and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
School-to-Work Transitions [PDF]
Ahier, J., Chaplain, R., Linfield, R., Moore, R., & Williams,
J. (2000). School work experience: Young people and the labour
market. Journal of Education and Work, 13(3), 273-288.
Interviews with 139 secondary teachers, 60 students, and 32 employers
showed that employers provided work experience for public relations and
recruitment purposes. Teachers felt students developed skills and
experience of the world of work. Students gained skills and information
and were able to sample jobs. Distinctions between structural and
attitudinal limitations on work experience were identified.
Economic Change; Foreign Countries; Secondary Education;
Skill Development; Student Employment; Work Experience; England.
2. Audas, R., Berde, E., & Dolton, P. (2005).
Youth unemployment and
labour market transitions in Hungary. Education Economics, 13(1),
Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the
problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people
and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies
has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal
data set relating to young people in Hungary over the period 1994-98.
Using data on each individual's labour market state over 4 years we
estimate a panel econometric model that explicitly allows for duration
dependence and individual unobserved heterogeneity to capture the
diversity of initial conditions faced by these young people in the labour
market. In modeling the education and employment decisions in the
transition from school to work we find strong evidence of the importance
of individuals making good initial career decisions and an enduring effect
of academic achievement on labour market and education outcomes.
Foreign Countries; Young Adults; Youth Employment;
Unemployment; Labor Market; Education Work Relationship; Academic
Achievement; Longitudinal Studies.
3. Brown, D.
(2000). Theory and school-to-work transition: Are the recommendations
suitable for cultural minorities? Career Development Quarterly, 48(4),
Argues that while the special June 1999 issue of "The Career Development
Quarterly" that dealt with school-to-work transitions was an admirable
attempt to link theory to practice, both the theories used and practices
suggested failed to take into account the special concerns of cultural
minorities. Provides suggestions for improving theory and practice to make
them more culturally sensitive.
Career Development; Culturally Relevant Education;
Education Work Relationship; Minority Groups; Student Needs; Theory
4. Cabral-Cardoso, C. J.
(2001). Too academic to get a proper job? The difficult transition of PhDs
to the "real world" of industry. Career Development International, 6(4),
this paper, responses from more than 1,100 Portuguese doctoral students
and Ph.D. graduates in science and technology indicated that 79% preferred
jobs in academia; 70% wanted primarily research and development (R&D), but
only 45% wanted industrial R&D. They generally feel overqualified for most
jobs in industry and anticipate a difficult adjustment to that
Doctoral Degrees; Education Work Relationship; Foreign
Countries; Industry; Occupational Aspiration; Research and Development;
Scientists; Vocational Adjustment.
5. Canny, A. (2001).
Researching the transition from school to work: A comparative perspective.
The Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 23(3), 363-372.
article presents findings from a comparative study that examined English &
Irish adolescents' transition from school to work. The article presents an
overview of the context in which the study was performed, emphasizing the
fluctuations in the Irish & English labor markets since the mid-1980s &
their effects upon employment patterns for Irish & English young people.
Data collected from the English & Irish Labour Force Surveys from 1988
through 1997 were analyzed to illustrate the school-to-work transition of
young people in both nations; in addition, interviews (N = 46 total) with
personnel directors, employer & employee representatives, youth
organizers, & policy officials were conducted. The study revealed that
high levels of English & Irish students are remaining in post-compulsory
education; however, a substantially larger percentage of English students
ages 16-19 were attending school full time while maintaining full-time
jobs. It is concluded that young people who have left the educational
system early in either nation should return to school in order to take
advantage of new developments in both labor markets.
England; Ireland; Life Stage Transitions; Labor Market;
Adolescents; Youth Employment; Education Work Relationship; Work and
6. Canny, A. (2004). What
employers want and what employers do: Cumbrian employers' recruitment,
assessment and provision of education/learning opportunities for their
young workers. Journal of Education and Work, 17(4), 495-513.
article is based upon research which examined the youth labour market in
Cumbria, a predominantly rural labour market located in north-west
England. It argues that individual and structural considerations must be
extended to incorporate employer behaviour and attitudes towards young men
and women. Employers' assessment of young people's skills; their
willingness to consider both young males and females for jobs; and the
extent to which they are prepared through education/training to address
skill gaps and/or enhance career opportunities, can have significant
implications for young people's labour market opportunities. While these
issues affect all young people, those living in restricted rural labour
markets can face particular difficulties. Those who have poor social
networks are at risk of marginalisation and/or exclusion because rural
employers rely almost exclusively upon local labour that is recruited
through a mix of local formal and informal networks. Therefore young
people's ability and/or willingness to seek opportunities outside their
local area is an important consideration. While employed young people are
concentrated in relatively low-skilled jobs, the extent to which they have
access to formal career and education/training opportunities is dependent
upon the size and profile of local employers. There are also significant
inter-county differences in the type of employment opportunities available
to young people. Young people in west Cumbria, especially males, are
reliant upon a declining manufacturing sector. Movement into service
sector employment is likely to prove difficult because of the type of
skills being demanded by employers. The findings suggest that young males
knowledge and understanding of labour market change are issues that may
need attention. However, there may be a reluctance and/or bias on the part
of some local employers to recruit young men because they are not
considered to have the requisite skills.
Foreign Countries; Employment Opportunities; Social
Networks; Males; Manufacturing; Labor Market; Educational Opportunities;
Education Work Relationship; Rural Areas; Employer Attitudes.
7. Chang, W. (2002). A
study on the transition from school to the world of work in Korea.
Seoul: Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training.
school-to-work transition in Korea was examined in a comprehensive study
that included an overview of the realities of the school-to-work
transition in Korea and a survey of 694 Koreans aged 15-29 years who had
completed high school. The sample included 366 respondents who were in
enrolled in a two-year college or higher level of postsecondary education.
The study established that Korean schools and society are not
systematically helping Korean youths make the transition from school to
work but are instead leaving responsibility for a successful
school-to-work transition to graduates themselves. Many Korean students
were being forced to seek employment individually through informal means.
Even after entering the workforce, many Korean graduates faced problems
adjusting to the environment, adverse work conditions, and bleak future
prospects. The following were among the seven recommendations for
establishing a school-to-work transition network: (1) provide all students
with preparation for the workplace, including workplace experience and
field training; (2) provide the diversity and flexibility required to
ensure opportunities for employment and continued education after high
school; (3) establish an institutional mechanism for networking schools
and enterprises; and (4) establish a local network to enable all members
of society to share the responsibility of smoothing students' transition
into the workplace.
Adjustment (to Environment); Articulation (Education);
Colleges; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Developing Nations; Education
Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Planning;
Educational Policy; Educational Quality; Employment Opportunities;
Employment Patterns; Employment Qualifications; Employment Services;
Enrollment Trends; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; High Schools; Higher
Education; Job Placement; Labor Market; Literature Reviews; Outcomes of
Education; Policy Formation; Systems Approach; Trend Analysis; Two Year
Colleges; Universities; Vocational Education; Work Environment; Youth
Employment; Korea; Work and Learning.
