and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
Work and Learning through the Adult
1. Antikainen, A.,
& Komonen, K. (2003). Biography, life course, and the
sociology of education. In C. A. Torres & A. Antikainen
(Eds.), The international handbook on the sociology of
education: An international assessment of new research and
theory (pp. 143-159). Lanham US: Rowman & Littlefields.
the publication of Florian Znaniecki's and William Thomas's, The Polish
Peasant in Europe and America (1918-20), many researchers of the Chicago
School studied the “social mosaic” of the changing American society by
using a variety of methods, such as participant observation, open or
semistructured interviews and life history. In the decades following World
War II, the life history method lost much of its prominence. It was not
until the 1980s that life history returned to the sociology of education,
this time in the context of the growing interest in the biographical
method in sociology in general.
Life History; Biographies; Sociological Research; Sociology
of Education; Research Methodology; History of Sociology.
M. R., Risto; Lahti, Kati; Olkinuora, Erkki.
(2005). Education or learning on the job? Generational differences of
opinions. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(6),
this article, we are interested in what kind of opinions people belonging
to different generations have on work experience and formal education.
Mannheim's theory on generations is used as a general frame of reference.
The questions asked in the article are: is education appreciated more by
young people who have been able to participate in it on a large scale, or
by older people to whom further education often remained an unfulfilled
dream? Do older people put more emphasis on work experience, because on
average they have much more work experience than schooling? The starting
point of the article is that the changing educational circumstances have
arguably shaped the thinking and world view of generations, and their
opinions on formal education and work experience. In addition, the value
of education as a currency on the labour market has changed continuously.
Foreign Countries; Opinions; Work Experience; Labor Market;
Education; Work Relationship; Age Differences; Work Attitudes; Educational
Attitudes; Educational Attainment.
3. Bates, M. J., & Norton, S.
(2002). Educating Rita: An examination of the female life course and its
influence on women's participation in higher education. New Horizons in
Adult Education, 16(3), 4 - 12.
occurrence of 7 life events within the last 2 years and the top three 3
reasons for return were identified by 61 women returning to higher
education. Motivations clustered in the following categories: financial
improvement, personal goals and aspirations, self-fulfilment/self-esteem,
and family considerations.
Adult Education; Females; Higher Education; Life Events;
Motivation; Participation; Reentry Students.
4. Dominicâe, P. (2000).
Learning from our lives: Using educational biographies with adults (1st
ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
nine-chapter book, written in Europe by a French-speaking Swiss educator,
explores the rationale for using educational biography approaches in adult
education and presents examples that illustrate various uses of these life
history activities. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and overview of
educational biography, and Chapter 2 describes practitioners' experience
with major educational biography approaches, including written and oral
narratives. Chapter 3 presents a review of the literature, concentrating
on examples of educational biography approaches that occur in particular
contexts and address particular themes. Chapter 4 explores how adults
educate themselves in various settings, including family and school. The
main theme of Chapter 5 is adults' ways of thinking as men and women
functioning in family, school, and workplace, and the influence of various
subcultures. Learners' needs and motivations are the focus of Chapter 6,
and, in Chapter 7, the main theme is helping learners name their
experiences and their world and deal with issues that emerge from this
interpretation. Chapter 8 addresses how educational biography can help
adult learners gain a new understanding of evaluation by examining the
power relationships that influence education and educational goals, the
uses of evaluation decisions, and formative evaluation as interpretation.
Chapter 9 concludes with a discussion of ways of creating conditions for
successful adult learning based on the main themes raised by the
educational biography approach.
Adult Basic Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Adult Students; Autobiographies; Biographical Inventories; Empowerment;
Family Influence; Informal Education; Learning Theories; Personal
Narratives; Postsecondary Education; Self Disclosure (Individuals); Self
Evaluation (Individuals); Self Expression; Social Influences; Student
Motivation; Teaching Methods; Writing Instruction.
