and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Other Topics in
Learning and Work
Technological Change, Learning and Work
1. Abbott, L.
(2005). The nature of authentic professional development
during curriculum-based telecomputing. Journal of Research
on Technology in Education, 37(4), 379-398.
do teachers learn about their teaching when their students engage in
curriculum-based online learning projects? This qualitative study explores
beliefs about on-the-job, profession-related learning - or "authentic
professional development" - among eight teachers whose students
participated in educational projects hosted by five well-established
programs: The Electronic Emissary, iEARN, KidLink, ThinkQuest, and
ThinkQuest Jr. Telecomputing alone does not change teachers' teaching
styles. Instead, teachers who are innovative, inquiry based, and student
centered may find telecomputing to be a useful tool for helping their
students become more confident, self-directed learners.
Teaching Styles; Professional Development; Online Courses;
Beliefs; Teacher Attitudes.
2. Baldoz, R.,
Koeber, C., & Kraft, P. (Eds.). (2001). The critical study of
work: Labor, technology, and global production. Philadelphia: Temple
book is a compilation of essays "inspired by" a 1998 conference called
"Work, Difference, and Social Change: Two Decades after Braverman's Labor
Supply and Monopoly Capital" that was organized by Baldoz (sociology,
Univ. of Hawaii), Charles Koeber (sociology, Wichita State Univ.), and
Philip Kraft (sociology, SUNY at Binghamton), challenges the reality of
globalization in the workplace. The book is comprised of four parts - "The
Global Perspective: Continuity and Change," "Service and Service Sector
Workers," "Production and Industrial Workers," and "Professional and
Technical Workers" - with two or more essays in each part.
Working Class; History; 20th Century; Work Environment;
Technological Innovations; Work and Learning.
3. Beckett, D., Agashae, Z., &
Oliver, V. (2002). Just-in-time training: Techne meets phronesis.
Journal of Workplace Learning, 114(8), 332-339.
software and driven by internal budgets, managers' "just-in-time" is
emerging as an interesting aspect of workplace learning, not least because
it provokes re-consideration of adult learning, and perhaps of educative
Just-in-Time; Training; Management Development; Workplace
4. Braundy, M., O'Riley, P.,
Petrina, S., Dalley, S., & Paxton, A. (2000). Missing XX chromosomes or
gender in/equity in design and technology education? The case of British
Columbia. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 37(3), 54-92.
Presents data demonstrating the disproportionately low numbers of female
technology teachers, teacher educators, and students in British Columbia.
Discusses recruiting inequities, history of gendering in industrial
technology classrooms, and resistance to gender-specific interventions.
Outlines a technology education curriculum for all students.
Design; Enrollment; Foreign Countries; Higher Education;
Secondary Education; Sex Discrimination; Sex Fairness; Student
Recruitment; Teacher Education; Teacher Recruitment; Technology Education;
Work and Learning.
5. Carr, M. (2001). Let me
count the ways. Analyzing the relationship between the learner and
everyday technology in early childhood. Research in Science Education,
Outlines four ways in which the relationship between the learner and
everyday technology might be analyzed using early childhood studies as
examples. The four individual-technology relationships are described as
affording, anchoring, distributing, and appropriating.
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Higher Education; Learning
Theories; Science and Society; Science Education; Technological Literacy;
Technology Education; Work and Learning.
6. Clark, K. (2003). Using
self-directed learning communities to bridge the digital divide.
British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5), 663-665.
article describes the role played by self-directed learning communities to
bridge the digital divide between those who have access to new information
technologies and those who are not able to access the information. In
terms of education digital equity means ensuring that every student has
equitable access to advanced technologies, communication and information
resources, and the learning experiences they provide. Research on the
digital divide or digital equity is diffuse and typically appears in three
forms: policy studies, theoretical considerations and societal impacts,
and examination of patterns of use, on-line content, and the expressed
needs. Given the lack of digital divide research solely dedicated to
pedagogy, researchers should begin to examine the application of the
lifelong learning framework in informal learning environments.
Self-directed Learning; Digital Divide; Information
Technologies; Learning Environments; Information Resources; Learning
Experiences; Lifelong Learning.