8. Cherednichenko, G. A.
(2005). The life trajectories of young people at different stages of
education. Russian Education and Society, 47(5), 7-29.
not conceivable that young people can acquire social status without a
general education and professional training. By developing a person's
socially significant natural talents, abilities, and personal
inclinations, the system of education is preparing him or her not only to
take part in production activity but also to become a full-fledged member
of the socium. For the young men and women themselves, becoming an
independent adult entails making a series of decisions that depend on the
education that they already have and that foster its further growth.
Professional Training; Young Adults; Social Status.
9. Cook, T., & Furstenberg, F.
F., Jr. (2002). Explaining aspects of the transition to adulthood in
Italy, Sweden, Germany, and the United States: A cross-disciplinary, case
synthesis approach. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science, 580(Mar), 257-287.
article synthesizes essays on Italy, Sweden, Germany, and the United
States that were presented at a conference seeking to explain the school,
work, and family findings outlined in these foregoing chapters. Three
essays were written per country by a social historian, by a developmental
scientist, and by someone in social policy. This article synthesizes these
country-specific accounts. For Italy, the synthesis constructed stresses
the accommodations the Italian family has to make because of the
protracted period during which adult children live at home. For Sweden,
the synthesis emphasizes the willingness of many formal and informal
institutions to support youthful experimentation, so long as it does not
go over into the early twenties. For Germany, the synthesis stresses the
strains the apprenticeship system is under because of the increasing
strength of market-oriented labor policies in German business. And for the
United States, the synthesis emphasizes how race and poverty create
particularly difficult transitions in a nation that stresses individual
initiative, and where second or third chances are available but are not
Italy; Sweden; Federal Republic of Germany; United States
of America; Youth; Adults; Young Adults.
10. Cuoppie, T., & Epiphane,
D. (2002). Closing the gender gap? Non-traditional curriculum and entry
into working life. Training and Employment, 44(6), 1 - 4.
Findings from the 1992 Generation survey carried out by Creq in 1997 among
young people exiting the French school system demonstrates that
work-related disparities encountered by young labor market entrants in
France can be characterized according to the worker's gender. Obstacles
facing women include the following: (1) risk of unemployment or imposed
part-time work; (2) lower wages; and (3) more difficult access to
managerial posts. These inequalities are often interpreted to be the
result of gender segregation or unequal access in the educational process.
Under specific conditions, non-traditional education and training (in
programs usually reserved for men) can benefit young women in the
school-to-work transition. However, in the most mixed training programs
(programs traditionally chosen by men and women alike), women still face
more workplace disparities than men. Gender inequities do tend to diminish
as training levels increase. Gradual improvement is also happening due to
labor market influences such as the 35-hour work week and other government
policies and changing perceptions about gender roles and stereotypes.
Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Degrees (Academic); Developed
Nations: Education Work Relationship; Employment Opportunities;
Educational Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Entry Workers; Equal
Education; Females; Gender Issues; High Schools; Job Placement; Job
Security; Labor Market; Males; Managerial Occupations; Nontraditional
Occupations; Outcomes of Education; Part Time Employment; Postsecondary
Education; Public Policy; Salary Wage Differentials; Sex Bias; Sex
Differences; Sex Discrimination; Sex Fairness; Sex Stereotypes; Skilled
Occupations; Socioeconomic Status; Tenure; Unemployment; Vocational
Education; Women's Education; Working Hours; Youth Employment; France;
Work And Learning.
11. Eisenman, L. T. (2003).
Theories in practice: School-to-work transitions-for-youth with mild
disabilities. Exceptionality, 11(2), 89-102.
Discussion of school-to-work (STW) transitions for youth with mild
disabilities first summarizes current research and models of practice on
STW transition in special education, then identifies implicit yet
infrequently named theories in research and practice, makes connections to
STW theories outside special education, and suggests how emerging
perspectives can shape future research.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Practices; High
Schools; Mild Disabilities; Models; Research Needs; Research Utilization;
Special Education; Theory Practice Relationship; Transitional Programs.
12. Evans, K. B., Martina;
Kaluza, Jens. (2000). Learning and work in the risk society: Lessons for
the labour markets of Europe from Eastern Germany. New York, NY: Palgrave.
education-to-labor market transitions experienced by young people in
England and in eastern and western Germany were compared. The eastern
German portion of the study was based on a 1996 study that included a
survey of 100 trainers and 1,000 apprentices in 12 companies; in-depth
interviews with 18 trainers, career advisers, and others; and interviews
with 12 young eastern Germans who had experienced relatively smooth
education-to-work transitions and 12 young eastern Germans whose
education-to-work transitions had not been smooth. The findings were
compared with those of earlier interviews with 12 western German and 12
English youths who had recently completed the education-to-labor market
transition. The analysis of transition behaviors and experiences in
eastern Germany revealed considerable resonances with the problems and
contradictions that have beset British education and training policy in
recent decades. It was concluded that the erosion of the dual system of
vocational education and training (employer-sponsor apprenticeships and
government-sponsored vocational schools) documented in eastern Germany
might portend future trends in western Germany. (Twenty tables/figures are
included. The following items are appended: chronicle of events in
1989-1990; information about Leipzig's school system; diagrams
illustrating school-to-work trajectories in West Germany and England; and
a report on a study of transitions, careers, and destinations in West
Germany and England.
Adult Education; At Risk Persons; Career Choice; Career
Development; Career Ladders; College Graduates; Comparative Analysis;
Delivery Systems; Economic Climate; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Environment; Educational Needs; Educational Policy;
Educational Trends; Employment Patterns; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries;
Graduate Surveys; Job Training; Labor Market; Labor Supply; Needs
Assessment; Outcomes of Education; Politics; Postsecondary Education;
Social Change; Systems Approach; Tables (Data); Teacher Attitudes;
Trainers; Trend Analysis; Unemployment; Vocational Adjustment; Vocational
Education; Youth Employment.
13. Feller, R. W. (2003).
Aligning school counseling, the changing workplace, and career development
assumptions. Professional School Counseling, 6(4), 262-271.
Examines the role of school counselors and school counseling programs in
preparing students for learning and work transitions. Offers advice for
students to respond effectively to changing workplace needs and
information on work skills that are required for graduates and job
applicants. Addresses strategies in developing comprehensive career
Career Development; Counselor Role; Education Work
Relationship; Employment Patterns; Employment Potential; Job Skills;
Program Development; School Counseling; School Counselors; Work
14. Finnie, R. (2000). From
school to work: The evolution of early labour market outcomes of Canadian
postsecondary graduates. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques,
article reports the results of an empirical analysis of the early labor
market outcomes of Canadian postsecondary graduates based on the National
Graduates Surveys, representing those who finished their college or
university programs in 1982, 1986, and 1990. The major findings include
that postsecondary graduates have generally been doing quite well as a
group, with most finding full-time and permanent jobs, receiving
reasonably high earnings, and otherwise successfully moving into the labor
market according to the various outcomes measured here; that the
school-to-work transition is clearly a process, rather than an event, with
most outcomes improving significantly from two to five years following
graduation; that these outcomes vary by level (College, Bachelor's,
Master's, PhD) and sex; and that successive cohorts of graduates did not
experience any widespread decline in their labor market fortunes over this
Education Work Relationship; Labor Market; Canada; College
Graduates; Wages; Labor Force Participation; Employment; Occupational
Status; Sex Differences; Work and Learning.
