Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

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Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli

CHAPTER 4: Work and Learning [PDF]


4.8. School-to-Work Transitions [PDF]


1. Ahier, J., Chaplain, R., Linfield, R., Moore, R., & Williams, J. (2000). School work experience: Young people and the labour market. Journal of Education and Work, 13(3), 273-288.


            Interviews with 139 secondary teachers, 60 students, and 32 employers showed that employers provided work experience for public relations and recruitment purposes. Teachers felt students developed skills and experience of the world of work. Students gained skills and information and were able to sample jobs. Distinctions between structural and attitudinal limitations on work experience were identified.


            KEY WORDS: Economic Change; Foreign Countries; Secondary Education; Skill Development; Student Employment; Work Experience; England.


2. Audas, R., Berde, E., & Dolton, P. (2005). Youth unemployment and labour market transitions in Hungary. Education Economics, 13(1), 1-25.


            Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the period 1994-98. Using data on each individual's labour market state over 4 years we estimate a panel econometric model that explicitly allows for duration dependence and individual unobserved heterogeneity to capture the diversity of initial conditions faced by these young people in the labour market. In modeling the education and employment decisions in the transition from school to work we find strong evidence of the importance of individuals making good initial career decisions and an enduring effect of academic achievement on labour market and education outcomes.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Young Adults; Youth Employment; Unemployment; Labor Market; Education Work Relationship; Academic Achievement; Longitudinal Studies.


3. Brown, D. (2000). Theory and school-to-work transition: Are the recommendations suitable for cultural minorities? Career Development Quarterly, 48(4), 370-375.


            Argues that while the special June 1999 issue of "The Career Development Quarterly" that dealt with school-to-work transitions was an admirable attempt to link theory to practice, both the theories used and practices suggested failed to take into account the special concerns of cultural minorities. Provides suggestions for improving theory and practice to make them more culturally sensitive.


            KEY WORDS: Career Development; Culturally Relevant Education; Education Work Relationship; Minority Groups; Student Needs; Theory Practice Relationship.


4. Cabral-Cardoso, C. J. (2001). Too academic to get a proper job? The difficult transition of PhDs to the "real world" of industry. Career Development International, 6(4), 212-217.


            In this paper, responses from more than 1,100 Portuguese doctoral students and Ph.D. graduates in science and technology indicated that 79% preferred jobs in academia; 70% wanted primarily research and development (R&D), but only 45% wanted industrial R&D. They generally feel overqualified for most jobs in industry and anticipate a difficult adjustment to that environment.


            KEY WORDS: Doctoral Degrees; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; Industry; Occupational Aspiration; Research and Development; Scientists; Vocational Adjustment.


5. Canny, A. (2001). Researching the transition from school to work: A comparative perspective. The Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 23(3), 363-372.


            This article presents findings from a comparative study that examined English & Irish adolescents' transition from school to work. The article presents an overview of the context in which the study was performed, emphasizing the fluctuations in the Irish & English labor markets since the mid-1980s & their effects upon employment patterns for Irish & English young people. Data collected from the English & Irish Labour Force Surveys from 1988 through 1997 were analyzed to illustrate the school-to-work transition of young people in both nations; in addition, interviews (N = 46 total) with personnel directors, employer & employee representatives, youth organizers, & policy officials were conducted. The study revealed that high levels of English & Irish students are remaining in post-compulsory education; however, a substantially larger percentage of English students ages 16-19 were attending school full time while maintaining full-time jobs. It is concluded that young people who have left the educational system early in either nation should return to school in order to take advantage of new developments in both labor markets.


            KEY WORDS: England; Ireland; Life Stage Transitions; Labor Market; Adolescents; Youth Employment; Education Work Relationship; Work and Learning.


6. Canny, A. (2004). What employers want and what employers do: Cumbrian employers' recruitment, assessment and provision of education/learning opportunities for their young workers. Journal of Education and Work, 17(4), 495-513.


            This article is based upon research which examined the youth labour market in Cumbria, a predominantly rural labour market located in north-west England. It argues that individual and structural considerations must be extended to incorporate employer behaviour and attitudes towards young men and women. Employers' assessment of young people's skills; their willingness to consider both young males and females for jobs; and the extent to which they are prepared through education/training to address skill gaps and/or enhance career opportunities, can have significant implications for young people's labour market opportunities. While these issues affect all young people, those living in restricted rural labour markets can face particular difficulties. Those who have poor social networks are at risk of marginalisation and/or exclusion because rural employers rely almost exclusively upon local labour that is recruited through a mix of local formal and informal networks. Therefore young people's ability and/or willingness to seek opportunities outside their local area is an important consideration. While employed young people are concentrated in relatively low-skilled jobs, the extent to which they have access to formal career and education/training opportunities is dependent upon the size and profile of local employers. There are also significant inter-county differences in the type of employment opportunities available to young people. Young people in west Cumbria, especially males, are reliant upon a declining manufacturing sector. Movement into service sector employment is likely to prove difficult because of the type of skills being demanded by employers. The findings suggest that young males knowledge and understanding of labour market change are issues that may need attention. However, there may be a reluctance and/or bias on the part of some local employers to recruit young men because they are not considered to have the requisite skills.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Employment Opportunities; Social Networks; Males; Manufacturing; Labor Market; Educational Opportunities; Education Work Relationship; Rural Areas; Employer Attitudes.


7. Chang, W. (2002). A study on the transition from school to the world of work in Korea. Seoul: Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training.