5. Drentea, P. (2002).
Retirement and mental health. Journal of Aging & Health, 14(2),
Examines whether retirement is associated with mental health and how daily
pursuits mediate this association. It tests 2 perspectives from the
sociology of work and mental health. Using data from 2 surveys, the 1995
Aging, Status, and Sense of Control and the 1987-1988 National Survey of
Families and Households, regression analysis was used to examine
retirement, activities, and well-being. In support of the view that work
is alienating and retirement liberating, retirees experienced less anxiety
and distress and higher positive affect. Retirees' lower anxiety and
distress were explained by activity characteristics. In support of the
view that work is empowering and retirement demoralizing, retirement is
associated with lower sense of control in both data sets. Retirement was
not associated with depressive symptomatology. Suggestions for creating
opportunities that enhance well-being are discussed.
Interpersonal Interaction; Mental Health; Retirement; Well
6. Elman, C., & O'Rand, A. M.
(2002). Perceived job insecurity and entry into work-related education and
training among adult workers. Social Science Research, 31(1),
authors attach the 1995 Adult Education Data File to Bureau of Labor
Statistics data to examine the structural conditions under which adult
workers (ages 35-61) perceive their jobs to be insecure. They then examine
whether concerns about job loss motivate adult workers to participate in
further education, after controlling for the already established effects
of human capital, contemporaneous life course roles, minority status, &
other labor market conditions. The authors find that the perceived job
insecurity of both advantaged & disadvantaged categories of workers are
affected by labor market factors, but in different ways. On the one hand,
ethnic minorities, union members, workers without employee benefits, &
workers in restructuring sectors are explicitly more concerned about job
insecurity. On the other hand, workers in once-advantaged stratification
categories demarcated by higher education, more job experience, gender
(male), & seniority (age) do not perceive significantly less job
insecurity than other workers & thus are no more protected from these
concerns. Adult work-related educational participation reflects perceived
insecurity & industrial restructuring more than prior human capital or
competing life course roles.
Adults; Workers; Labor Market; Human Capital; Adult
Education; Vocational Education; Education Work Relationship; Occupational
Structure; United States of America.
7. Fisher, M. (2003).
Informal learning of seniors in Canadian society. NALL Working Paper
No.70. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
Informal learning by Canadian seniors was examined through semi-structured
interviews with a purposefully selected group of 51 older Canadians (28
women and 23) who ranged in age from 58 to 95 years (average age, 73.7).
All were retired or semi-retired, and all had engaged in several learning
projects over the previous year in topics such as the following:
self-knowledge, health, relationships, current affairs, social justice,
history, spirituality, the arts, philosophy, computers, homemaking, and
genealogy. Equal numbers of interviewees preferred learning alone and
learning in groups. A few preferred one-on-one coaching or dialogue. When
asked about their methods of learning, the interviewees mentioned learning
by doing (32 times), by reading (33 times), through discussion (35 times),
by watching (26 times), and by listening (27 times). The resources they
used depended on topic and circumstances, with print media, people, and
computers being mentioned by 44, 32, and 14 interviewees, respectively.
Thirty-five adults stated that learning had always been important to them.
Most participants were enthusiastic about the contributions that learning
made to their lives, with 20 describing it as vital to their survival.
Thirty-one interviewees stated that they spent more time on learning now
than in their younger years, and 11 said they spent less time learning now
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Education Work Relationship; Educational Attitudes; Educational Benefits;
Educational Opportunities; Educational Trends; Independent Study; Informal
Education; Interviews; Learning Motivation; Learning Processes; Lifelong
Learning; National Surveys; Older Adults; Outcomes of Education;
Participation; Trend Analysis; Canada; Learning Patterns.
8. Gorard, S. (2003). Patterns
of work-based learning. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 55(1),
from a South Wales study (n=1,104) and British adult learner survey
(n=5,885) found little clear evidence supporting the economic imperative
for lifelong learning. Policies have not resulted in increased training
opportunities. Many employers are not supporting work-based learning;
participation is largely predictable from individuals' social and family
Educational Opportunities; Foreign Countries; Influences;
Participation; Predictor Variables; Public Policy; Sociocultural Patterns;
9. Gould, A. (2003). Study
leave in Sweden. Studies in the Education of Adults, 35(1), 68-84.
Analysis of statistics since 1994 on the use of study leave as allowed by
a 1974 Swedish law indicates that about 1% of the work force takes leave
at any time. Women and manual workers benefit more than men and salaried
workers. Leave application causes employees few problems with employers
but financial assistance is a concern.
Financial Support; Foreign Countries; Leaves of Absence;
Legislation; Lifelong Learning; Public Policy.