15. Gallart, M. A. (2001).
Poverty, youth, and training: A study on four countries in Latin America.
Compare, 48a(1), 113-128.
Evaluates educational and occupational variables in a target population of
youth in four Latin American countries. Argues that poor youth miss the
formal education necessary for entry into the labor market. Questions
whether training systems compensate for this limitation and whether these
training courses connect with the labor market.
Comparative Education; Economics; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; Job Training;
Occupational Information; Poverty; Qualitative Research; Secondary
Education; Vocational Education; Youth.
16. Gangl, M. (2001). European
patterns of labour market entry: A dichotomy of occupationalized vs. non-occupationalized
systems? European Societies, 3(4), 471-494.
recent comparative studies of school-to-work transitions have revolved
around the notion of an institutional dichotomy of transition arrangements
that distinguishes the occupational labor markets of countries exhibiting
extensive systems of vocational training and apprenticeships from the
organizational markets found in countries with less integrated education
and employment systems. This study scrutinizes this idea by assessing the
extent to which patterns of labor market entry in twelve European Union
countries empirically conform to the expected dichotomy. Based on cluster
and discriminant analyses, three rather than two typical patterns emerge
from the analyses: first, the continental European countries running
extensive vocational training systems; second, those Northern European
countries lacking such systems, and, finally, a homogeneous set of
Southern European countries. While the first contrast is apparently
broadly consistent with current institutionalist arguments about the
impact of linkages between training systems and labor markets, the
explanation for the deviation of the Southern European case is wanting.
The results suggest both the need to incorporate additional institutional
aspects into current transition research, but also stress the limitations
of typological approaches in explaining cross-national differences in
transition processes more generally.
Europe; Life Stage Transitions; Labor Force Participation;
Crosscultural Differences; Labor Market; Vocational Education;
17. Gendron, B. (2005). The
French vocational "baccalaureat" diploma: Space of a plural transition for
the youth. European Journal: Vocational Training(36), 33-46.
French secondary hierarchical educational system resting upon strong
structuring dualisms, has been modified by the creation of the vocational
baccalaureat. This aims at offering students who failed in general
education a path for continuing their studies or catching up through
tracks that are socially more prestigious. Some 20 years after its
creation, do students find in this diploma a chance to create their own
pathway? Has it changed the social perception of vocational education and
training (VET)? From our research, this track seems to be, for students, a
space, time and period for a plural transition: from failure to success,
from weak self-esteem to self-confidence, from dependence to autonomy,
from childhood to adulthood, from school to work. Using case-studies, we
analyse the diverse transitions occurring, mainly during the school
period, through the dynamic of social representation of VET.
Vocational Education; Academic Degrees; Youth; Secondary
Education; Case Studies; Foreign Countries; Education Work Relationship.
Gerber, T. P. (2003). Loosening links?
School-to-work transitions and institutional change in Russia since 1970.
Social Forces, 82(1), 241-276.
from a survey of 4,809 Russians were used to examine the association
between educational attainment and first occupation for Russians who
completed their education and entered the labor market between 1970 and
2000. The results confirm previous findings of continuity in social
stratification in post-Soviet Russia, despite rapid, major institutional
changes connected with market transition.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment;
Educational Status Comparison; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Sex
Differences; Social Change; Social Stratification; Sociocultural Patterns.
19. Goodwin, J., & O'Connor,
H. (2001). "I couldn't wait for the day": Young workers' reflections on
education during the transition to work in the 1960s. CLMS working paper
(No. No33). Lancaster: Economic and Social Research Council.
Researchers analyzed 500 never-before-analyzed interviews from a study
conducted by Norbert Elias and other researchers at University of
Leicester in 1962, which was one of the first studies of the transition
from school to work. The Elias study explored how young people in England
experienced work and adjusted their lives to the work role. All of the
interviews analyzed were from males, most of whom were aged 15 and in
their first jobs. About 100 were from males 16 or older, and 12 of the
interviewees were in at least their fourth job. The data suggest that the
workers' pre-work home and school experiences were important in their
expectations and experiences of work. For the majority, school was largely
negative and most wanted to leave, despite having low and negative
expectations of work. Earning money was a key dimension of work, although
the extent to which the young workers realized their desires to earn and
spend money depended a great deal on the household allocation of
resources. The data suggest that young people in the 1960s had concerns
similar to present day youths' about the school to work transition.
Education Work Relationship; Employer Employee
Relationship; Entry Workers; Expectation; Family Role; Family-Work
Relationship; Field Interviews; Foreign Countries; Job Satisfaction;
National Surveys; Noncollege Bound Students; Qualitative Research; School
Attitudes; Secondary Education; Social History; Student Attitudes;
Vocational Adjustment; Work Attitudes; Work Life Expectancy; Youth
Employment; Allowances (Pocket Money); Life Transitions; 1960s; Work and
20. Goodwin, J., & O'Connor,
H. (2005). Engineer, mechanic or carpenter? Boys' transitions to work in
the 1960s. Journal of Education & Work, 18(4), 451-471.
this paper, the authors seek to examine the gendered nature of boys'
school to work transitions for a group of young male workers entering
employment for the first time in the 1960s. They argue that such an
enquiry is important because past studies of transitions have not
problematised boys' school to work transitions in terms of gender.
Moreover, where gender has been employed as an analytical category, it has
been used as shorthand to describe the experiences of women. They drew
upon data from Norbert Elias's largely unknown "Adjustment of young
workers to work situations and adult roles" project to examine the boys'
experiences of the transition process in terms of reflections on school,
thinking about work, finding and adjusting to work and thinking about the
future. Analysis of these data reveals that young males do experience the
transition to work as a gendered process and paid employment confirms
aspects of their male identity.
Males; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries;
Sexual Identity; Gender Differences; Early School Leavers; Occupational
Aspiration; Masculinity; Labor Market.
21. Gregory, R. J. (2002).
Enhancing the school to work transition: Big picture ideas for young
people. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 10(4),
people are facing an unprecedented global situation, given several recent
developments, such as population increases & technology that have reduced
the requirements for general labor & for entry jobs. As a result, many
young people are disenchanted, disillusioned, & frustrated. All too many
are caught up in disastrous social situations, & some commit suicide.
However, given diminished resources, rapid population increases, emergence
of the proverbial powers-that-be & their stranglehold on the economy &
society, & other factors, significant change in the global system appears
difficult. Long-range remedies must look to young people themselves,
unless the vested powers that be, or more liberal & progressive
leadership, create more vocational & lifestyle opportunities.
Youth; Life Stage Transitions; World Problems; Employment
Opportunities; The Family and Socialization; Adolescence & Youth; Work and
22. Heinz, W., & Taylor, A.
(2005). Learning and work transition policies in comparative perspective:
Canada and Germany. In N. Bascia, D. Livingstone, K. Leithwood, A. Cumming
& A. Datnow (Eds.), International handbook of educational policy.