7. Clark, K. (2005). Serving
underserved communities with instructional technologies. Urban
Education, 40(4), 430-445.
goal of this exploratory research study was to use the self-directed
learning framework in a nonformal learning environment to determine how an
underserved community would use technology. The factors that support
self-directed learning in a nonformal learning environment were the
ability to communicate, access information, and acquire knowledge. The
primary focus was on the needs of the residents as learners; looking at
why, when, what, and how community members wanted to involve technology in
their learning and living. Residents identified needs that included issues
related to housing, health care, child care, finances, education, and
Community Programs; Educational Technology; Nonformal
Education; Access to Computers; Computer Uses in Education; Independent
Study; Self Management; Low Income Groups.
8. Clegg, S. (2001).
Theorising the machine: Gender, education and computing. Gender and
Education, 13(3), 307-324.
article provides a theoretical overview of the relationship between
gender, education, & computing. It explores the role of education in the
continued reproduction of computing, & latterly information communications
technology, as masculine domains. Gendered social relations are inscribed
into the development of computing technology & the ideological separation
of the "expert" from end-users. The article offers a critique of the
strong sociology of science & postmodernist analyses of technology for
reducing technology to the social, & of technological determinism. It
argues instead that we need to understand how computing is constituted
historically & the ways computing can be understood as a concrete science.
The article brings together perspectives on technology derived from a
critical realist perspective with some aspects of the feminist standpoint
paradigm. The author examines three key educational locales in the
reproduction of gender ideologies of the machine. These are schools,
universities, & the multiple sites of lifelong learning. The article
concludes that the gendering of computing as a masculine discourse
continues, & that the analysis of technology & the sociology of education
needs to reconnect within a broader critique of society if women's
continuing marginalization in the dominant discourse is to be understood &
Education; Computation; Sexual Inequality; Sociology of
Science; Postmodernism; Feminism; Paradigms; Social Reproduction;
Sociology of Education.
9. Cooper, C.
D., & Kurland, N. B. (2002). Telecommuting, professional isolation
and employee development in public and private organizations. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 23, 511-532.
article employs a grounded theory methodology to compare the impact
telecommuting has on public and private employees' perceptions of
professional isolation. Ninety-three semi-structured interviews were
conducted with telecommuters, non-telecommuters, and their respective
supervisors (all aged 28-62 yrs) in 2 high technology firms and 2 city
governments. These organizations had active telecommuting programs and a
strong interest in making telecommuting a successful work option,
providing an opportunity to investigate the challenges of telecommuting.
The interviews demonstrate that professional isolation of telecommuters is
inextricably linked to employee development activities (interpersonal
networking, informal learning, and mentoring). The extent to which
telecommuters experience professional isolation depends upon the extent to
which these activities are valued in the workplace and the degree to which
telecommuters miss these opportunities. Public respondents appeared to
value these informal developmental activities less than private employees.
Therefore, it is stipulated that telecommuting is less likely to hinder
the professional development of public sector employees than that of
employees in the private sector. A partial interview protocol and examples
of codes are appended.
Telecommuting; Professional Isolation; Employee
Development; Public Organizations; Private Organizations; Employee
10. Daugherty, M. K. (2003).
Advancing excellence in technological literacy: Professional development
standards. Technology Teacher, 63(3), 27-31.
Discusses the Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study
of Technology and their importance to the professional development of
teachers. Includes an activity to be used to illustrate the role of design
technology, explain the standards, and solves a problem likely to be
encountered by teachers.
Design; Professional Development; Standards; Technological
Literacy; Technology Education; Work and Learning.
11. Downes, S. (2001). The
fragmentation of learning. Education Canada, 41(3), 4-7.
Information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have
vastly increased access to information and educational opportunities.