            The school-to-work transition in Korea was examined in a comprehensive study that included an overview of the realities of the school-to-work transition in Korea and a survey of 694 Koreans aged 15-29 years who had completed high school. The sample included 366 respondents who were in enrolled in a two-year college or higher level of postsecondary education. The study established that Korean schools and society are not systematically helping Korean youths make the transition from school to work but are instead leaving responsibility for a successful school-to-work transition to graduates themselves. Many Korean students were being forced to seek employment individually through informal means. Even after entering the workforce, many Korean graduates faced problems adjusting to the environment, adverse work conditions, and bleak future prospects. The following were among the seven recommendations for establishing a school-to-work transition network: (1) provide all students with preparation for the workplace, including workplace experience and field training; (2) provide the diversity and flexibility required to ensure opportunities for employment and continued education after high school; (3) establish an institutional mechanism for networking schools and enterprises; and (4) establish a local network to enable all members of society to share the responsibility of smoothing students' transition into the workplace.


            KEY WORDS: Adjustment (to Environment); Articulation (Education); Colleges; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Developing Nations; Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Planning; Educational Policy; Educational Quality; Employment Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Employment Qualifications; Employment Services; Enrollment Trends; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; High Schools; Higher Education; Job Placement; Labor Market; Literature Reviews; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Systems Approach; Trend Analysis; Two Year Colleges; Universities; Vocational Education; Work Environment; Youth Employment; Korea; Work and Learning.


8. Cherednichenko, G. A. (2005). The life trajectories of young people at different stages of education. Russian Education and Society, 47(5), 7-29.


            It is not conceivable that young people can acquire social status without a general education and professional training. By developing a person's socially significant natural talents, abilities, and personal inclinations, the system of education is preparing him or her not only to take part in production activity but also to become a full-fledged member of the socium. For the young men and women themselves, becoming an independent adult entails making a series of decisions that depend on the education that they already have and that foster its further growth.


            KEY WORDS: Professional Training; Young Adults; Social Status.


9. Cook, T., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. (2002). Explaining aspects of the transition to adulthood in Italy, Sweden, Germany, and the United States: A cross-disciplinary, case synthesis approach. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 580(Mar), 257-287.


            This article synthesizes essays on Italy, Sweden, Germany, and the United States that were presented at a conference seeking to explain the school, work, and family findings outlined in these foregoing chapters. Three essays were written per country by a social historian, by a developmental scientist, and by someone in social policy. This article synthesizes these country-specific accounts. For Italy, the synthesis constructed stresses the accommodations the Italian family has to make because of the protracted period during which adult children live at home. For Sweden, the synthesis emphasizes the willingness of many formal and informal institutions to support youthful experimentation, so long as it does not go over into the early twenties. For Germany, the synthesis stresses the strains the apprenticeship system is under because of the increasing strength of market-oriented labor policies in German business. And for the United States, the synthesis emphasizes how race and poverty create particularly difficult transitions in a nation that stresses individual initiative, and where second or third chances are available but are not easily attainable.


            KEY WORDS: Italy; Sweden; Federal Republic of Germany; United States of America; Youth; Adults; Young Adults.


10. Cuoppie, T., & Epiphane, D. (2002). Closing the gender gap? Non-traditional curriculum and entry into working life. Training and Employment, 44(6), 1 - 4.


            Findings from the 1992 Generation survey carried out by Creq in 1997 among young people exiting the French school system demonstrates that work-related disparities encountered by young labor market entrants in France can be characterized according to the worker's gender. Obstacles facing women include the following: (1) risk of unemployment or imposed part-time work; (2) lower wages; and (3) more difficult access to managerial posts. These inequalities are often interpreted to be the result of gender segregation or unequal access in the educational process. Under specific conditions, non-traditional education and training (in programs usually reserved for men) can benefit young women in the school-to-work transition. However, in the most mixed training programs (programs traditionally chosen by men and women alike), women still face more workplace disparities than men. Gender inequities do tend to diminish as training levels increase. Gradual improvement is also happening due to labor market influences such as the 35-hour work week and other government policies and changing perceptions about gender roles and stereotypes.


            KEY WORDS: Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Degrees (Academic); Developed Nations: Education Work Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Educational Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Entry Workers; Equal Education; Females; Gender Issues; High Schools; Job Placement; Job Security; Labor Market; Males; Managerial Occupations; Nontraditional Occupations; Outcomes of Education; Part Time Employment; Postsecondary Education; Public Policy; Salary Wage Differentials; Sex Bias; Sex Differences; Sex Discrimination; Sex Fairness; Sex Stereotypes; Skilled Occupations; Socioeconomic Status; Tenure; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Women's Education; Working Hours; Youth Employment; France; Work And Learning.


11. Eisenman, L. T. (2003). Theories in practice: School-to-work transitions-for-youth with mild disabilities. Exceptionality, 11(2), 89-102.


            Discussion of school-to-work (STW) transitions for youth with mild disabilities first summarizes current research and models of practice on STW transition in special education, then identifies implicit yet infrequently named theories in research and practice, makes connections to STW theories outside special education, and suggests how emerging perspectives can shape future research.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Educational Practices; High Schools; Mild Disabilities; Models; Research Needs; Research Utilization; Special Education; Theory Practice Relationship; Transitional Programs.



12. Evans, K. B., Martina; Kaluza, Jens. (2000). Learning and work in the risk society: Lessons for the labour markets of Europe from Eastern Germany. New York, NY: Palgrave.