New York: Kluwer.
The author looks
at the growing influence of today's newest "Creative Class," which derives
its identity and values from its role as purveyors of creativity and
comprises nearly 40 million Americans and 25 percent of all employed
people. The author also provides innovative and practical lessons for
businesses and employees.
School-to-work Transitions; Formal Education; Paid Employment; Work and
23. Herschbach, D., &
Campbell, C. (Eds.). (2000). Workforce preparation: An international
perspective. Ann Arbor: Tech Directions Books.
this book, 20 leaders in workforce/vocational education and training from
around the world detail how different countries are changing their schools
and workplaces to strengthen employment-related education.
Vocational Education; Occupational Training; Work and
24. Hyland, T., & Musson, D.
(2001). Unpacking the new deal for young people: Promise and problems.
Educational Studies, 27(1), 55-67.
two years of operation on a national scale, the New Deal Welfare to Work (WtW)
program for young people aged 18-24 (New Deal for Young People [NDYP]) has
been extensively evaluated both by official government & independent
researchers. This research is analyzed within a policy framework and the
main findings are examined against the background of a case study of the
NDYP by Coventry Employment Services. The article concludes with
suggestions for the improvement of NDYP program.
Welfare Reform; Young Adults; Great Britain; Vocational
Education; Public Policy; Workfare; Job Training; Welfare Policy.
25. Iannelli, C. (2004).
School variation in youth transitions in Ireland, Scotland and the
Netherlands. Comparative Education, 40(3), 401-425.
recent years there has been a growing interest in the comparative study of
youth transitions. National and international studies have analysed the
role of individual and institutional (education and labour market) factors
in shaping the transition from school to the labour market. Using data
drawn from a cross-national database of secondary school leavers and
multilevel modelling, this paper aims to improve upon the existing
research through the analysis of the effect of school factors (as well as
individual factors) on pupils' post-school outcomes. Results show that
school variations in pupils' post-school outcomes are mainly accounted for
by curriculum type in the Netherlands, individual factors in Scotland and
a mix of individual and school factors in Ireland.
Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; International
Studies; Students; Labor Market; Education Work Relationship.
26. Jones, L.,
Agbayani-Siewert, P., & Friaz, G. (1998). Effects of economic stress on
high school students' views of work and the future. Social Work in
Education, 20(1), 11-24.
Examines high school students' (N=500) values and attitudes toward work
and employment. Assesses participants' status on two mental health
measures and discusses the practical implications of the findings.
Students with low confidence in finding work had more mental health
problems than students with high confidence.
Adolescents; Cultural Differences; Economic Climate; High
School Students; High Schools; Mental Disorders; Socioeconomic Status;
Student Attitudes; Unemployment; Values; Work Attitudes; Work Ethic.
27. Kirby, J. R., Knapper, C.
K., Maki, S. A., Egnatoff, W. J., & van Melle, E. (2002). Computers and
students' conceptions of learning: The transition from post-secondary
education to the workplace. Educational Technology & Society, 5(2),
Describes a survey of post-secondary students that assessed conceptions of
learning and their preparation for the workplace. Highlights include use
of information technology; perceptions of the learning environment;
perceptions of learning needs and skills; perceptions of the demands of
the future workplace; and lifelong learning.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Environment;
Educational Technology; Futures of Society; Information Technology; Job
Skills; Job Training; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary
Education; Student Attitudes; Student Surveys.
28. Krahn, H., & Taylor, A.
(2005). Resilient teenagers: Explaining the high educational aspirations
of visible minority immigrant youth in Canada. Journal of International
Migration and Integration, 6(3/4), 405-434.
Although schools may “damage” visible minority immigrant students in
unseen ways, in general these students have high educational aspirations.
National survey data from the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) show
that the educational aspirations of 15-year old visible minority immigrant
Canadians are much higher than those of their native-born non-visible
minority counterparts, even when we control for a wide range of
socio-demographic, social psychological, and school performance factors.
While these factors account for much of the observed difference between
the aspirations of visible minority immigrant students and others, future
research is required to better understand these differences and their
implications for educational and occupational achievement.
Young Adults; Canada; Immigrants; Occupational Aspiration.
29. Lamb, S. (2001). The
pathways from school to further study and work for Australian graduates.
Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth, 19, 1-46.
pathways of Australian graduates in their transition from school to
further study and work were examined by analyzing Australian Youth Survey
data regarding graduates who obtained a university degree or technical and
further education (TAFE) diploma and who were enrolled for such
qualifications in their seventh postschool year. Ninety-four percent of
young Australians who obtained tertiary qualifications made relatively
successful transitions to full-time work. Only 6% recorded experiencing
major difficulty in obtaining stable full-time work or extended episodes
of unemployment, part-time work, or periods out of the labor force.
Characteristics associated with difficulty finding stable full-time
employment were as follows: graduating a TAFE rather than with a
university qualification; being from a low socioeconomic background;
graduating in the fields of arts and humanities, social sciences, or
education; and graduating from government schools. Although labor market
benefits for graduates varied depending on pathway and study, tertiary
qualifications appeared to smooth young people's transition to work. The
study results supported recent policy efforts to expand the number of
tertiary places and alter policies regarding government income support so
as to encourage more young Australians to participate in tertiary
education. Definitions of the study variables and two additional tables
Graduates; High School Students; Life Stage Transitions;
Labor Force Participation; Higher Education; Education Work Relationship;
Australia; Work and Learning.
30. Lehmann, W., & Taylor, A.
(2003). Giving employers what they want? New vocationalism in Alberta.
Journal of Education & Work, 16(1), 45-67.
article examines three school-to-work initiatives developed in the 1990s
in Alberta, Canada as reflections of a new vocational discourse that
challenges traditional academic/ vocational divisions. Our purpose is to
consider whether new initiatives have the potential to be more progressive
than earlier approaches. Drawing on policy documents and interviews with
representatives from government, industry, education, and organised
labour, the article focuses on the extent to which the policy discourse
appears to support the kind of progressivism envisioned by more critical
or reflective proponents of new vocationalism. Findings suggest that
policy debates in Alberta surrounding vocational high school education
continue to be largely focused on employer expectations and workplace
socialisation, while more progressive perspectives that focus on the
integration of academic and vocational learning as well as a deeper
exploration of the social relations at work generally remain unexplored.
High Schools; Initiative; School-to-Work Transition;
Vocational Education; Employer Attitudes.
31. Lehmann, W. (2005).
Choosing to labour: Structure and agency in school-work transitions.
Canadian journal of sociology, 30(3), 325-350.
Little is known about how young people rationalize their educational and
occupational plans and what this might tell us about structure and agency
in school-work transitions. Based on a multi-method comparison of youth
apprentices in Canada and Germany, the range of school-work transition
alternatives realistically under consideration was circumscribed by
socio-economic status, habitus, cultural capital, and institutional
factors. While vocational choices reproduced class position, youth
apprentices saw their entry into the trades as an expression of a
preference for, and identity with, working-class ideals of manual work.