Steadily increasing consumer demand is driving the development of online
educational materials. The end result may be a "fragmentation" of learning
involving multiple learning providers and delivery modes, where the
autonomous learner chooses the learning experience that meets his or her
Access to Information; Distance Education; Educational
Demand; Educational Opportunities; Educational Trends; Informal Education;
Information Technology; Internet; Learner Controlled Instruction; Personal
12. Gorard, S., & Selwyn, N.
(2000). Investigating the role of technology in widening participation
in lifelong learning. Final report. Retrieved July, 2006, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_
small-grant funded project was intended to act as a pilot study looking at
the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in adult
education. In particular, the project aimed to investigate the use of ICT
in extending patterns of participation in adult education to those social
groups presently excluded from learning; one of the oft-stated rationales
for the funding of such programs in the United Kingdom and United States.
Over the course of the year, the project followed the development of the
Digital College ICT-based program in Wales, alongside the concurrent
implementation of the UK-wide national government initiatives the
"University for Industry" and "learndirect." In doing so, a range of
research instruments were developed, used and refined, primary and
secondary data were collected and analyzed, and directions for future
research formulated. The scope of the data collected allowed a series of
tentative conclusions to be reached regarding the effectiveness of ICT-based
education to achieve its aims. The overall preliminary finding from the
project is the wide disparity between the enthusiastic rhetoric
surrounding ICT-based education and the reality “on-the-ground,” as it
Adult Education; Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer
Mediated Communication; Computer Uses in Education; Distance Education;
Educational Development; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Lifelong
Learning; Pilot Projects; Technology Role; United Kingdom.
13. Gorard, S., &
Selwyn, N. (2005). Towards a le@rning society? The impact of technology on
patterns of participation in lifelong learning. British Journal of
Sociology of Education, 26(1), 71-89.
paper is based on 1001 home-based interviews with UK adults. It describes
their varying patterns of participation in lifelong learning & their use
of technology for learning & leisure. It finds that 37% of all adults
report no further education of any kind after reaching compulsory school
leaving age. This proportion declines with each age cohort, but is largely
replaced by a pattern of lengthening initial education & still reporting
no later education. These patterns of participation are predictable to a
large extent from regression analysis using a life-order model of
determining variables - all of which are set very early in life. This
suggests that universal theories to describe participation, such as human
capital theory, are incorrect in several respects. Where individuals
create, for themselves & through their early experiences, a “learner
identity” inimicable to further study, then the prospect of learning can
become a burden rather than an investment for them. This has implications
for the now widespread & extensively funded notion of overcoming barriers
to access via technology.
Adult Education; Information Technology; England; Wales.
14. Gradwell, J. (2003).
Technology education in Canada: A mosaic. Canadian Journal of Science,
Mathematics and Technology Education, 3(1), 17-35.
Describes technology education on a province-by-province basis. Groups
various approaches to technology education into three categories and
summarizes them. Provides illustrative examples and focuses on the
objectives of the curriculum, the way the content of the program is
structured, and recent developments.
Curriculum Development; Educational Change; Foreign
Countries; Secondary Education; Technology Education; Work and Learning.
M., Jacobs, L., & Vaillancourt, F. (2005). The information
technology (IT) labour market in Canada: Results from the national survey
of IT occupations. Ottawa: Software Human Resource Council.
the new economy, portals have replaced ports, bytes have replaced bits,
and the information highway has replaced the conventional highway as the
basic infrastructure of the information economy. Ports, bits and
conventional highways are still important; but even they are sustained by
information technology (IT). In the new knowledge economy IT is crucial—in
fact IT is almost synonymous with the knowledge economy. In our highly
developed economy it is imperative that we facilitate the transformation
of information into the knowledge. Canada needs to sustain its
productivity and competitiveness. To sustain a high-wage economy like
Canada’s, a highly skilled, highly productive workforce is crucial. This
is especially true in IT—and increasingly so given the feasibility of
outsourcing and off-shoring service and IT functions. Canada cannot, and
does not want to compete on the basis of wages with low-wage economies
throughout the world. This means that Canada must have a flexible,
adaptable and skilled workforce to maintain high productivity and high
wages. In a world where the prices of goods, physical and financial
capital and other inputs are increasingly fixed in the global market
place, the comparative advantage of a country like Canada will
increasingly depend on the skills and knowledge embedded in its workforce.