10. Halliday, J., & Soden, R.
(2000). Rethinking vocational education: A case study in care.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19(2), 172-182.
article describes the reflections of 25 adults from the United Kingdom who
returned to formal education. Results supported the argument that
vocational institutions should attempt to develop broader student
interests rather than trying to improve the relevance of vocational
Foreign Countries; Life Events; Reentry Students; Technical
Institutes; Vocational Education.
11. Heinz, W. R. (2002).
Self-socialization and post-traditional society. Advances in Life
Course Research, 7, 41-64.
evaluating the continued utility of the concept of socialization, the
author argues that macrosocial transformation forces in modern societies
have decreased the influence of the family, school, work, & other social
institutions as socializing agents, as they were in traditional societies.
Nonetheless, the concept can still be valuable if it is used in
conjunction with an appreciation of the enhanced position of the
individual in modern society & the continuity of the socialization process
across the life course. After exploring the ascendancy of the individual &
the individualization of the self in post-traditional societies, the
author examines the idea of "self-socialization." In contrast to the
traditional process by which external norms & values were internalized
through contact with or the intervention of external social agents,
self-socialization describes the process by which individuals acquire an
internal system of values & set their own life course through learning
from & coming to terms with their own actions & their consequences. The
concept captures the interaction between individual intentions, actions, &
self-identity across changing social contexts throughout the life course.
Some preliminary research results are presented that describe the utility
of the self-socialization concept through an analysis of "biographical
agency" in a study of individual work transitions.
Socialization; Life Cycle; Socialization Agents; Modern
Society; Individual Collective Relationship; Internalization; Norms.
12. Helterbran, V. R. (2005).
Lifelong or school-long learning: A daily choice. Clearing House: A
Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 78(6), 261.
districts have a vision or mission statement that includes the importance
of lifelong learning. The alternative, school-long learning, is
exemplified by curricula and instruction that are generally only useful
while the student is in school; it does little to stimulate or fulfill
that element in those who find pleasure in the process and the end result
of the accomplishment of a learning goal. Here, the author presents the so
called Three As. In this era of the Three As - Achievement,
Accountability, and Assessment - finding educators immersed in a state of
the Three Cs - Concern, Consternation, and Confusion - is a typical
occurrence. The beauty of teaching for lifelong learning while trying to
accomplish the benchmarks of state standards is that in many ways both of
these goals are compatible, overlapping, and of mutual benefit. The most
critical element in promoting lifelong learning in the classroom is to
assure that everyone are lifelong learners. According to Theodore Sizer
and Nancy Sizer (1999), teaching that promotes lifelong learning involves
skilled professionals who know that the best learning is learning where
students are invested in their work because it is interesting and
relevant. A congruence between the planning, implementing, and assessing
of instruction is crucial in effective teaching and learning. Feedback
that is prompt, meaningful, and gives students an opportunity to rethink
and rework the errors of their efforts is another strategy instrumental in
focusing on the learning process. Positive and practical habits of the
mind are the bedrock of one becoming a lifelong learner. Educators have a
unique opportunity to strengthen and promote this in students. Regardless
of all other issues that present themselves with such urgency during a
school day, in the grand scheme of things the chief and overriding purpose
is the achievement of the students and success in instilling lifelong
learning skills. Both constitute the bottom line for the students| to
enjoy a fulfilling, purposeful, and satisfying experience during their
short time with educators in the school setting and for the remainder of
their lives. Lifelong learning or school-long learning - the choice is
made in schools daily by word and deed.
Position Papers; Lifelong Learning; Teaching Styles;
Feedback; Student Interests; Congruence (Psychology); Relevance
(Education); Study Habits; State Standards; Academic Standards; Teacher
Effectiveness; Academic Achievement; Student Evaluation.
13. Hill, E. T. (2001).
Post-school-age training among women: Training methods and labor market
outcomes at older ages. Economics of Education Review, 20(2),
the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education
and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to
train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly
associated with wage growth than is formal education.
Education Work Relationship; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Females; Higher Education; Labor Force; Middle Aged Adults;
Participation; Salary Wage Differentials; Training; National Longitudinal
Survey Mature Women.