Further analysis suggests that these narratives can also be interpreted as
post-facto rationalization strategies in response to public discourses
that equate life course success with ever higher levels of educational
Education; Youth; Occupational Choice; Comparative
Analysis; Case Studies; Labour; Agency; Schools; Sociology; Germany;
Leventhal, T., Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001).
Adolescent transitions to young adulthood: Antecedents,
correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment. Journal of
Research on Adolescence, 11(3), 297-323.
Investigated antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent
employment among low-income, African American youth. Found that those who
had repeated a grade were more likely to enter the workforce at later
ages, those who entered the workforce earlier were more likely to complete
high school, and stable employment during adolescence had beneficial
effects on male college attendance.
Adolescent Development; Adolescents; Black Employment;
Blacks; Education Work Relationship; Employment Patterns; Longitudinal
Studies; Student Employment; Urban Environment; Young Adults; Youth
33. Levin, B. (2000). Schools
and work: Towards a research agenda. In Y. Lenoir (Ed.), The
Pan-Canadian education research agenda (pp. 19-35). Ottawa: Canadian
Society for Studies in Education.
paper examines current knowledge, current research capacity, and
possibilities for increased capacity and a focused research agenda on the
links between schools and work. The paper first describes the political
and economic context for thinking about school-work issues, noting the
difficulties this issue has provided and continues to present to
policy-makers and practitioners. The article describes research capacity
in Canada in light of an ideal-type model, noting both strengths and
weaknesses in current arrangements. The paper provides a brief review of
main findings from literature in Canada and other literature which
highlight the complexity of the relationships between schools and the
School-to-work Transitions; Paid Employment; Formal
Education; Work and Learning.
34. Lin, Z. (2001). How do
university graduates cope with risk? Exploring the relationship between
education and work: An analysis of the 1992 national graduate survey.
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social
Sciences, 61(12), 4727-A.
University graduates in Canada have been significantly stratified by
fields of study (FOS) in terms of income, unemployment rates, job
prospects, and job satisfaction. Debates over the differential outcomes
afforded by a university education focus on the tension between cultural
and instrumental values, or the tension between liberal and vocational
education. This dissertation, under an assumption that liberal education
and vocational education are compatible, argues that an embedded liberal
education, which reconciles liberal and vocational education, will more
effectively prepare Canadian university graduates for the new century.
Coping; Risk; Education Work Relationship; College
Graduates; Academic Disciplines; College Majors; Occupational Choice;
Educational Mobility; Canada; Work and Learning; School-to-work
Transition; Paid Employment; Formal Education.
35. Linnehan, F. (2003). A
longitudinal study of work-based, adult-youth mentoring. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 63(1), 40-54.
school students in formal work-based mentoring (n=15), informal workplace
mentoring (n-24), no mentoring (n=23), or no employment (n-28) were
compared. At year's end, formally mentored students believed more strongly
in school's relevance to work. Mentored students had higher self-esteem
than the unemployed. Those highly satisfied with mentoring had higher
Education Work Relationship; High School Students;
Longitudinal Studies; Mentors; Relevance (Education); Satisfaction; Self
Esteem; Student Employment; Work and Learning.
36. Mannion, G. (2002). “Open
the gates an' that's it 'see ya later!'” School culture and young people's
transitions into post-compulsory education and training. Scottish
Educational Review, 34(1), 86-100.
study examined the role of school culture in student transitions to
postcompulsory education in Scotland. Findings from 36 focus groups with
152 secondary students, college students, and job trainees indicate that
schooling offered limited opportunities for identification with the world
of work and for pathways other than staying on, and precluded rather than
opened up choice.
Aspiration; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries;
Negative Attitudes; Postsecondary Education; Relevance (Education); School
Culture; Secondary Education; Social Class; Student Alienation; Student
Attitudes; Student Experience; Teacher Attitudes; Vocational Education.
37. Mellard, D. F., &
Lancaster, P. E. (2003). Incorporating adult community services in
students' transition planning. Remedial and Special Education, 24(6),
address the difficult problem of transition from school to adult community
services for students with learning disabilities (LD), this article
provides information on available community agencies, the resources they
offer, and ways school personnel might work with these agencies in an
effort to enhance successful transitions for individuals with LD.
Agency Cooperation; Ancillary School Services; Community
Services; Education Work Relationship; Learning Disabilities;
Postsecondary Education; School Community Relationship; Secondary
Education; Student Personnel Services; Transitional Programs.
38. Milsom, A., Akos, P., &
Thompson, M. (2004). A psychoeducational group approach to postsecondary
transition planning for students with learning disabilities. Journal
for Specialists in Group Work, 29(4), 395-411.
work has been identified as an important intervention to prepare children
and adolescents for a variety of transitions. Students with disabilities
can benefit from participation in psychoeducational groups as they prepare
for their transition to postsecondary school. This article describes a
psychoeducational group model designed to increase disability
self-awareness, increase postsecondary education knowledge, and promote
self-advocacy skills for students with learning disabilities.
Self Advocacy; Attitudes toward Disabilities; Learning
Disabilities; Psychoeducational Methods; Transitional Programs; Group
Counseling; School Counselors; High School Students; Intervention.
39. Misko, J. (2000).
Getting to grips with work experience. Adelaide: National Centre for
Vocational Education Research (NCVER).
booklet, which is intended for individuals responsible for organizing
student placements in work experience programs in Australia, provides an
overview of the basic issues regarding work experience programs. The
following are among the topics discussed in the 14 sections: (1)
understanding the characteristics and purposes of industry placements
(general work experience placements, vocational placements); (2) reviewing
research findings; (3) identifying needs and objectives (identifying
needs, setting objectives, describing goals and objectives); (4) planning
placements (deciding who will be involved, fulfilling legal and insurance
obligations, developing budgets, involving employers in planning
placements, catering to students with special medical conditions); (5)
clarifying student and employer expectations; (6) organizing placements
(exploring student preferences, resources and information sessions; (7)
arranging placements (school- versus student-negotiated placements); (8)
communicating information (informing employers, students, parents, other
teachers, and nonparticipating students); (9) preparing for placements
(preparing students, workplace supervisors, teachers, and coordinators and
conducting workshops for teachers and coordinators); (10) implementing
training; (11) monitoring student performance (visiting students in the
workplace, assessing student performance, conducting observations); (12)
reporting on student performance; (13) conducting follow-up activities;
and (14) evaluating placements (major and minor evaluations).
Annotated Bibliographies; Budgets; Compliance (Legal);
Cooperative Planning; Decision-Making; Definitions; Delivery Systems;
Educational Objectives; Educational Practices; Educational Research;
Educational Trends; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries;
Instructional Development; Instructor Coordinators; Job Training; Needs
Assessment; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Program
Development; Program Evaluation; Records (Forms); School Business
Relationship; Secondary Education; Special Needs Students; Student
Evaluation; Student Placement; Teacher Role; Technical Writing; Training
Methods; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Work Experience Programs.