New Economy; Information and Technology; Knowledge Economy;
16. Haynie, W. J., III.
(2003). Gender issues in technology education: A quasi-ethnographic
interview approach. Journal of Technology Education, 15(1), 16-30.
Interviews with 12 female technology education practitioners revealed that
they felt accepted in the profession but sometimes felt isolated,
patronized, or minimized by a minority of male colleagues. More women in
the profession as role models and mentors would help improve the climate.
Ethnography; Gender Issues; Sex Discrimination; Sex
Stereotypes; Technology Education; Work and Learning.
17. Hennessy, T., & Sawchuk,
P. (2003). Worker responses to technological change in the Canadian public
sector: Issues of learning and labour process. The Journal of Workplace
Learning, 15(7/8), 319-325.
article reports selected findings from a study on the changing nature of
work, learning and technology in the Canadian public sector (Ontario).
Vis-a-vis the involvement of a major management consultant firm, these
findings mirror the experiences at the nexus of policy, labour process and
technology, seen in several other western countries, the authors examined
workers' learning responses to management-led introduction of a leading
edge, Web-based social service delivery system. The paper show how neo-Taylorist
principles have shaped work design, and argues that the result has been a
high-tech from a "de-skilling" (Braverman) in which semi-professionalized
case management workers' skill/knowledge sets have been systematically
broken down. The process has been contested however. Workers have sought
to learn and re-skill, generating not only specific computer-based skills
(or "work-arounds") but more general, collective cultures of learning
within the everyday life of work. This learning is sometimes in keeping
with managerial interest, and sometimes not.
Organizational Change; Public Sector Organizations;
Deskilling; Trade Unions; Learning Processes; Canada.
18. Imel, S. (2003). Informal
adult learning and the Internet. Trends and issues alert. Ohio: Office of
Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Internet seems an ideal medium for fostering and supporting informal adult
learning because it allows adults to seek out and use resources
independently, control the pace and direction of learning, and talk to and
consult others. Because it provides access to information, encourages
meaningful interaction with information or material, and brings people
together, the Internet supports learning that is constructivist in nature
and that builds on prior knowledge. Issues have been raised related to the
Internet and its role in informal learning, including access; degree of
control that governments or other agencies might exercise over information
available through the Internet; incomplete understanding of the extent and
type of learning that is occurring; skills needed to engage in
self-directed learning on the Internet; motivation for those who use the
Internet for informal learning; and how technology can be improved.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Computer Mediated Communication; Computer Uses in Education;
Constructivism (Learning); Experiential Learning; Independent Study;
Informal Education; Information Seeking; Information Sources; Internet;
Learning Motivation; Pacing; Prior Learning; Student Motivation.
19. Information Technology
Association of America. (2000). Best practices in school-to-careers: The
information technology industry. Arlington, VA: National Employer
Leadership Council, Washington, DC.
booklet highlights the efforts of five employers that rely on information
technology (IT) workers and one "intermediary" organization connecting
workplace experiences to classroom learning for secondary education
students. The introduction lists the employers' and organizations' names,
locations, and featured practices. The next three sections examine the IT
industry; reasons why school-to-careers is an ideal strategy for
addressing information technology industry skill needs; skills and
certifications; and how the employer participation model works with
students and teachers. These employers and intermediaries and their best
practices are profiled: (1) The Kemtah Group (Albuquerque, New Mexico),
which promotes school-to-careers experiences for under-represented
populations; (2) The Gallup Organization (Omaha, Nebraska), which is
helping students explore and understand the needs and demands of
technology-driven workplaces; (3) EDS (Dallas, Texas), which gives
students work-based opportunities; (4) Manpower, Inc. (Milwaukee,
Wisconsin), which provides training and certification opportunities for
students; (5) Intel Corporation (Santa Clara, California), which is
working with teachers to make a difference through technology; and (6)
Greater Louisville, Inc. (Louisville, Kentucky), which is building
coalitions to connect work and learning. The following items are also
included: (1) an annotated list of eight organizations and resources; (2)
a glossary; and (3) a discussion of steps to build on the National
Employer Leadership Council's agenda.