            The education-to-labor market transitions experienced by young people in England and in eastern and western Germany were compared. The eastern German portion of the study was based on a 1996 study that included a survey of 100 trainers and 1,000 apprentices in 12 companies; in-depth interviews with 18 trainers, career advisers, and others; and interviews with 12 young eastern Germans who had experienced relatively smooth education-to-work transitions and 12 young eastern Germans whose education-to-work transitions had not been smooth. The findings were compared with those of earlier interviews with 12 western German and 12 English youths who had recently completed the education-to-labor market transition. The analysis of transition behaviors and experiences in eastern Germany revealed considerable resonances with the problems and contradictions that have beset British education and training policy in recent decades. It was concluded that the erosion of the dual system of vocational education and training (employer-sponsor apprenticeships and government-sponsored vocational schools) documented in eastern Germany might portend future trends in western Germany. (Twenty tables/figures are included. The following items are appended: chronicle of events in 1989-1990; information about Leipzig's school system; diagrams illustrating school-to-work trajectories in West Germany and England; and a report on a study of transitions, careers, and destinations in West Germany and England.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; At Risk Persons; Career Choice; Career Development; Career Ladders; College Graduates; Comparative Analysis; Delivery Systems; Economic Climate; Education Work Relationship; Educational Environment; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Trends; Employment Patterns; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Graduate Surveys; Job Training; Labor Market; Labor Supply; Needs Assessment; Outcomes of Education; Politics; Postsecondary Education; Social Change; Systems Approach; Tables (Data); Teacher Attitudes; Trainers; Trend Analysis; Unemployment; Vocational Adjustment; Vocational Education; Youth Employment.



13. Feller, R. W. (2003). Aligning school counseling, the changing workplace, and career development assumptions. Professional School Counseling, 6(4), 262-271.


            Examines the role of school counselors and school counseling programs in preparing students for learning and work transitions. Offers advice for students to respond effectively to changing workplace needs and information on work skills that are required for graduates and job applicants. Addresses strategies in developing comprehensive career development programs.


            KEY WORDS: Career Development; Counselor Role; Education Work Relationship; Employment Patterns; Employment Potential; Job Skills; Program Development; School Counseling; School Counselors; Work Environment.



14. Finnie, R. (2000). From school to work: The evolution of early labour market outcomes of Canadian postsecondary graduates. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, 26(2), 197-224.


            This article reports the results of an empirical analysis of the early labor market outcomes of Canadian postsecondary graduates based on the National Graduates Surveys, representing those who finished their college or university programs in 1982, 1986, and 1990. The major findings include that postsecondary graduates have generally been doing quite well as a group, with most finding full-time and permanent jobs, receiving reasonably high earnings, and otherwise successfully moving into the labor market according to the various outcomes measured here; that the school-to-work transition is clearly a process, rather than an event, with most outcomes improving significantly from two to five years following graduation; that these outcomes vary by level (College, Bachelor's, Master's, PhD) and sex; and that successive cohorts of graduates did not experience any widespread decline in their labor market fortunes over this period.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Labor Market; Canada; College Graduates; Wages; Labor Force Participation; Employment; Occupational Status; Sex Differences; Work and Learning.


15. Gallart, M. A. (2001). Poverty, youth, and training: A study on four countries in Latin America. Compare, 48a(1), 113-128.


            Evaluates educational and occupational variables in a target population of youth in four Latin American countries. Argues that poor youth miss the formal education necessary for entry into the labor market. Questions whether training systems compensate for this limitation and whether these training courses connect with the labor market.


            KEY WORDS: Comparative Education; Economics; Education Work Relationship; Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Occupational Information; Poverty; Qualitative Research; Secondary Education; Vocational Education; Youth.


16. Gangl, M. (2001). European patterns of labour market entry: A dichotomy of occupationalized vs. non-occupationalized systems? European Societies, 3(4), 471-494.


            Many recent comparative studies of school-to-work transitions have revolved around the notion of an institutional dichotomy of transition arrangements that distinguishes the occupational labor markets of countries exhibiting extensive systems of vocational training and apprenticeships from the organizational markets found in countries with less integrated education and employment systems. This study scrutinizes this idea by assessing the extent to which patterns of labor market entry in twelve European Union countries empirically conform to the expected dichotomy. Based on cluster and discriminant analyses, three rather than two typical patterns emerge from the analyses: first, the continental European countries running extensive vocational training systems; second, those Northern European countries lacking such systems, and, finally, a homogeneous set of Southern European countries. While the first contrast is apparently broadly consistent with current institutionalist arguments about the impact of linkages between training systems and labor markets, the explanation for the deviation of the Southern European case is wanting. The results suggest both the need to incorporate additional institutional aspects into current transition research, but also stress the limitations of typological approaches in explaining cross-national differences in transition processes more generally.


            KEY WORDS: Europe; Life Stage Transitions; Labor Force Participation; Crosscultural Differences; Labor Market; Vocational Education; Professional Training.


17. Gendron, B. (2005). The French vocational "baccalaureat" diploma: Space of a plural transition for the youth. European Journal: Vocational Training(36), 33-46.


            The French secondary hierarchical educational system resting upon strong structuring dualisms, has been modified by the creation of the vocational baccalaureat. This aims at offering students who failed in general education a path for continuing their studies or catching up through tracks that are socially more prestigious. Some 20 years after its creation, do students find in this diploma a chance to create their own pathway? Has it changed the social perception of vocational education and training (VET)? From our research, this track seems to be, for students, a space, time and period for a plural transition: from failure to success, from weak self-esteem to self-confidence, from dependence to autonomy, from childhood to adulthood, from school to work. Using case-studies, we analyse the diverse transitions occurring, mainly during the school period, through the dynamic of social representation of VET.


            KEY WORDS: Vocational Education; Academic Degrees; Youth; Secondary Education; Case Studies; Foreign Countries; Education Work Relationship.