40. Mobley, C. (2002).
Community colleges and the school-to-work transition: A multilevel
analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 72(2), 256-284.
Reports the results of a national study assessing the impact of community
colleges on school-to-work transition and the effects of race, gender, and
socioeconomic status on student outcomes. Concludes that several
variables, including transfer rate and the availability of career
counseling, were related to the effect of gender and class background on
wages and use of training on the job.
Community Colleges; Racial Differences; Sex Differences;
Socioeconomic Status; Education Work Relationship; Governance; State Role;
United States of America; Work and Learning.
Muller, W., & Gangl, M. (Eds.). (2003).
Transitions from education to work in Europe: The integration of youth
into EU labour markets. New York: Oxford University Press.
book compiles an integrated series of comparative empirical analyses of
education-to-work transitions in European Union countries. Individual
chapters describe the educational background of young people entering the
labour market, address the scope of educational expansion over the past
century, and chart basic structures of transition patterns in European
labour markets. Moreover, several chapters look at the role of individual
qualifications, and also the impact of recent employment turbulences and
structural change in the economy on school leavers' integration into the
labour market. From these, the structure of education and training systems
surfaces as a key institutional factor for facilitating smooth transitions
into the labour market. At the level of intermediate skills, vocational
training and apprenticeships have kept their advantages, in particular
with respect to youth unemployment. As devaluation trends have empirically
been limited so far, tertiary level qualifications similarly continue to
provide a most attractive inroad into the higher segments of the
School-to-work Transition; European Union; Youth
Employment; Labour Market; Work and Learning.
42. Murray, A. (2000). Changes
in the labour market for young adults without further education and
training. Journal of Education and Work, 13(3), 327-347.
7-year follow-up studies compared Swedish young adults without further
education to those who had 2 years of vocational education. Employment
rates decreased for all groups. The gap in employment opportunities
increased between women with and without vocational training. Vocational
graduates had increasing difficulty finding jobs for which they trained.
Employment Opportunities; Followup Studies; Foreign
Countries; Labor Market; Salary Wage Differentials; Secondary Education;
Vocational Education; Young Adults; Sweden.
43. Murray, C. (2003). Risk
factors, protective factors, vulnerability, and resilience: A framework
for understanding and supporting the adult transitions of youth with
high-incidence disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1),
article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective
factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with
disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with
high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are
identified, including building resilience through support at the
individual, family, school, and community levels.
Adolescents; At Risk Persons; Education Work Relationship;
Mild Disabilities; Models; Needs Assessment; Research and Development;
Resilience (Personality); Theory Practice Relationship; Transitional
44. Nayak, A. (2003). "Boyz to
men": Masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-industrial
times. Educational Review, 55(2), 147-159.
postindustrial society, masculinities at school must be understood in the
context of family, history, locality, and global change. An ethnography of
white working-class male school subculture shows how they resist
globalization by asserting traditional masculinity, providing the illusion
Change; Education Work Relationship; Employment;
Ethnography; Foreign Countries; Males; Masculinity; Sexual Identity;
45. Nerad, M., & Cerny, J.
(1999). From rumors to facts: Career outcomes of English Ph.D.s.
Communicator, 32(7), 1-11.
study examines actual employment patterns of Ph.D.s in an effort to
provide a basis for policy responses to what is felt to be a continuing
crisis in the academic job market for humanities Ph.D.s. The study
involved almost 6,000 Ph.D. candidates from 61 doctoral-granting
institutions across the United States. Six disciplines were chosen to
represent major fields of study: life science, engineering, humanities,
physical science, humanities, and social science; the survey population
accounted for 57 percent of Ph.D. degrees awarded. Some of the issues
examined include: different career paths of Ph.D.s; characteristics of
English Ph.D. respondents (expectations and goals, paths to the
professoriate, postdoctoral appointments); career paths of English Ph.D.s
within and outside academe (nonprofessional positions in academe,
business, government, and nonprofit sectors); satisfaction with current
employment and value of the Ph.D. (dimensions of job
satisfaction/dissatisfaction); median 1995 total annual salary by sector
and gender; usefulness of the doctoral education; value of the Ph.D.; and
the lack of assistance by university departments/advisors in their job
search. The study suggests a Career Management program for English
doctoral students that would ease the transition from education to
meaningful employment, citing the career workshop developed at the
University of California Berkeley.
Career Awareness; Career Choice; Career Counseling; Career
Exploration; Career Planning; Doctoral Programs; Education Work
Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Graduate
Study; Higher Education; Humanities; Interest Inventories; Labor Market;
Outcomes of Education; Professional Recognition.
46. Neumark, D., & Rothstein,
D. (2005). Do school-to-work programs help the "forgotten half"?
Cambridge: MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Tested is whether school-to-work (STW) programs are particularly
beneficial for those least likely to go to college in their absence -
often termed the "forgotten half" in the STW literature. Empirical
analysis is based on the NLSY97, which allows us to study 6 types of STW
programs, including job shadowing, mentoring, coop, school enterprises,
tech prep, and internships/apprenticeships. For men there is quite a bit
of evidence that STW program participation is particularly advantageous
for those in the forgotten half. For these men, specifically, mentoring
and coop programs increase post-secondary education, and coop, school
enterprise, and internship/apprenticeship programs boost employment and
decrease idleness after leaving high school. Less evidence that STW
programs are particularly beneficial for women in the forgotten half,
although these programs do lead to positive earnings effects concentrated
among these women.
Education; Government Policy; Economics of Minorities and
Races; Non-Labor Discrimination; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational
Choice; Labor Productivity (Formal Training Programs; On-The-Job Training.
47. O'Connor, H., & Goodwin,
J. (2004). 'She wants to be like her Mum?' Girls' experience of the
school-to-work transition in the 1960s. Journal of Education and Work,
the early 1960s researchers at the University of Leicester conducted a
unique survey on the school-to-work transition experiences of nearly 900
young adults. The survey documented most aspects of the school leavers'
lives; however, most of the data from this Young Worker Project remained
unanalysed and unpublished for nearly 40 years. Recently 851 of the
original interview schedules were discovered and, as part of a broader
ESRC-funded project, re-analysis has commenced. Little is understood about
the transition from school to work at this time and what research does
exist has focused on the experience of boys. Utilizing data from the
original survey, which included interviews with 260 girls, this article
examines the female experience of transition from school to work,
concluding that gender played a significant role in influencing the way in
which it was experienced.
School-to-work Transition; Work and Learning; Sex
Differences; Career Development.
48. OECD. (2000). From initial
education to working life: Making transitions work. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) conducted a
thematic review to identify changes in young people's transition to
working life during the 1990s and to identify those policies and programs
that are effective in delivering successful transition outcomes for young
people. The review focused on 14 countries with widely different economic
contexts, populations, and forms of government. The following items were
identified as key ingredients of successful transition systems: a healthy
economy; well-organized pathways connecting initial education with work
and further study; widespread opportunities to combine workplace
experience with education; tightly knit safety nets for those at risk;
good information and guidance; and effective institutions and processes.