Academic Standards; Adjustment (to Environment); Advisory
Committees; Annotated Bibliographies; Career Awareness; Career Ladders;
Case Studies; Change Strategies; Communications; Computer Oriented
Programs; Computer Software Development; Computers; Cooperative Planning;
Demonstration Programs; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change;
Educational Cooperation; Educational Practices; Educational Resources;
Employment Qualifications; Entry Workers; Equal Education; Experiential
Learning; Glossaries; Information Processing; Information Sources;
Information Systems; Information Technology; Internet; Job Skills; Job
Training; Labor Needs; Linking Agents; National Organizations; National
Standards; Nonprofit Organizations; Partnerships in Education; School
Business Relationship; Secondary Education; Skill Development; Special
Needs Students; Student Certification; Technical Occupations; Vocational
Education; Work Environment; Work Experience Programs; World Wide Web.
20. Jackson, P., & Reima, S.
(Eds.). (2002). Ebusiness and workplace redesign. London: Routledge.
the growth in teleworking, “virtual teams” and “virtual enterprises” has
demonstrated, the economic landscape is increasingly characterized by an
ability to work across spatial and organisational boundaries. Only with
this redesign of working methods and business processes can the
possibility of the digital age be delivered. eBusiness and Workplace
Redesign argues that the key context for much of today's
technology-supported organisational change is being established by
developments in eBusiness. In the handling of change, this book places
particular emphasis on how the design of work and use of space can be
organized and managed in more systematic and effective ways. In doing so,
we are shown how organisations can embrace the new technologies and
business opportunities presented by the Internet by creating more
productive, dynamic and sustainable workplaces that exploit the benefits
of these new practices of work flexibility.
New Economy; Knowledge Workers; Workplace Alternatives.
21. Jung, I. (2003). Online
education for adult learners in South Korea. Educational Technology,
Analyzes three applications of online learning and technology in South
Korea: development of single-mode virtual universities; online education
in conventional universities; and Web-based corporate training. Concludes
with principles of online learning derived from experiences in
implementing such environments.
Adult Education; Adult Students; Computer Assisted
Instruction; Computer Uses in Education; Conventional Instruction;
Developing Nations; Distance Education; Educational Development;
Educational Technology; Foreign Countries; Higher Education;
Nontraditional Education; Online Systems; Professional Development;
Program Development; Training; South Korea.
22. Kolehmainen, S. (2001).
Work organisation in high-tech IT firms. Tampere: University of Tampere.
with the growth of the service sector in the information society, the most
rapid growth has happened in business services, including computer and
related services. These high-tech knowledge-intensive business services
produce sector-specific knowledge on new technology and distribute it to
other industries of the economy. Therefre, they are important actors
within the wider innovation system. High-tech business service firms
operate in quickly developing 'turbulent' markets, which challenges their
ability to adapt to the changes and transform along them. The success of
business depends to a large extent on their intangible assets, mainly on
their human capital. In order to guarantee the innovativeness and
competitiveness of their business and the organisational commitment of
their employees, it is imperative for the firms to pay attention to and
invest in the organisation of work and competence. New emerging high-tech
business services with increased knowledge intensity of work implicate the
changing content of work which both demands and encourages new and diverse
forms of work organisation. The focus of this paper is on describing the
typical organisational features of a specific category of knowledge work,
which is information system (IS) expert work in specific a category of
knowledge-intensive business services, namely high-tech IT service firms.
New Economy; High Tech; Workplace Change.
23. Liker, J.
K., Haddad, C. J., & Karlin, J. (1999). Perspectives on technology
and work organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 575-596.
perspectives on the relationship between technology and the nature of work
suggest that technology's impact on work is contingent on a broad set of
factors. How this is viewed varies with different theoretical paradigms.
Historically, the treatment of technology as a deterministic causal force
had predictable impacts. Recently, there has been recognition of the
complexity of technology and its relationship to work that is both
bidirectional & dependent on a number of contingent factors. Factors
integral to the impact of technology are the dynamics of the change
process. In fact, the change process & outcomes are inextricably linked.
