achieved for disabled people through regulations that
create ”equal opportunity” in the labour market. It argues that at
present, liberal reforms primarily focus on ”irrational” discriminatory
attitudes and operates within an individualist framework. Furthermore, it
maintains that civil rights legislation has not given sufficient attention
to structural barriers, which ”rational” business practices and the
economic system and class power relationships erect. This study examines
the micro and macro-economic realities of U.S. capitalism, which directly
impedes on disabled peoples' employment and perpetuates a disabling
society. It concludes by maintaining that the failure of rights
legislation to increase disabled people's employment, exposes the
contradictions in promoting equal opportunity in a class-based unequal
Political Economy; Disabilities; Employment; Unemployment;
Discrimination; Physical Barriers; Work Environments; Equal Opportunities.
47. Sapey, B. (2004).
Disability and social exclusion in the information society. In J. Swain,
S. French, C. Barnes & C. Thomas (Eds.), Disabling Barriers-Enabling
Environments (pp. 273-278). London: SAGE.
paper discusses the social model of disability as a process of
marginalization, oppression, discrimination and exclusion. It views
disability as a product of industrialization and claims the very specific
demands of a new form of economy led to the construction of particular
social responses to impairment, notably a hegemony of care and
segregation. The purpose of this paper is to consider whether this
particular process of disablement will continue within the information
economy that began to emerge over the last quarter of the twentieth
century or whether the process of exclusion will take another form.
Social Model of Disability; Industrialization; Processes of
Marginalization; Segregation; Information Economy; Social Exclusion.
K., Schartz, H. A., & Blanck, P. D. (2002). Employment of persons
with disabilities in information technology jobs: Literature review for
"IT works". Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 20, 637-657.
article reviews relevant literature as to the labour pool of qualified
individuals with disabilities and employment in information technology
(IT) sector jobs. First, the article reviews the empirical literature on
barriers to employment in IT for persons with disabilities. The
examination then is extended to studies of barriers to employment for
individuals with disabilities in other employment sectors. Findings
illustrate the limited experiences that IT and non-IT companies have in
employment and accommodating employees with disabilities. Implications are
discussed for enhancing the employment of qualified workers with
disabilities in IT through research, education, training, and mentoring
Individuals with Disabilities; United States; Employment;
Information Technology; Literature Review; Education; Training; Mentoring
49. Schur, L.,
Kruse, D., & Blanck, P. (2005). Corporate culture and the
employment of persons with disabilities. Behavioral Sciences and the Law,
authors explore political implications for companies that want to create a
more inclusive environment for people with disabilities. The authors
explored theoretical models of treatment and attitudes toward employees
with disabilities, strategies disabled employees use to shape expectations
in the workforce, and the effects of organizational structures (values,
practices) on the treatment of disabled employees. Shur and colleagues
found that in the area of analyzing corporate culture and disability
little work has been done, few definitive hypotheses exist, and little is
known about the nature of the phenomenon. They identified specific areas
for future study, including: collecting data in actual workplace settings;
using multiple modes of analysis; conducting longitudinal and detailed
case studies; and involving people with disabilities in all stages of the
research process (e.g. participatory action research). They identify steps
organizations can take to fully incorporate people with disabilities into
organizational life, e.g. increase autonomy, review HR policies, etc.
Attitudes; Corporate Culture; Disability; Methods;
Organizational Learning; Work.
50. Schur, L. A. (2002). Dead
end jobs or a path to economic well being? The consequences of
non-standard work among people with disabilities. Behavioral Sciences and
the Law, 20, 601-620.
study uses data from the Current Population Survey, the Survey of Income
and Program Participation, and the Lexis search of legal cases. The data
reveals that temporary employment, independent contracting, and part-time
employment are almost twice as likely among workers with disabilities than
those without disabilities. Non-standard workers with disabilities receive
lower pay and few benefits due to the types of job they hold and the
disability gaps within job types, which contributes to their high poverty
rates. The study found disabled workers will continue to have high poverty
rates even if these pay gaps are eliminated, because they work fewer hours
than non-standard workers without disabilities and are concentrated in
lower-paying jobs. In attempting to improve their opportunities through
disability lawsuits, non-standard workers prevail in only a small minority
of cases. The study concludes by discussing several policy implications
from the lawsuits.