14. Hoerder, D. (2001).
Reconstructing life courses: A historical perspective on migrant
experiences. In V. Marshall, W. Heinz, H. Kruger & A. Verma (Eds.),
Restructuring work and the life course (pp. 525-539). Toronto:
connection between linearity, sequence normality, and the concept of work
as only paid work results in a weak life-course analysis. This is clear
when the lives of two Polish immigrant families living in Canada are
looked at. These families, which became linked by marriage, depended on
many different avenues to achieve integration & economic survival. The
families were willing to relocate to find work, diversify to enlarge their
income, obtain new skills, & develop coping strategies in their efforts to
make a living. The case study also demonstrates that human capital
(identity-formation, training, education) & social capital (job
availability & community support) influence the options available to
individuals & families. In addition, it is evident that individual
decisions are constrained by political processes, economic cycles,
societal factors, & luck.
Canada; Immigrants; Human Capital; Socioeconomic Factors;
Labor Force Participation; Cultural Capital; Slavic Cultural Groups.
15. Lawy, R., & Bloomer, M.
(2003). Identity and learning as a lifelong project: Situating vocational
education and work. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(1),
Interviews focused on the learning of two British young adults examined
processes of identity transformation and transition to work. Their
experiences suggest that technical/rational educational approaches fail to
meet developmental needs and are inadequate for prevocational, vocational,
and lifelong learning. Curriculum should focus on the agency of the
learner as a driving force.
Economic Change; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Change; Foreign Countries; Individual Development; Postsecondary
Education; Student Needs; Vocational Education; Young Adults.
Linn, P. L., Ferguson, J., & Egart, K. (2004).
Career exploration via cooperative education and lifespan
occupational choice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3),
Career exploration by Antioch College students who graduated between 1946
and 1955 (N=73) was studied to determine relationships between the
occupational categories of cooperative education jobs taken in college
(obtained from a campus archive) and subsequent work histories (obtained
from surveying the graduates at about 70 years). Five hypotheses were
tested. Results supported four of the hypotheses, with partial support for
the fifth. Co-op jobs taken by the sample represented each of 23
occupational classifications, and most graduates took post-graduate jobs
in occupational functions and contexts they had explored as co-op
students. High levels of individuality in use of the co-op program and in
career paths were found. Four co-op-to-career patterns were described,
based on the degree to which functions and contexts were explored during
college and career; a case study was included to exemplify each pattern.
Gender differences were revealed in the patterns, but not the group data.
Job context was particularly important in defining these patterns.
Implications for research and practice were discussed tentatively, however
given the lack of a control group, characteristics of the study sample,
and particularities of the historical era studied, the ability to
generalize beyond the study sample is limited.
Career Exploration; Cooperative Education; Career Choice;
College Graduates; Hypothesis Testing; Gender Differences; Lifelong
Learning; Career Education; Work Environment; Gender Differences.
17. Lutfey, K., & Mortimer, J.
T. (2003). Development and socialization through the adult life course. In
J. DeLamater (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 183-204).
New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
this chapter, the authors consider varied definitions of socialization,
how the concept is tied to fundamental sociological issues, and how its
original conceptualizations provided a framework for later investigations.
Specifically, the authors focus on socialization through the adult life
course, with emphasis on heterogeneity and contingency in life
experiences. To develop a theoretical and methodological perspective that
is sensitive to temporality, the authors call attention to individuals'
biographies and temporal orientations, as well as historical variability
in the ways people adapt to new social roles and circumstances. While the
authors touch on themes deriving from early work on childhood and
adolescent socialization, the primary focus is on adult socialization, or
that which occurs after the completion of general education, whether
secondary school or college.
Adult Development; Life Experiences; Psychosocial
Marshall, V. W., & Mueller, M. M. (2002).
Rethinking social policy for an aging workforce and society: Insights from
the life course perspective. Ontario: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Canadian population trends were examined from a life course perspective to
identify needed social policy changes. First, the following principles
underpinning the life course perspective were discussed: (1) aging
involves biological, psychological, and social processes; (2) human
development and aging are lifelong processes; (3) individuals' and
cohorts' life courses are embedded in and shaped by historical time and
place; (4) the antecedents and consequences of life transitions and events
vary according to their timing in a person's life; (5) lives are lived
interdependently; and (6) individuals construct their own life courses
through the choices and actions they take within the opportunities and
constraints of history and social circumstances. Next, the following
policy domains were analyzed from the life course perspective: (1)
education, the transition to employment, and lifelong learning; (2) family
and the relationship between work and family; (3) work-to-retirement
transitions; (4) income security in the later years; and (5)
intergenerational relations and social cohesion. It was recommended that
Canadian policymakers responsible for public, corporate, union, and
educational policy focus on the increasing inequality that develops over
the life course, avoid the error of assuming a model life course, and move
toward consideration of need rather than age.