In conclusion, the social reality of technology implementation is highly
complex. Very different technologies are brought into different social
settings for different reasons, often with completely opposite effects.
Complex theories that recognize the emergent & socially constructed nature
of technology are needed.
Technological Innovations; Technology Assessment;
Technological Change; Adoption of Innovations; Work Organization;
Organizational Culture; Organizational Change; Office Automation.
24. McLoughlin, C., & Luca, J.
(2002). A learner-centred approach to developing team skills through
web-based learning and assessment. British Journal of Educational
Technology, 33(5), 571-582.
Considers higher education and professional learning and describes a
Web-based course focusing on project management skills, including
collaboration. Discusses professional knowledge; self-directed learning;
social processes of professional learning; integration of learning and
assessment; social support for professional skills; cognitive support for
professional learning; and task design based on project-based learning.
Cooperation; Evaluation Methods; Evaluation Research;
Higher Education; Independent Study; Interpersonal Relationship; Learning
Processes; Professional Education; Professional Occupations; Teamwork; Web
Based Instruction; Cognitive Strategies; Knowledge; Project Management;
25. Moreland, J., Jones, A., &
Northover, A. (2001). Enhancing teachers' technological knowledge and
assessment practices to enhance student learning in technology: A two-year
classroom study. Research in Science Education, 31(1), 155-176.
Reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school technology
education. Explores emerging classroom practices in technology and
intervention strategies developed to enhance teaching.
Educational Change; Elementary Education; Intervention;
Professional Development; Teacher Attitudes; Technological Literacy;
Technology Education; Work and Learning.
26. Mulholland, P., & Ivergård,
T. K., Stuart. (2005). Introduction: Contemporary perspectives on learning
for work. Applied Ergonomics. Special Issue: Contemporary Perspectives on
Learning for Work, 36(2), 125-126.
Papers in the current issue of the journal Applied Ergonomics, 36 (2005).
In the past decade we continue to witness many changes in the nature of
organisations and working life. Coping with rapid technological change,
greater job mobility and greater job insecurity are increasingly common
characteristics of employment. Changes have had a significant impact on
the requirements and methods of competence development and workplace
learning. The most prevalent trend is the increasing need for life-long
learning (Fischer, 2000). Workers cannot expect to acquire all necessary
skills in formal education in advance of their careers. Career changes,
necessitating further learning are becoming increasingly common.
Technological developments are increasing the rate at which methods of
working have to change in order to keep up-to-date, efficient and
competitive. Papers in this issue highlight the need for increased
research into both human & social factors of rapid technological change
and the role that e-learning can play in meeting increasingly high demands
for skills and competence. The papers, we hope, will serve to motivate
further research work in this important area.
Organizational Change; Organizational Learning;
Professional Competence; Technology; Computer Assisted Instruction;
27. Overton, L. (2006).
Altering learning provision. E.learning Age, 35-36.
author's propose to increase awareness of what employers want from
e-learning with the relatively new Sector Skills Council (SSC),
twenty-five organizations who have been tasked with representing
employers' skills needs and influencing government provision. The SSCs are
in place to understand what employers actually need from learning and to
stand in the gap on their behalf in working with government agencies of
learning provision. Currently, much of the e-learning work has been
focused on the school and formal education system - reform in these areas
is key. E-learning has the opportunity to radically alter government
learning provision - encouraging flexible credit based learning programs
more closely aligned to business needs. The SSCs will be key agents of
change in this process and it is important that they are equipped for this
role and connected with employer needs.
Provisions; Government Agencies; Online Instruction;
Changes; Western Europe; Internet Communications; Development; Public
Sector; United Kingdom; UK.
28. Rennie, L. J. (2001).
Teacher collaboration in curriculum change: The implementation of
technology education in the primary school. Research in Science Education,
Documents the ways in which one teacher from each school established
successful classroom strategies for incorporating technology into
classroom life using case studies from two Western Australian schools.
Discusses implications in terms of leadership and collaboration.
Cooperation; Educational Change; Educational Strategies;
Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Leadership; Teacher Attitudes;
Technological Literacy; Technology Education; Work and Learning.