Temporary Employment; Independent Contracting; Part-time
Employment; Non-standard Workers; Workers with Disabilities; Low Earnings;
51. Skrtic, T. M. (2005). A
political economy of learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly,
article begins by reviewing the author's work on the social construction
and representation of school failure as student disability an on the
reconstruction of special education and public education to avoid the need
for such representations. In the remaining sections, he identifies several
trends in education and society and, by linking them, recommends that the
field of learning disabilities join the struggle to create a strong
democratic future for students and communities, a project that involves
transforming education and American democracy itself and begins with a
transformation of professionalism in education and special education.
Special Education; Public Education; Democracy; Learning
Disabilities; Academic Failure; Educational History; Politics of
52. Spataro, S. E. (2005).
Diversity in context: How organizational culture shapes reactions to
workers with disabilities and others who are demographically different.
Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 21-38.
article considers how an organization's culture affects the work
experiences of employees who are different from the majority.
Specifically, the author looks at values comprising an organization's
culture to advance understanding of when and where incorporation of
workers with disabilities and workers who are demographically different
may have a positive impact on organizations. The author offers a model of
the effects of greater diversity among employees in organizations and
reviews organizational culture according to five dimensions: definition of
diversity, emphasis on differences, social interaction process, reactions
to policy, and general implications for diversity. Distinguishing between
three types of organizational culture: culture of differentiation, culture
of unity, and culture of integration, she highlights considerations for
managers hoping to create a more productive, and inclusive workplace
environment. She recommends workers with disabilities assess the cultural
system at a potential employer's organization to get a sense of the
likelihood of success within that work environment.
Disability; Diversity; Organizational Culture.
53. Stapleton, D. C., &
Burkhauser, R. V. (Eds.). (2003). The decline in employment of people with
disabilities: A policy puzzle. Washington, DC: National Institute on
Disability and Rehabilitation Research.
book includes revised presentations from an October 2001 meeting of the
National Institute for Disability and Rehabilitation Research and the
Cornell Rehabilitation Research and Training Center that considered the
validity of current data for measuring trends in the employment rate of
people with disabilities and investigated the causes and consequences of
the declining rate of employment shown in the data.
Assistive Technology; Attitudes toward Disabilities;
Chronic Illness; Data Interpretation; Demography; Disabilities; Disability
Discrimination; Employment Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Employment
Statistics; Health Care Costs; Health Insurance; Labor Market; Policy
Analysis; Policy Formation; Research Problems; Supported Employment; Trend
Analysis; Validity; Work Environment; Americans with Disabilities Act
1990; Medicaid; Medicare; Social Security; Disability; Insurance.
54. Stephens, D. L., Collins,
M. D., & Dodder, R. A. (2005). A longitudinal study of employment and
skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.
Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal,
Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in
1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities
and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well
documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often
experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and
maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make
employment more successful.
Employment Level; Vocational Rehabilitation; Supported
Employment; Human Services; Developmental Disabilities; Longitudinal
Studies; Skill Development; Job Skills; Americans with Disabilities Act
55. Stern, D. (2002). Building
the bridge between community college and work for students with learning
disabilities. Perspective, 28(2), 17-20.
paper presents information to assist students with learning disabilities
(LD), counselors, and employers in building a bridge between community
college and employment. It argues that students must learn to articulate
how their LD affects them in a variety of situations, especially those
requiring learning and performing work related tasks. Information is then
provided on: (1) what students with LD need to know about themselves; (2)
questions that can aid teachers, counselors, and parents in identifying
the functional impact of a learning disability; (3) a three-step process
for determining the need for and type of accommodations a student may
require in the type of work he or she is interested in seeking; (4) the
importance of disability laws and requirements under the Americans with
Disabilities Act; (5) tips for employers; (6) types of questions students
should ask in preparing for a job interview; (7) questions students should
ask in identifying barriers and accommodations early in employment
situations; (8) deciding whether to disclose a disability; (9) interview
tips for students with LD; (10) legal and illegal interview questions;
(11) fact-finding questions students should ask of the employer during a
job interview; and (12) job retention for students with LD.