Adult Day Care; Age Differences; Age Groups; Aging
(Individuals); Career Development; Child Care; Definitions; Educational
Policy; Employment Practices; Family Caregivers; Family-Work Relationship;
Foreign Countries; Geriatrics; Income; Individual Development; Labor Force
Development; Life Events; Literature Reviews; Older Adults; Policy
Formation; Population Trends; Position Papers; Research Design;
Retirement; Retirement Benefits; Social Change; Social Environment; Social
Science Research; Theory Practice Relationship; Canada; Income Security;
Life Course; Life Span Development; Population Aging; Social Policy.
19. McAndrew, P., Clow, D.,
Taylor, J., & Aczel, J. (2004). The evolutionary design of a knowledge
network to support knowledge management and sharing for lifelong learning.
British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(6), 739-746.
Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge sharing are important factors that
support lifelong learning, and enable people to continue developing
throughout their careers. The concept of a Community of Practice (Wenger,
2000) is attractive in drawing together people whose work shares similar
aspects, and consideration is given here to how technology can be used to
develop and support such a community. In this paper, concepts from the
Community of Practice literature are used to consider the development of a
software environment for people working as a community in the area of
lifelong learning. The intention was to design the system in an
evolutionary way, using a minimal set of essential elements which would be
elaborated according to user feedback. Three key design questions are
considered: Who can contribute resources to such a system? What happens to
existing practices? How is the community engaged? We conclude that, in
lifelong learning, knowledge management supported by a software
environment offers a good way to bring together communities, resources and
experience, but to achieve these benefits, great care needs to be exerted
in introducing the system and maintaining existing work practices.
Educational Technology; Computer Software; Lifelong
Learning; Systems Development; Information Management.
20. Pillay, H., Boulton-Lewis,
G., Wilss, L., & Lankshear, C. (2003). Conceptions of work and learning at
work: Impressions from older workers. Studies in Continuing Education,
Interviews with 39 workers over 40 addressed their conceptions of work
(job, challenging experience, personal empowerment, life-structuring
device) and of learning at work (acquiring survival skills,
observing/experiencing, taking courses, learning lifelong, and changing
personally). Their conceptions were mostly incongruent with their levels
in the Australian Qualifications Framework.
Credentials; Educational Attitudes; Foreign Countries;
Middle Aged Adults; Work Attitudes.
21. Pitawanakwat, J. (2001).
Informal learning culture through the life course: Initiatives in
Native organizations and communities. NALL Working Paper No. 40.
Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available
Traditional Ojibway education is currently being delivered by eight First
Nations communities on Manitoulin Island and the north shore of Lake
Huron, in Ontario. Integration into the formal school system, with the
exception of language programs, is not formally established. Elders and
traditional teachers are only invited by individual teachers. Integration
of the formal education system into the traditional Ojibway system also
takes place, through field trips, albeit to a limited extent. Cultural
knowledge is transmitted via one-to-one transmission, home-based learning,
talking circles, community cultural events, workshops and conferences, and
traditional Ojibway institution-based learning. Traditional educational
approaches are profoundly different from those of the mainstream
educational system. Wholistic (physical, mental, spiritual, emotional)
growth and development of the person, experiential learning, oral
tradition, and student-centeredness are key elements of the traditional
approach. Further, and of vital importance, is the fact that education is
grounded in spirituality. Western mainstream education has a narrower
scope in that it emphasizes intellectual development to the exclusion of
other dimensions. There are a number of concerns related to integrating
informal Native education into the formal education system. These include
research methodologies utilized; protection of cultural and intellectual
property rights; and recognition of traditional indigenous knowledge,
traditional teachers, and elders.