18. Gerber, T. P. (2003). Loosening links? School-to-work transitions and institutional change in Russia since 1970. Social Forces, 82(1), 241-276.


            Data from a survey of 4,809 Russians were used to examine the association between educational attainment and first occupation for Russians who completed their education and entered the labor market between 1970 and 2000. The results confirm previous findings of continuity in social stratification in post-Soviet Russia, despite rapid, major institutional changes connected with market transition.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Status Comparison; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Sex Differences; Social Change; Social Stratification; Sociocultural Patterns.


19. Goodwin, J., & O'Connor, H. (2001). "I couldn't wait for the day": Young workers' reflections on education during the transition to work in the 1960s. CLMS working paper (No. No33). Lancaster: Economic and Social Research Council.


            Researchers analyzed 500 never-before-analyzed interviews from a study conducted by Norbert Elias and other researchers at University of Leicester in 1962, which was one of the first studies of the transition from school to work. The Elias study explored how young people in England experienced work and adjusted their lives to the work role. All of the interviews analyzed were from males, most of whom were aged 15 and in their first jobs. About 100 were from males 16 or older, and 12 of the interviewees were in at least their fourth job. The data suggest that the workers' pre-work home and school experiences were important in their expectations and experiences of work. For the majority, school was largely negative and most wanted to leave, despite having low and negative expectations of work. Earning money was a key dimension of work, although the extent to which the young workers realized their desires to earn and spend money depended a great deal on the household allocation of resources. The data suggest that young people in the 1960s had concerns similar to present day youths' about the school to work transition.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Employer Employee Relationship; Entry Workers; Expectation; Family Role; Family-Work Relationship; Field Interviews; Foreign Countries; Job Satisfaction; National Surveys; Noncollege Bound Students; Qualitative Research; School Attitudes; Secondary Education; Social History; Student Attitudes; Vocational Adjustment; Work Attitudes; Work Life Expectancy; Youth Employment; Allowances (Pocket Money); Life Transitions; 1960s; Work and Learning.


20. Goodwin, J., & O'Connor, H. (2005). Engineer, mechanic or carpenter? Boys' transitions to work in the 1960s. Journal of Education & Work, 18(4), 451-471.


            In this paper, the authors seek to examine the gendered nature of boys' school to work transitions for a group of young male workers entering employment for the first time in the 1960s. They argue that such an enquiry is important because past studies of transitions have not problematised boys' school to work transitions in terms of gender. Moreover, where gender has been employed as an analytical category, it has been used as shorthand to describe the experiences of women. They drew upon data from Norbert Elias's largely unknown "Adjustment of young workers to work situations and adult roles" project to examine the boys' experiences of the transition process in terms of reflections on school, thinking about work, finding and adjusting to work and thinking about the future. Analysis of these data reveals that young males do experience the transition to work as a gendered process and paid employment confirms aspects of their male identity.


            KEY WORDS: Males; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; Sexual Identity; Gender Differences; Early School Leavers; Occupational Aspiration; Masculinity; Labor Market.


21. Gregory, R. J. (2002). Enhancing the school to work transition: Big picture ideas for young people. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 10(4), 319-328.


            Young people are facing an unprecedented global situation, given several recent developments, such as population increases & technology that have reduced the requirements for general labor & for entry jobs. As a result, many young people are disenchanted, disillusioned, & frustrated. All too many are caught up in disastrous social situations, & some commit suicide. However, given diminished resources, rapid population increases, emergence of the proverbial powers-that-be & their stranglehold on the economy & society, & other factors, significant change in the global system appears difficult. Long-range remedies must look to young people themselves, unless the vested powers that be, or more liberal & progressive leadership, create more vocational & lifestyle opportunities.


            KEY WORDS: Youth; Life Stage Transitions; World Problems; Employment Opportunities; The Family and Socialization; Adolescence & Youth; Work and Learning.


22. Heinz, W., & Taylor, A. (2005). Learning and work transition policies in comparative perspective: Canada and Germany. In N. Bascia, D. Livingstone, K. Leithwood, A. Cumming & A. Datnow (Eds.), International handbook of educational policy. New York: Kluwer.


The author looks at the growing influence of today's newest "Creative Class," which derives its identity and values from its role as purveyors of creativity and comprises nearly 40 million Americans and 25 percent of all employed people. The author also provides innovative and practical lessons for businesses and employees.


KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transitions; Formal Education; Paid Employment; Work and Learning.


23. Herschbach, D., & Campbell, C. (Eds.). (2000). Workforce preparation: An international perspective. Ann Arbor: Tech Directions Books.


            In this book, 20 leaders in workforce/vocational education and training from around the world detail how different countries are changing their schools and workplaces to strengthen employment-related education.


            KEY WORDS: Vocational Education; Occupational Training; Work and Learning.


24. Hyland, T., & Musson, D. (2001). Unpacking the new deal for young people: Promise and problems. Educational Studies, 27(1), 55-67.


            After two years of operation on a national scale, the New Deal Welfare to Work (WtW) program for young people aged 18-24 (New Deal for Young People [NDYP]) has been extensively evaluated both by official government & independent researchers. This research is analyzed within a policy framework and the main findings are examined against the background of a case study of the NDYP by Coventry Employment Services. The article concludes with suggestions for the improvement of NDYP program.


            KEY WORDS: Welfare Reform; Young Adults; Great Britain; Vocational Education; Public Policy; Workfare; Job Training; Welfare Policy.



25. Iannelli, C. (2004). School variation in youth transitions in Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands. Comparative Education, 40(3), 401-425.