29. Revill, G., Terrell, I.,
Powell, S., & Tindal, I. (2005). Learning in the workplace: A new degree
online. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42(3),
paper reports on attempts to develop a new learning in the workplace
degree based upon an online learning community approach. The paper
describes the use of individualised learning plans, shared electronic
portfolios and collaborative reflection on practice. Online strategies
such as "hotseating" and the use of workplace advocates are illustrated.
The paper exhibits that it is possible to build an online community for an
award-bearing workplace learning degree but that new tools and approaches
need to be developed to ensure self-directed learning from experience and
through reflection can take place in a community of learners.
Exhibits; Online Courses; Labor Education; Continuing
Education; Student Centered Curriculum; Independent Study; Educational
Innovation; Discourse Communities.
30. Rosow, L. V. (2001).
Technology in education: Equity and theory are key. TechTrends, 46(4),
author shares ways technology may empower students and how it has enabled
her as a teacher to expand beyond some of the traditional boundaries for
writing, reading, and assessment. In the discussion, the importance of
economic and environmental equity and the need for theory to inform
pedagogy are emphasized.
Access to Computers; Access to Education; Curriculum
Development; Educational Development; Educational Technology; Educational
Theories; Equal Education; Student Empowerment; Technology Implementation;
31. Sawchuk, P. H. (2003).
Informal learning as a speech-exchange system: Implications for knowledge
production, power and social transformation. Discourse & Society, 14(3),
empirical investigations of 'informal learning' either arbitrarily
operationalize the term or take common sense notions of the term as the
basis for their claims. Few studies to date have problematized the
phenomenon itself with reference to its accomplishment in moment-by-moment
interaction. This article draws on detailed analysis to make claims about
the nature of informal learning as a distinct speech-exchange system with
features of both formal pedagogical communication and everyday
conversation. The analysis shows how two novice computer users can
collectively construct a Zone of Proximal Development for their learning.
I discuss ambiguities of informal learning, the difficulties of
computer-mediated learning interaction specifically, and the political
significance of shared control over turn-allocation. I conclude that
analysis of informal learning as a speech-exchange system is useful and
that learning can be understood outside of expert-novice relationships.
The broader social implications of this are that hierarchical
knowledge/power relations are not necessarily definitive of the learning
process. This, in turn, provides support for the claim that informal
learning may be a means of transforming rather than reproducing knowledge
Informal Learning; Zone of Proximal Development;
Pedagogical Communication; Political Significance; Novice Computer Users;
Speech-Exchange System; Computer-Mediated Learning; Conversation.
32. Schwier, R. A. (2001).
Catalysts, emphases, and elements of virtual learning communities:
Implications for research and practice. Quarterly Review of Distance
Education, 2(1), 5-18.
Examines theoretical and conceptual issues around promoting the growth of
virtual learning communities and considers issues around using
communication technologies in formal and informal learning environments.
Highlights include: the theoretical context of community; categories for
examining virtual learning communities; emphases of virtual learning
communities; ten elements of community; and research issues raised by
virtual learning communities.
Community Characteristics; Community Development; Computer
Mediated Communication; Computer Uses in Education; Distance Education;
Educational Technology; Learning Communities; Learning Environments;
33. Selwyn, N., & Gorard, S.
(2003). Exploring the "New" imperatives of technology-based lifelong
learning. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 8(1), 73-92.
Policy discourse about lifelong learning has shifted from economic
imperative to social and moral pursuit and intrinsic good. Despite this,
the emphasis on technological solutions in Information Age discourse
subjugates social, civic, and political concerns to an economic
Discourse Analysis; Educational Attitudes; Educational
Objectives; Educational Technology; Foreign Countries; Information
Technology; Learning Motivation; Lifelong Learning; Public Policy;
Telecommunications; United Kingdom.
34. Stephenson, J., & Saxton,
J. (2005). Using the internet to gain personalized degrees from learning
through work: Some experience from Ufi. Industry & higher education,
Presented are the outcomes of a systematic review of first cohort
experiences using Ufi's online Learning through Work (LtW) facility. This
was to negotiate personalized programmes of study leading to full
university awards based on projects related to their everyday work.