Career Planning; Civil Rights Legislation; Community
Colleges; Disabilities; Education Work Relationship; Employer Employee
Relationship; Employment; Employment Interviews; Federal Legislation;
Higher Education; Job Search Methods; Legal Responsibility; Postsecondary
Education; Self Advocacy; Transitional Programs; Americans with
Disabilities Act 1990; Reasonable Accommodation; Disabilities.
56. Steward, B. (2000). Fit to
telework: The changing meaning of fitness in new forms of employment.
Advances in Physiotherapy, 2(103-111).
study looks at concepts of fitness based on the notion of an ideal body
through medical and social definitions of the body's fit with employment
demands. However with the advent of new forms of computer-based work done
outside the centralized office, conventional definitions of fitness are
changing. This study looks at teleworkers' experiences of work and health
and suggests that home-based computer work changes the experiences and
definition of fitness at work. Teleworkers appear not to recognize
conventional criteria by which symptoms are defined as illness and so
continue working when previously they would have taken sickness leave. As
employee/employer relationships change and labour markets become more
uncertain, teleworkers also appear to mask illnesses in fear of losing
their jobs. These responses result in them working longer into illness and
returning sooner in convalescence. Also, when illness is identified,
teleworkers work very long hours and take less time off work to compensate
for low outputs of work. Reasons for this shift towards containment and
masking are examined and the implications for therapists in relation to
public health and rehabilitation.
Telework; Disability; Employment and Health.
57. Titchkosky, T. (2003).
Disability, self, and society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
book is written by a teacher who has dyslexia. She discusses her
experiences with dyslexia at work and in her personal life which is shared
with her mate who is a blind sociologist/teacher. This book attends to the
cultural processes of meaning-making surrounding disability. The lived
experiences of both characters in this book provides a deeper
understanding of the response of disability in society and its cultural
Teachers; Disability; Employment Experiences; Cultural
58. White, L. F. (2002).
Learning disability, pedagogies, and public discourse. College Composition
and Communication, 53(4), 705-738.
Analyzes the public and professional discourse of learning disability,
arguing that medical models of literacy misdirect teaching by narrowing
its focus to remediation. Considers how resurgent demands for behaviorist
pedagogies make understanding their continuing appeal important to
composition studies. Discusses implications for the college writing
Educational Improvement; Higher Education; Learning
Disabilities; Literacy; Models; Politics of Education; Remedial Programs;
59. Wilton, R. (2004). From
flexibility to accommodation: Disabled workers and the reinvention of paid
work. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers (New Series), 29,
article reports on a qualitative case study with disabled workers in
Hamilton, Ontario. He explores the extent to which disabled workers can
exercise control in their work environments and labour processes.