            In recent years there has been a growing interest in the comparative study of youth transitions. National and international studies have analysed the role of individual and institutional (education and labour market) factors in shaping the transition from school to the labour market. Using data drawn from a cross-national database of secondary school leavers and multilevel modelling, this paper aims to improve upon the existing research through the analysis of the effect of school factors (as well as individual factors) on pupils' post-school outcomes. Results show that school variations in pupils' post-school outcomes are mainly accounted for by curriculum type in the Netherlands, individual factors in Scotland and a mix of individual and school factors in Ireland.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; International Studies; Students; Labor Market; Education Work Relationship.


26. Jones, L., Agbayani-Siewert, P., & Friaz, G. (1998). Effects of economic stress on high school students' views of work and the future. Social Work in Education, 20(1), 11-24.


            Examines high school students' (N=500) values and attitudes toward work and employment. Assesses participants' status on two mental health measures and discusses the practical implications of the findings. Students with low confidence in finding work had more mental health problems than students with high confidence.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescents; Cultural Differences; Economic Climate; High School Students; High Schools; Mental Disorders; Socioeconomic Status; Student Attitudes; Unemployment; Values; Work Attitudes; Work Ethic.


27. Kirby, J. R., Knapper, C. K., Maki, S. A., Egnatoff, W. J., & van Melle, E. (2002). Computers and students' conceptions of learning: The transition from post-secondary education to the workplace. Educational Technology & Society, 5(2), 47-53.


            Describes a survey of post-secondary students that assessed conceptions of learning and their preparation for the workplace. Highlights include use of information technology; perceptions of the learning environment; perceptions of learning needs and skills; perceptions of the demands of the future workplace; and lifelong learning.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Educational Environment; Educational Technology; Futures of Society; Information Technology; Job Skills; Job Training; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Student Attitudes; Student Surveys.


28. Krahn, H., & Taylor, A. (2005). Resilient teenagers: Explaining the high educational aspirations of visible minority immigrant youth in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 6(3/4), 405-434.


            Although schools may “damage” visible minority immigrant students in unseen ways, in general these students have high educational aspirations. National survey data from the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) show that the educational aspirations of 15-year old visible minority immigrant Canadians are much higher than those of their native-born non-visible minority counterparts, even when we control for a wide range of socio-demographic, social psychological, and school performance factors. While these factors account for much of the observed difference between the aspirations of visible minority immigrant students and others, future research is required to better understand these differences and their implications for educational and occupational achievement.


            KEY WORDS: Young Adults; Canada; Immigrants; Occupational Aspiration.


29. Lamb, S. (2001). The pathways from school to further study and work for Australian graduates. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth, 19, 1-46.


            The pathways of Australian graduates in their transition from school to further study and work were examined by analyzing Australian Youth Survey data regarding graduates who obtained a university degree or technical and further education (TAFE) diploma and who were enrolled for such qualifications in their seventh postschool year. Ninety-four percent of young Australians who obtained tertiary qualifications made relatively successful transitions to full-time work. Only 6% recorded experiencing major difficulty in obtaining stable full-time work or extended episodes of unemployment, part-time work, or periods out of the labor force. Characteristics associated with difficulty finding stable full-time employment were as follows: graduating a TAFE rather than with a university qualification; being from a low socioeconomic background; graduating in the fields of arts and humanities, social sciences, or education; and graduating from government schools. Although labor market benefits for graduates varied depending on pathway and study, tertiary qualifications appeared to smooth young people's transition to work. The study results supported recent policy efforts to expand the number of tertiary places and alter policies regarding government income support so as to encourage more young Australians to participate in tertiary education. Definitions of the study variables and two additional tables are appendix.


            KEY WORDS: Graduates; High School Students; Life Stage Transitions; Labor Force Participation; Higher Education; Education Work Relationship; Australia; Work and Learning.


30. Lehmann, W., & Taylor, A. (2003). Giving employers what they want? New vocationalism in Alberta. Journal of Education & Work, 16(1), 45-67.


            This article examines three school-to-work initiatives developed in the 1990s in Alberta, Canada as reflections of a new vocational discourse that challenges traditional academic/ vocational divisions. Our purpose is to consider whether new initiatives have the potential to be more progressive than earlier approaches. Drawing on policy documents and interviews with representatives from government, industry, education, and organised labour, the article focuses on the extent to which the policy discourse appears to support the kind of progressivism envisioned by more critical or reflective proponents of new vocationalism. Findings suggest that policy debates in Alberta surrounding vocational high school education continue to be largely focused on employer expectations and workplace socialisation, while more progressive perspectives that focus on the integration of academic and vocational learning as well as a deeper exploration of the social relations at work generally remain unexplored.


            KEY WORDS: High Schools; Initiative; School-to-Work Transition; Vocational Education; Employer Attitudes.


31. Lehmann, W. (2005). Choosing to labour: Structure and agency in school-work transitions. Canadian journal of sociology, 30(3), 325-350.


            Little is known about how young people rationalize their educational and occupational plans and what this might tell us about structure and agency in school-work transitions. Based on a multi-method comparison of youth apprentices in Canada and Germany, the range of school-work transition alternatives realistically under consideration was circumscribed by socio-economic status, habitus, cultural capital, and institutional factors. While vocational choices reproduced class position, youth apprentices saw their entry into the trades as an expression of a preference for, and identity with, working-class ideals of manual work. Further analysis suggests that these narratives can also be interpreted as post-facto rationalization strategies in response to public discourses that equate life course success with ever higher levels of educational attainment.


            KEY WORDS: Education; Youth; Occupational Choice; Comparative Analysis; Case Studies; Labour; Agency; Schools; Sociology; Germany; Canada.