School-to-work Transitions; Paid Employment; Formal
Education; Work and Learning.
49. Phillips, S. D., Blustein,
D. L., Jobin-Davis, K., & White, S. F. (2002). Preparation for the
school-to-work transition: The views of high school students. Journal
of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 202-216.
Analysis of interviews with 17 high school juniors indicated that
availability of work-based learning, supportive adults, and orientation to
the adult world are associated with readiness for school-to-work
transition. Whether motivated by anxiety or interests, resource use
resulted in clearer transition plans. Multiple pathways to readiness were
Career Planning; Education Work Relationship; High School
Students; Readiness; Resources; Student Attitudes; Work and Learning.
50. Raffo, C., & Reeves, M.
(2000). Youth transitions and social exclusion: Developments in social
capital theory. Journal of Youth Studies, 3(2), 147-166.
paper proposes a theoretical perspective of individualized systems of
social capital to explain the relationship between the agency exercised by
socially excluded young people & the contribution made by social
“structures” in shaping their school-to-work transitions. An
individualized system of social capital is a dynamic, social, & spatially,
culturally, temporally, & economically embedded group, network, or
constellation of social relations, that has the young person at the core
of the constellation & that provides authentic opportunities for everyday
learning. This theory recognizes that such systems of social relations
both support & constrain individual actions & outcomes. It identifies the
ability for some control by young people over their development & change,
but also accepts that the extent of individual development & change is
heavily dependent on how the individualized system of social capital
evolves for each individual young person; this in turn is conditioned by
the material & symbolic resources available to these networks or
constellations. Different typologies of weak, strong, changing, & fluid
individualized systems of social capital are examined in relation to our
empirical data & a range of theoretical perspectives, including
socialization, individualization, & underclass theses.
Social Change; Social Closure; Youth; Cultural Capital;
Education Work Relationship; Social Structure; Socialization; Underclass;
School-to-work Transitions; Formal Education; Paid Employment; Work and
51. Rogers, M., & Creed, P.
(2000). School-to-work transition: From theory to practice. Australian
Journal of Career Development, 9(3), 20-25.
Examines four career theories: developmental theory, person-environment
fit, social cognitive career theory, and social learning theory.
Highlights the potential of each to inform school-to-work practices.
Presents practical interventions.
Adolescents; Career Development; Education Work
Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Theory Practice Relationship;
Developmental Theory; Person-Environment Fit; Social Learning Theory; Work
52. Rosenbaum, J. (2001).
Beyond college for all: Career paths for the forgotten half. New York:
book discusses problems facing U.S. high school graduates who do not
continue their education, noting that many cannot find jobs, and those who
do are often stuck in low-wage, dead-end positions. At the same time,
employers complain that high school graduates lack the necessary skills
for today's workplace. The book looks at new studies of the interaction
between U.S. employers and high schools, concluding that each fails to
communicate its needs to the other, leading to a predictable array of
problems for young people following graduation. It contrasts the U.S.
situation with that of two other industrialized nations - Japan and
Germany - which have formal systems for aiding young people seeking
employment. Virtually all Japanese high school graduates obtain work, and
in Germany, 18-year-olds routinely hold responsible jobs. While the U.S.
system lacks such formal linkages, the book uncovers one lesser-known
system that helps many high school graduates find work. It explains that
some teachers, particularly vocational teachers, create informal networks
with employers to guide students into the labor market. The book suggests
new policies based on such practices.
School-to-work Transition; Vocational Education; United
States; High School Graduates; Employment; Youth; Labour Market;
Occupational Training; Work and Learning.
53. Rosenbaum, J. E., &
Person, A. E. (2003). Beyond college for all: Policies and practices to
improve transitions into college and jobs. Professional School
Counseling, 6(4), 252-260.
article analyzes several misconceptions about a "college-for-all" policy.
These misconceptions range from those about the desirability of college
for everyone and the undesirability of jobs after high school. Highlighted
are rules of college and the labor market and the role of counselors in
preparing students for learning and work transitions.
Access to Education; College Attendance; Counselor Role;
Decision-Making; Education Work Relationship; Educational Policy; Higher
Education; Labor Market; School Counselors.
Schuetze, H., & Sweet, R. (Eds.). (2003).
Integrating school and workplace learning in Canada. Montreal:
McGill-Queen's University Press.
volume discusses "alternation," various combinations of classroom
(organized, theoretical) knowledge and workplace (practical) learning in
Canada intended to adequately prepare secondary and postsecondary
graduates for work in the new economy.
School-to-work Transition; Education; Cooperative
Education; Occupational Training; Canada; Work and Learning.
Smyth, E., Gangl, M., Raffe, D., Hannan, D. F., & McCoy, S. (2001).
A comparative analysis of transitions from
education to work in Europe. Brussels: Commission of the European
project aimed to develop a more comprehensive conceptual framework of
school-to-work transitions in different national contexts and apply this
framework to the empirical analysis of transition processes across
European countries. It drew on these two data sources: European Community
Labor Force Survey and integrated databases on national school leavers'
surveys in France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Scotland, and Sweden. Three
broad types of national systems were identified: countries with extensive
vocational training systems at upper secondary level, linked to
occupational labor markets (Germany, the Netherlands); countries with more
general education systems with weaker institutionalized linkages to the
labor market (Ireland); and Southern European (SE) countries with less
vocational specialization and lower overall attainment than the other
groups. In "vocational" systems, young people tended to make a smoother
transition into the labor market, while those in SE countries found it
more difficult to achieve a stable employment position. Educational level
was highly predictive of transition outcomes, which varied by gender,
social class, and national origin. Early educational failure had serious
negative consequences for young people across all systems.
Apprenticeships; Comparative Analysis; Comparative
Education; Demography; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Attainment; Educational Status Comparison; Employment Patterns; Entry
Workers; Foreign Countries; Immigrants; International Studies; Labor
Market; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Secondary
Education; Sex Differences; Social Status; Transitional Programs;
Unemployment; Vocational Education; Young Adults; Youth.
56. Staff, J., & Mortimer, J.
T. (2003). Diverse transitions from school to work. Work and
Occupations: An International Sociological Journal, 30(3), 361-369.
Reviews five books that illustrate the diversity in the paths youth take
as they move from adolescence to adulthood: "Opportunity and Uncertainty"
(Anisef et al.), "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Mickelson),
"No Shame in My Game" (Newman), "The Exploited Child" (Schlemmer), and
"The Ambitious Generation"(Schneider and Stevenson). Discusses the
inequality in life chances and risks.
Adolescents; Child Labor; Education Work Relationship;
Equal Education; Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Foreign Countries; Global
Approach; Homeless People; Student Employment.
57. Tannock, S., & Flocks, S.
(2003). "I know what it's like to struggle": The working lives of young
students in an urban community college. Labor Studies Journal, 28(1),
Working youth over the age of seventeen are the ignored workers of 21st
century America. To draw attention to this group of workers, the authors
report a study of the work experiences of young (ages 18-25) community
college students in Northern California - students who are predominantly
working class, immigrant and people of color, and who have long histories
of cycling back and forth between work and school. The authors describe
the workplace demands and needs of these working students and call on
educators, unionists, policy makers, community, and youth organizers to
address and improve the conditions of all working youth.