Unpacking the assumption that employment means liberation from state
dependence, he considers how paid work constitutes a site for disciplining
of disabled bodies/minds in contemporary society. Wilton identified three
themes that characterized work experiences: training and multi-tasking,
speed of labour process, and emotional and aesthetic labour. Wilton found
respondents' frequent lack of control made obtaining accommodation at work
a challenge. Respondents evaluated themselves according to embodied
ideals: speed, adaptation, emotional management. Many respondents were
faced with a double bind: request accommodation and risk getting labeled a
“problem worker,“ or fail to meet performance norms and risk getting
labeled a “bad worker”. Withholding an accommodation request allowed
workers to forge a “normal”' identity, but they risked disadvantage in a
labour process modeled on a non-disabled norm. Making an accommodation
request might improve a worker's labour process, but they risked getting
labeled a recipient of 'special treatment' or provoking disciplinary
reactions from supervisors, coworkers, or themselves. Wilton concludes, it
is in employers' interests to ensure that accommodation remains
constructed as a form of “special treatment” for a minority population
precisely because it threatens to disrupt existing labour processes and
organizational cultures. He recommends we critically assess the value
placed on employment, recognize diversity, and move from flexibility to
Accommodation; Attitudes; Disability; Organizational
60. Wonacott, M., E. (2003).
Employment of people with disabilities. Washington, DC: Office of
Educational Research and Improvement.
book discusses application of the ADA's 'triple standard' of reasonable
accommodations for performing essential job functions without undue
hardship. The goal is to match jobs to individual abilities. Ten years
after the ADA's passage, workers with disabilities are older, work fewer
hours and are more likely to be single and less likely to have a college
degree. They are still disproportionately represented in low-growth,
low-wage occupations. Under ADA, the individual has the right to choose
when or whether to disclose his or her disability or related information,
but employers cannot be expected to provide reasonable accommodation for
an undisclosed disability. Job seekers are advised to script and rehearse
disclosure, minimizing medical terms, omitting medical treatment history
and describing the disability briefly with stress on strengths and
willingness to improve and ability to perform with or without
accommodations. Reasonable accommodations range from simple to complex and
cheap to expensive; information on them is available from many sources,
including websites. The text concludes by arguing for strengthened
mechanisms to help workers with disabilities and employers find
appropriate matches between jobs and skills.
Assistive Technology; United States; Disabilities;
Discrimination; Employment Practices; Equal Opportunities; Job Applicants;
Self-disclosure; Adult Education; Employment Patterns; Salary; Labour
Policy; Federal Legislation.
61. Wooten, L.
P., & James, E. H. (2005). Challenges of organizational learning:
Perpetuation of discrimination against employees with disabilities.
Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 123-141.
a multi-case study using newspaper accounts of disability discrimination
in the workplace, the authors explore why organizations do not comply with
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which prohibits
discrimination against workers with disabilities. The authors contend that
failures in eliminating disability discrimination reflect difficulties in
organizational learning. Wooten and James identify five learning barriers:
discriminatory organizational routines, organizational defense routes,
reliance on reactive learning, Window dressing, and Lack of vicarious
learning. The authors recommend leadership adopt a proactive stance;
organizations take responsibility for learning how to comply with the ADA;
stop window dressing to appear disability friendly; engage in reactive,
reflective and vicarious learning to develop effective routines that
prevent discrimination; and consider the organizational culture that
values and encourages fair treatment of employees with disabilities.
Disability; Organizational Learning; Work.
62. Wright, A.-M. (2006).
Provision for students with learning difficulties in general colleges of
further education: Have we been going round in circles? British Journal of
Special Education, 33(1), 33-39.
this article, Anne-Marie Wright, lecturer at the University of Chester,
considers the current situation for students with severe learning
difficulties in general colleges of further education. She presents
findings from a critical review of the literature and a small-scale
preliminary investigation which set out to explore the idea that, despite
radical changes to the special school sector and to the structure and
organisation of further education, provision in colleges of further
education for these students is poorly focused. Students with severe
learning difficulties experience provision that is, at best, circuitous
and repetitive and that, at worst, leads individuals back into dependence,
unemployment and social segregation. Using the outcomes of her own
interviews and the scrutiny of inspection reports, Anne-Marie Wright
provides a searching critique of current practice and an interesting set
of recommendations for ways in which the situation could be radically
reviewed and improved.
Learning Problems; Literature Reviews; College Students;
Attitudes toward Disabilities; Special Needs Students; Inclusive Schools;
Foreign Countries; Criticism; Outcomes of Education; United Kingdom.