32. Leventhal, T., Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001). Adolescent transitions to young adulthood: Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(3), 297-323.


            Investigated antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment among low-income, African American youth. Found that those who had repeated a grade were more likely to enter the workforce at later ages, those who entered the workforce earlier were more likely to complete high school, and stable employment during adolescence had beneficial effects on male college attendance.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescent Development; Adolescents; Black Employment; Blacks; Education Work Relationship; Employment Patterns; Longitudinal Studies; Student Employment; Urban Environment; Young Adults; Youth Employment.


33. Levin, B. (2000). Schools and work: Towards a research agenda. In Y. Lenoir (Ed.), The Pan-Canadian education research agenda (pp. 19-35). Ottawa: Canadian Society for Studies in Education.


            This paper examines current knowledge, current research capacity, and possibilities for increased capacity and a focused research agenda on the links between schools and work. The paper first describes the political and economic context for thinking about school-work issues, noting the difficulties this issue has provided and continues to present to policy-makers and practitioners. The article describes research capacity in Canada in light of an ideal-type model, noting both strengths and weaknesses in current arrangements. The paper provides a brief review of main findings from literature in Canada and other literature which highlight the complexity of the relationships between schools and the labour market.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transitions; Paid Employment; Formal Education; Work and Learning.


34. Lin, Z. (2001). How do university graduates cope with risk? Exploring the relationship between education and work: An analysis of the 1992 national graduate survey. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 61(12), 4727-A.


            University graduates in Canada have been significantly stratified by fields of study (FOS) in terms of income, unemployment rates, job prospects, and job satisfaction. Debates over the differential outcomes afforded by a university education focus on the tension between cultural and instrumental values, or the tension between liberal and vocational education. This dissertation, under an assumption that liberal education and vocational education are compatible, argues that an embedded liberal education, which reconciles liberal and vocational education, will more effectively prepare Canadian university graduates for the new century.


            KEY WORDS: Coping; Risk; Education Work Relationship; College Graduates; Academic Disciplines; College Majors; Occupational Choice; Educational Mobility; Canada; Work and Learning; School-to-work Transition; Paid Employment; Formal Education.


35. Linnehan, F. (2003). A longitudinal study of work-based, adult-youth mentoring. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(1), 40-54.


            High school students in formal work-based mentoring (n=15), informal workplace mentoring (n-24), no mentoring (n=23), or no employment (n-28) were compared. At year's end, formally mentored students believed more strongly in school's relevance to work. Mentored students had higher self-esteem than the unemployed. Those highly satisfied with mentoring had higher self-esteem.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; High School Students; Longitudinal Studies; Mentors; Relevance (Education); Satisfaction; Self Esteem; Student Employment; Work and Learning.


36. Mannion, G. (2002). “Open the gates an' that's it 'see ya later!'” School culture and young people's transitions into post-compulsory education and training. Scottish Educational Review, 34(1), 86-100.


            A study examined the role of school culture in student transitions to postcompulsory education in Scotland. Findings from 36 focus groups with 152 secondary students, college students, and job trainees indicate that schooling offered limited opportunities for identification with the world of work and for pathways other than staying on, and precluded rather than opened up choice.


            KEY WORDS: Aspiration; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; Negative Attitudes; Postsecondary Education; Relevance (Education); School Culture; Secondary Education; Social Class; Student Alienation; Student Attitudes; Student Experience; Teacher Attitudes; Vocational Education.


37. Mellard, D. F., & Lancaster, P. E. (2003). Incorporating adult community services in students' transition planning. Remedial and Special Education, 24(6), 359-368.


            To address the difficult problem of transition from school to adult community services for students with learning disabilities (LD), this article provides information on available community agencies, the resources they offer, and ways school personnel might work with these agencies in an effort to enhance successful transitions for individuals with LD.


            KEY WORDS: Agency Cooperation; Ancillary School Services; Community Services; Education Work Relationship; Learning Disabilities; Postsecondary Education; School Community Relationship; Secondary Education; Student Personnel Services; Transitional Programs.


38. Milsom, A., Akos, P., & Thompson, M. (2004). A psychoeducational group approach to postsecondary transition planning for students with learning disabilities. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 29(4), 395-411.


            Group work has been identified as an important intervention to prepare children and adolescents for a variety of transitions. Students with disabilities can benefit from participation in psychoeducational groups as they prepare for their transition to postsecondary school. This article describes a psychoeducational group model designed to increase disability self-awareness, increase postsecondary education knowledge, and promote self-advocacy skills for students with learning disabilities.


            KEY WORDS: Self Advocacy; Attitudes toward Disabilities; Learning Disabilities; Psychoeducational Methods; Transitional Programs; Group Counseling; School Counselors; High School Students; Intervention.


39. Misko, J. (2000). Getting to grips with work experience. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).


            This booklet, which is intended for individuals responsible for organizing student placements in work experience programs in Australia, provides an overview of the basic issues regarding work experience programs. The following are among the topics discussed in the 14 sections: (1) understanding the characteristics and purposes of industry placements (general work experience placements, vocational placements); (2) reviewing research findings; (3) identifying needs and objectives (identifying needs, setting objectives, describing goals and objectives); (4) planning placements (deciding who will be involved, fulfilling legal and insurance obligations, developing budgets, involving employers in planning placements, catering to students with special medical conditions); (5) clarifying student and employer expectations; (6) organizing placements (exploring student preferences, resources and information sessions; (7) arranging placements (school- versus student-negotiated placements); (8) communicating information (informing employers, students, parents, other teachers, and nonparticipating students); (9) preparing for placements (preparing students, workplace supervisors, teachers, and coordinators and conducting workshops for teachers and coordinators); (10) implementing training; (11) monitoring student performance (visiting students in the workplace, assessing student performance, conducting observations); (12) reporting on student performance; (13) conducting follow-up activities; and (14) evaluating placements (major and minor evaluations).