Learning through work and wider experience of online work-based learning
are discussed. As well, the main features of the LtW programme are
described. Data are drawn from user surveys and in-depth interviews of
participants. A grounded theory methodology is used to allow propositions
to emerge from the data about user readiness, institutional responses and
wider impact on the learners and their work-place. Propositions are
presented for discussion in the wider context of learner-managed learning
and the use of the Internet for university-recognized learning through
Educational Sociology; Economics of Education; Academic
Success; Academic Achievement; Higher Education; Internet; Universities;
Learning; Empirical Research; Comparative Analysis; United Kingdom.
L., Ellstrom, P.-E., & Aberg, C. (2004). Integrating formal and
informal learning at work. Journal of Workplace Learning: Employee
Counselling Today, 16(8), 479-491.
model for workplace learning is put forth and looks to integrate formal
and informal learning through the use of e-learning. An assumption is made
that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order
to create desirable competencies, from individual and an organisational
perspectives. The article uses two case studies to test the model. One
study is set in an industrial setting, while the other is performed in a
hospital. There are some promising results in terms of flexibility and
accessibility, but some problems have yet to be solved. These problems
primarily deal with the integration of individual and organisational
learning, and with the lack of time for reflection and learning during
conditions of down-sizing and rationalisation.
Workplace Learning; Computer Based Learning; Informal
Learning; Formal Learning.
36. Thornburg, D. (2002). The
new basics: Education and the future of work in the telematic age.
Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
increasing globalization of work, coupled with rapid advancement in
communications technology, is making age-old teaching methods irrelevant.
To thrive in the plugged-in future workplace, students today need to learn
a whole new set of fundamental skills. This book starts by presenting the
author's assumptions and biases with regard to economic cycles and
evolution, and standards. It explores the foundations of the future
economy, the notion of the telematic age driven by information technology,
the characteristics needed to succeed in this emerging world, and the
changes needed to be made in education to ensure that all students leave
school prepared to face the challenges of a world undergoing continual
redefinition. It provides an in-depth discussion of the skills necessary
for professional success in the coming years, along with strategies on how
best to teach them in the classroom.
Education; Technological Innovations; Labour Supply; Work
37. Walmsley, B. (2003).
Partnership-centered learning: The case for pedagogic balance in
technology education. Journal of Technology Education, 14(2), 56-69.
Results of the Cognitive Holding Power Questionnaire completed by 480
Australian technology education students suggest that design-based
technology classes develop higher-order thinking skills. Teachers are
attempting to balance support with student autonomy and control while
shifting to learner-centered instruction. However, they may be emphasizing
doing over thinking and planning.
Educational Change; Educational Strategies; Foreign
Countries; Secondary Education; Technology Education; Thinking Skills;
Work and Learning.
38. Wannell, T., & Ali, J.
(2002). Working smarter. Perspectives(Winter), 48-59.
integrative study examines the relationship between the introduction of
technology, training and education.
Skill; Technology; Management; ICT; Knowledge;
39. Wolfe, C. R. (2001).
Creating informal learning environments on the World Wide Web. In C. R.
Wolfe (Ed.), Learning and teaching on the World Wide Web (pp. 91-112). San
Diego: Academic Press.
chapter describes principles and strategies that support the creation of
informal learning environments on the World Wide Web. The discussion is
informed by over five years of experience developing the Dragonfly Web
Pages, an informal science education environment on the Web. The author
describes the following Web page departments: expository text, interactive
experiences, side bars, links to related resources, and off-line
investigations, as well as assessment and evaluation. A discussion of the
development of the Dragonfly Web Pages includes five principles of the
American Psychological Association Work Group that address cognitive and
motivational factors influencing learning; the role of play in the
development of scientific learning; and research on gist formation.
Strategies for creating informal learning environments on the Web are
Informal Learning Environments; Dragonfly Web Pages; World
Wide Web; Cognitive & Motivational Factors; American Psychological
Association; Role of Play in Scientific Learning; Gist Formation;