American Indian Education; Canada Natives; Chippewa
(Tribe); Cultural Education; Cultural Maintenance; Educational Practices;
Foreign Countries; Holistic Approach; Intellectual Property; Lifelong
Learning; Nonformal Education; Tribally Controlled Education; Odawa
(Tribe); Ontario; Potawatomi (Tribe).
22. Rae, D. (2005). Mid-career
entrepreneurial learning. Education & Training, 47(8-9), 562-574.
Recent research on entrepreneurship education has emphasised school,
college and university students, with less attention being paid to
entrepreneurial learning among people in older age groups. However the
ageing population of the UK and other developed countries means that there
is a need for an increasing proportion of the existing working population,
from a broad social and demographic background, to develop entrepreneurial
skills in mid-career in order to find new opportunities for economic
activity and to extend their working lives. This goal requires better
understanding of the learning needs and processes of mid-career
entrepreneurs MCEs between the ages of 35 and 55. This article aims to
enhance the understanding of mid-career entrepreneurial learning by
exploring how and why people develop entrepreneurial skills in mid-career,
how these skills are deployed in working on opportunities, what types of
learning are most effective, and conclusions for the design of MCE
learning experiences. A research method was used with emergent MCEs
participating in a postgraduate entrepreneurship module. This evaluated
learning, skill acquisition and practice to inform both learner and
educator. This paper explores the types of opportunities identified and
the learning methods used. It proposes implications for mid-career
learners based on a framework for entrepreneurial learning, in the context
of the broader perspectives of mid-career and mid-life change and
development. It develops a career stage model for entrepreneurship, and
discusses the implications for the design of learning programmes for MCEs.
MCEs have enhanced lifelong and work-based learning and experience
compared with younger people, but display great variety in their
aspirations, work and career experience, educational attainment, ethnic
and national diversity, and participation in social networks. The article
proposes ways o| f enhancing mid-career entrepreneurial learning. This
paper makes a distinctive contribution to the understanding of
entrepreneurial learning in a significant age group.
Entrepreneurship; Business Education; Skill Development;
Adult Education; Learning Strategies; Lifelong Learning; Adults;
Educational Opportunities; Foreign Countries; Career Development.
23. Schaie, K. W., & Elder, G.
H. (2005). Historical influences on lives and aging. New York:
book focuses on the ways in which the life course of individuals is
affected by the historical contexts in which they live. The editors, along
with contributors, explore the following pivotal concerns: how historical
changes, such as immigration, affect the life course; the impact of
historical transitions within societies, such as the collapse of the
Soviet Union; the linking mechanisms, such as how coming of age in wartime
affected young people during World War II. One of the goals of this book
is to help readers gain a better understanding of the immediate and
long-range effects of historical events on lives and aging.
Life Cycle; Human Social Aspects; Life Change Events;
Social Change Psychological Aspects; Emigration and Immigration;
Developmental Psychology; Social Psychology; Aging.
Sohnesen, T. P., & Blom, A. (2005). Is formal
lifelong learning a profitable investment for all of life? How age,
education level, and flexibility of provision affect rates of return to
adult education in Colombia. Washington: DC: New Economics Paper.
Lifelong learning is a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and
productivity growth in Colombia. With no long-term longitudinal data, the
authors estimate rates of return for simulated re-entry into the education
system; the findings suggest that adult formal education initiatives
should focus on twenty through forty year olds and be designed flexibly to
allow for part- time work.
Education; Adult; Colombia; Equity; Teaching and Learning;
Gender; Primary Education; Tertiary Education.
Tougas, F., Lagacé, M., De La Sablonnière, R., & Kocum, L. (2004).
A new approach to the link between identity and
relative deprivation in the perspective of ageism and retirement.
International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 59(1), 1-23.
Although the work force is aging, views regarding older workers remain
negative. As a result, complaints of discrimination on the basis of age
have increased. This situation prompts the following questions: what leads
aging workers to acknowledge disparities between younger workers and
themselves, and what are the consequences for aging workers of integrating
into their self-image some of the characteristics commonly associated with
their cohort? These questions are examined in light of a new approach to
the link between identity and relative deprivation. The following
hypotheses were included in a predictive model: the more individuals
include characteristics of their group into their self-descriptions, the
more they experience personal deprivation when comparing their own
situation to that of younger workers. These feelings, in turn, affect them
during retirement in terms of lowered self-esteem and decreased
satisfaction with their life. This model was tested among 149 young
retirees. Hypotheses were confirmed, and it was shown that end-of-career
experiences have an impact on the situation of young retirees. The more
individuals integrated characteristics of aging workers, the more they
felt personally deprived as a result of invidious comparisons with young
co-workers. The latter also had a negative impact on self-esteem and life
satisfaction. Implications of results and new avenues of research are
Ageism; Deprivation; Life Satisfaction; Retirement; Self
Concept; Employee Characteristics; Quality of Work Life; Changes in Paid
Warren, J. R., Hauser, R. M., & Sheridan, J. T. (2002).