            KEY WORDS: Annotated Bibliographies; Budgets; Compliance (Legal); Cooperative Planning; Decision-Making; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Educational Objectives; Educational Practices; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Instructional Development; Instructor Coordinators; Job Training; Needs Assessment; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Records (Forms); School Business Relationship; Secondary Education; Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; Student Placement; Teacher Role; Technical Writing; Training Methods; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Work Experience Programs.



40. Mobley, C. (2002). Community colleges and the school-to-work transition: A multilevel analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 72(2), 256-284.


            Reports the results of a national study assessing the impact of community colleges on school-to-work transition and the effects of race, gender, and socioeconomic status on student outcomes. Concludes that several variables, including transfer rate and the availability of career counseling, were related to the effect of gender and class background on wages and use of training on the job.


            KEY WORDS: Community Colleges; Racial Differences; Sex Differences; Socioeconomic Status; Education Work Relationship; Governance; State Role; United States of America; Work and Learning.



41. Muller, W., & Gangl, M. (Eds.). (2003). Transitions from education to work in Europe: The integration of youth into EU labour markets. New York: Oxford University Press.


            This book compiles an integrated series of comparative empirical analyses of education-to-work transitions in European Union countries. Individual chapters describe the educational background of young people entering the labour market, address the scope of educational expansion over the past century, and chart basic structures of transition patterns in European labour markets. Moreover, several chapters look at the role of individual qualifications, and also the impact of recent employment turbulences and structural change in the economy on school leavers' integration into the labour market. From these, the structure of education and training systems surfaces as a key institutional factor for facilitating smooth transitions into the labour market. At the level of intermediate skills, vocational training and apprenticeships have kept their advantages, in particular with respect to youth unemployment. As devaluation trends have empirically been limited so far, tertiary level qualifications similarly continue to provide a most attractive inroad into the higher segments of the occupational structure.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transition; European Union; Youth Employment; Labour Market; Work and Learning.


42. Murray, A. (2000). Changes in the labour market for young adults without further education and training. Journal of Education and Work, 13(3), 327-347.


            Three 7-year follow-up studies compared Swedish young adults without further education to those who had 2 years of vocational education. Employment rates decreased for all groups. The gap in employment opportunities increased between women with and without vocational training. Vocational graduates had increasing difficulty finding jobs for which they trained.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Opportunities; Followup Studies; Foreign Countries; Labor Market; Salary Wage Differentials; Secondary Education; Vocational Education; Young Adults; Sweden.


43. Murray, C. (2003). Risk factors, protective factors, vulnerability, and resilience: A framework for understanding and supporting the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1), 16-26.


            This article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are identified, including building resilience through support at the individual, family, school, and community levels.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescents; At Risk Persons; Education Work Relationship; Mild Disabilities; Models; Needs Assessment; Research and Development; Resilience (Personality); Theory Practice Relationship; Transitional Programs.


44. Nayak, A. (2003). "Boyz to men": Masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-industrial times. Educational Review, 55(2), 147-159.


            In postindustrial society, masculinities at school must be understood in the context of family, history, locality, and global change. An ethnography of white working-class male school subculture shows how they resist globalization by asserting traditional masculinity, providing the illusion of stability.


            KEY WORDS: Change; Education Work Relationship; Employment; Ethnography; Foreign Countries; Males; Masculinity; Sexual Identity; Working Class.


45. Nerad, M., & Cerny, J. (1999). From rumors to facts: Career outcomes of English Ph.D.s. Communicator, 32(7), 1-11.


            This study examines actual employment patterns of Ph.D.s in an effort to provide a basis for policy responses to what is felt to be a continuing crisis in the academic job market for humanities Ph.D.s. The study involved almost 6,000 Ph.D. candidates from 61 doctoral-granting institutions across the United States. Six disciplines were chosen to represent major fields of study: life science, engineering, humanities, physical science, humanities, and social science; the survey population accounted for 57 percent of Ph.D. degrees awarded. Some of the issues examined include: different career paths of Ph.D.s; characteristics of English Ph.D. respondents (expectations and goals, paths to the professoriate, postdoctoral appointments); career paths of English Ph.D.s within and outside academe (nonprofessional positions in academe, business, government, and nonprofit sectors); satisfaction with current employment and value of the Ph.D. (dimensions of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction); median 1995 total annual salary by sector and gender; usefulness of the doctoral education; value of the Ph.D.; and the lack of assistance by university departments/advisors in their job search. The study suggests a Career Management program for English doctoral students that would ease the transition from education to meaningful employment, citing the career workshop developed at the University of California Berkeley.


            KEY WORDS: Career Awareness; Career Choice; Career Counseling; Career Exploration; Career Planning; Doctoral Programs; Education Work Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Graduate Study; Higher Education; Humanities; Interest Inventories; Labor Market; Outcomes of Education; Professional Recognition.


46. Neumark, D., & Rothstein, D. (2005). Do school-to-work programs help the "forgotten half"? Cambridge: MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.