Community Colleges; Young Adults; School-to-work
Transition; Work and Learning.
58. Taylor, A. (2002, April
1-5). Credentialing the high school. Paper presented at the Annual
Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Canada, as in other countries, there has been increasing interest in
developing the employability skills of students during compulsory
education. While the notion of certifying skills does not necessarily
translate into greater interest in differentiating the high school
credential, the number of credentials offered in Alberta high schools has
grown in recent years. This paper examines the increased interest in
credentialing the Alberta high school focusing on these trends and their
probable effect. Theoretical influences behind the credentialing trend are
outlined, and a number of academic and vocational credentials are
described in terms of why they were introduced, enrollment patterns,
students targeted, and students served. The concluding sections draw on
theoretical writings to analyze credentialing initiatives and their
effects. The examination suggests that introducing new vocational
credentials to make the high school diploma more relevant for certain
groups of students does little to challenge hierarchical social relations
in spite of progressive rhetoric. Suggestions are made for making forms of
closure based on high school credentials more equitable.
College Bound Students; Credentials; Employment
Qualifications; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; High Schools; Job
Skills; Vocational Education; Work and Learning.
59. Taylor, A., & Lehmann, W.
(2002). Reinventing vocational education policy: Pitfalls and
possibilities. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 48(2),
Examination of old and new vocational initiatives in Alberta suggests that
educators and employers support new school-to-work programs (Tech Prep;
Registered Apprenticeships; Careers, the Next Generation). However, these
programs are hampered by mixed policy messages; the resilience of existing
practices; and lack of provincial resources, research, attention to
equity, and clarity in objectives.
Career Exploration; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Change; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Equal
Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Labor Force Development;
Partnerships in Education; Policy Analysis; School Business Relationship;
Secondary Education; Tech Prep; Track System (Education); Vocational
Education; Work Experience Programs.
60. Taylor, A. (2005).
"Re-culturing" students and selling futures: School-to-work policy in
Ontario. Journal of Education and Work, 18(3), 321-340.
article situates recent school-to-work transition policy in Ontario,
Canada, within the historical context of secondary school reform in the
past 50 years. This understanding informs our analysis of interviews with
representatives from government, business, organised labour, education and
partnership brokers. Data suggest tensions between the rhetoric of
corporatism and the reality of a market model, the rhetoric of enhancing
opportunities for all students and the reality of lower graduation rates
associated with new curriculum. We argue that these tensions reflect
historical and continuing struggles around education and training and the
adoption of neo-liberal policy approaches that decrease rather than
enhance opportunities for non-college-bound students.
School-to-work Transition; Vocational Training; Ontario;
61. Taylor, A. (2006). "Bright
lights" and "twinkies": Career pathways in an education market. Journal
of Education Policy, 21(1), 35-57.
paper examines what happens to "vocational education" within an education
market. We ask the question: how does the policy emphasis on competition
and choice fit with the rhetoric of facilitating school-to-work
transitions for all students? Findings from interviews with high school
principals and representatives from the Edmonton Public School Board in
Alberta, Canada confirm that policies which promote parental choice and
partnerships with employers and post-secondary institutions create
pressures on schools to attract high academic students (the "bright
lights") while reducing their numbers of low achieving students.
Differences across schools in student populations and programming reflect
these influences. As a result, what is offered to low achieving students
and those without concrete career plans ("twinkies") to facilitate their
transitions is arguably less valuable than what is offered to high
academic students. After examining the current situation, possibilities
for the development of a high skill, high trust system is discussed.
Vocational Education; Urban Schools; Equal Education;
School Choice; Competition; Educational Policy; Educational Change;
Education Work Relationship; Partnerships in Education; Interviews;
62. Tchibozo, G. (2002).
Meta-functional criteria and school-to-work transition. Journal of
Education and Work, 15(3), 337-350.
a microeconomic model to explain behavior of actors in school-to-work
transition that proposes optimal strategies and explains causes of
failure. Suggests that metafunctional criteria (personality, behavior,
employment stability, productivity, adaptability, social involvement) are
crucial factors in recruitment decisions.
Education Work Relationship; Employment Practices;
Microeconomics; Personnel Selection; Recruitment; Economic Theory; Work
63. Thomas, M., & Venne, R. A.
(2002). Work and leisure: A question of balance. In Aging and
Demographic Change in Canadian Context (pp. 190-222). Toronto:
University of Toronto Press.
examination of the current state of knowledge about patterns of
participation in work & leisure in Canada focuses on the balance between
work & leisure during the life course. The many complex definitions of
leisure, work, & time are explored. A review of the time use literature
draws on John Robinson's & Geoffrey Godbey's, Time for Life: The
Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time (1997); Canada's General Social
Surveys conducted by Statistics Canada in 1986 & 1992; & participation
surveys related to leisure & work. The demographic implications of work
over the life course are discussed in relation to Canada's aging
population. Time use in Canada is compared to that in the US. A discussion
of the policy implications indicates a need to strike a balance between
the differing perspectives of shareholders, corporate CEOs, &
un/underemployed individuals. Suggestions for possible workplace
strategies & further research stress the need for multidimensional
demographic analyses that address both demographic changes & shifting
Work Leisure Relationship; Time Utilization; Life Cycle;
Canada; Demographic Change; Work Environment.
64. Velde, C., & Cooper, T.
(2000). Students' perspectives of workplace learning and training in
vocational education. Education + Training, 42(2), 83-92.
Interviews with 30 student apprentices, 12 vocational educators, and 15
employers indicated that (1) students were motivated by hands-on
experiences and a head start on employment; (2) all groups felt the
program developed social skills and work attitudes; and (3) teachers
perceived problems not observed by students in school-to-work transitions
and the status of vocational education.
Apprenticeships; Cognitive Style; Motivation; Student
Attitudes; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes.
Warren, J. R. L., Jennifer C. (2003). The
impact of adolescent employment on high school dropout: Differences by
individual and labor-market characteristics. Social Science Research,
authors discuss five questions. First, how do individual- and
labor-market-level factors influence high school students' paid employment
behaviors? Second, to what extent is student employment associated with
high school dropout net of these factors? Third, does the association
between student employment and dropout vary by students' race/ethnicity
and other socio-demographic characteristics? Fourth, to what extent do
local labor-market opportunities influence high school dropout? Fifth,
does the association between student employment and high school dropout
vary by local labor-market circumstances? Using data from the National
Educational Longitudinal Study, we find that many individual and
labor-market-level factors influence students' employment behaviors; that
adolescent employment and dropout are strongly associated, even after
adjusting for individual- and labor-market-level factors; that this
association doesn't vary by individual-level attributes; and that this
association doesn't vary across labor markets. Described are 2
perspectives on the mechanisms linking adolescent employment and dropout.
Economy; Employment Status; High School Students;
Individual Differences; School Dropouts; Demographic Characteristics;
Racial and Ethnic Differences; Regional Differences.