Occupational stratification across the life course:
Evidence from the Wisconsin longitudinal study. American Sociological
Review, 67(3), 432-455.
Sociologists all too often study changes across cohorts in the
consequences of family background, gender, education, & cognitive ability
for occupational outcomes. However, this study focuses on how the
consequences of these variables change within the course of individuals'
lives. To accurately estimate changes across the life course in the
determinants of occupational standing, corrections are made for
measurement errors in variables, & data on siblings are used to account
for all aspects (measured & unmeasured) of family background. The analyses
use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, which provides multiple
measures of siblings' occupational standing at four moments in their
lives. Models of sibling resemblance demonstrate that the effects of
family background on occupational standing operate entirely through their
effects on education & cognitive ability. The effects of education decline
across the life course, at the same time the effects of ability remain
small but persistent. In comparing men & women, significant differences
are found in career trajectories & in life course changes in occupational
returns to schooling.
Life Cycle; Cognitive Functioning; Educational Attainment;
Social Background; Occupational Status; Wisconsin; Siblings; Sex
Waycott, J., Jones, A., & Scanlon, E. (2005).
PDAs as lifelong learning tools: An activity theory based
analysis. Learning, Media & Technology, 30(2), 107-130.
paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze
the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and
appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use
of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning
or their work. It is argued that there are two key strengths in using an
activity theory framework in this context. The first strength is the
emphasis activity theory places on tools, including computer artifacts, as
mediators of activity. This emphasis focuses attention on the activity
itself rather than, for example, simply the interaction between the human
and the computer. The focus is on the learner or user's objectives and
activities and the computer is the tool through which the user achieves
her objectives. The second strength was referred to briefly above. The AT
perspective also enabled analysis of an interactive dynamic process of
users or learners and their tools - in this case personal digital
assistants (PDAs). It revealed a two way process in which the user adapts
the tools they use according to their everyday practice and preferences in
order to carry out their activities; and how, in turn, the tools
themselves also modify the activities that the user is engaged in. Three
case studies illustrate these processes. The first case study is of
distance learners' use of e-books on PDAs, to supplement their access to
other static media such as books and computers. The second case study
investigated how mobile workers in the energy industry used mobile devices
to access information when away from the office. The third and final case
study investigated the use of mobile devices in an art gallery. The paper
concludes with a discussion of the information access needs that are
apparent in each of these learning contexts, and highlights the pertinent
issues in the use of mobile technologies to support lifelong learners'
Arts Centers; Case Studies; Information Needs; Internet;
Lifelong Learning; Telecommunications; Computers; Distance Education; Work
Environment; Case Studies.
28. Williams, J. (2005). Skill
as metaphor: An analysis of terminology used in "Success for All" and
"21st Century Skills". Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29(2),
paper considers the significance of the term “skills” in recent policy
documents concerning the future developments of post-16 education. This
paper argues that the skills debate, as outlined in "Success For All" and
"21st Century Skills", comprises two dominant discourses: it is considered
necessary for youngsters to gain skills for their personal employability
and the nation's increased prosperity; and the acquisition of skills by
students is judged vital for social inclusion and a coherent society. The
documents present these dual objectives as being inextricably linked.
Treating the signifier 'skill' as a metaphor helps expose the ideology
behind the Labour Government's thinking on further education (FE). Skills
are used to symbolize something of material worth, with a specific
exchange value; a tangible product, like a natural resource; social
capital; or education and learning. This paper deconstructs these four
metaphorical uses of the term skills, within an analysis of "Success For
All" and "21st Century Skills".
Employment Potential; Figurative Language; Adult Education;
Social Capital; Skill Development; Education Work Relationship; Lifelong