            Tested is whether school-to-work (STW) programs are particularly beneficial for those least likely to go to college in their absence - often termed the "forgotten half" in the STW literature. Empirical analysis is based on the NLSY97, which allows us to study 6 types of STW programs, including job shadowing, mentoring, coop, school enterprises, tech prep, and internships/apprenticeships. For men there is quite a bit of evidence that STW program participation is particularly advantageous for those in the forgotten half. For these men, specifically, mentoring and coop programs increase post-secondary education, and coop, school enterprise, and internship/apprenticeship programs boost employment and decrease idleness after leaving high school. Less evidence that STW programs are particularly beneficial for women in the forgotten half, although these programs do lead to positive earnings effects concentrated among these women.


            KEY WORDS: Education; Government Policy; Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-Labor Discrimination; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity (Formal Training Programs; On-The-Job Training.


47. O'Connor, H., & Goodwin, J. (2004). 'She wants to be like her Mum?' Girls' experience of the school-to-work transition in the 1960s. Journal of Education and Work, 17(1), 95-118.


            In the early 1960s researchers at the University of Leicester conducted a unique survey on the school-to-work transition experiences of nearly 900 young adults. The survey documented most aspects of the school leavers' lives; however, most of the data from this Young Worker Project remained unanalysed and unpublished for nearly 40 years. Recently 851 of the original interview schedules were discovered and, as part of a broader ESRC-funded project, re-analysis has commenced. Little is understood about the transition from school to work at this time and what research does exist has focused on the experience of boys. Utilizing data from the original survey, which included interviews with 260 girls, this article examines the female experience of transition from school to work, concluding that gender played a significant role in influencing the way in which it was experienced.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transition; Work and Learning; Sex Differences; Career Development.


48. OECD. (2000). From initial education to working life: Making transitions work. Paris: OECD.


            The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) conducted a thematic review to identify changes in young people's transition to working life during the 1990s and to identify those policies and programs that are effective in delivering successful transition outcomes for young people. The review focused on 14 countries with widely different economic contexts, populations, and forms of government. The following items were identified as key ingredients of successful transition systems: a healthy economy; well-organized pathways connecting initial education with work and further study; widespread opportunities to combine workplace experience with education; tightly knit safety nets for those at risk; good information and guidance; and effective institutions and processes.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transitions; Paid Employment; Formal Education; Work and Learning.


49. Phillips, S. D., Blustein, D. L., Jobin-Davis, K., & White, S. F. (2002). Preparation for the school-to-work transition: The views of high school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 202-216.


            Analysis of interviews with 17 high school juniors indicated that availability of work-based learning, supportive adults, and orientation to the adult world are associated with readiness for school-to-work transition. Whether motivated by anxiety or interests, resource use resulted in clearer transition plans. Multiple pathways to readiness were apparent.


            KEY WORDS: Career Planning; Education Work Relationship; High School Students; Readiness; Resources; Student Attitudes; Work and Learning.


50. Raffo, C., & Reeves, M. (2000). Youth transitions and social exclusion: Developments in social capital theory. Journal of Youth Studies, 3(2), 147-166.


            This paper proposes a theoretical perspective of individualized systems of social capital to explain the relationship between the agency exercised by socially excluded young people & the contribution made by social “structures” in shaping their school-to-work transitions. An individualized system of social capital is a dynamic, social, & spatially, culturally, temporally, & economically embedded group, network, or constellation of social relations, that has the young person at the core of the constellation & that provides authentic opportunities for everyday learning. This theory recognizes that such systems of social relations both support & constrain individual actions & outcomes. It identifies the ability for some control by young people over their development & change, but also accepts that the extent of individual development & change is heavily dependent on how the individualized system of social capital evolves for each individual young person; this in turn is conditioned by the material & symbolic resources available to these networks or constellations. Different typologies of weak, strong, changing, & fluid individualized systems of social capital are examined in relation to our empirical data & a range of theoretical perspectives, including socialization, individualization, & underclass theses.


            KEY WORDS: Social Change; Social Closure; Youth; Cultural Capital; Education Work Relationship; Social Structure; Socialization; Underclass; School-to-work Transitions; Formal Education; Paid Employment; Work and Learning.


51. Rogers, M., & Creed, P. (2000). School-to-work transition: From theory to practice. Australian Journal of Career Development, 9(3), 20-25.


            Examines four career theories: developmental theory, person-environment fit, social cognitive career theory, and social learning theory. Highlights the potential of each to inform school-to-work practices. Presents practical interventions.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescents; Career Development; Education Work Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Theory Practice Relationship; Developmental Theory; Person-Environment Fit; Social Learning Theory; Work and Learning.


52. Rosenbaum, J. (2001). Beyond college for all: Career paths for the forgotten half. New York: Russell Sage.


            This book discusses problems facing U.S. high school graduates who do not continue their education, noting that many cannot find jobs, and those who do are often stuck in low-wage, dead-end positions. At the same time, employers complain that high school graduates lack the necessary skills for today's workplace. The book looks at new studies of the interaction between U.S. employers and high schools, concluding that each fails to communicate its needs to the other, leading to a predictable array of problems for young people following graduation. It contrasts the U.S. situation with that of two other industrialized nations - Japan and Germany - which have formal systems for aiding young people seeking employment. Virtually all Japanese high school graduates obtain work, and in Germany, 18-year-olds routinely hold responsible jobs. While the U.S. system lacks such formal linkages, the book uncovers one lesser-known system that helps many high school graduates find work. It explains that some teachers, particularly vocational teachers, create informal networks with employers to guide students into the labor market. The book suggests new policies based on such practices.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transition; Vocational Education; United States; High School Graduates; Employment; Youth; Labour Market; Occupational Training; Work and Learning.


53. Rosenbaum, J. E., & Person, A. E. (2003). Beyond college for all: Policies and practices to improve transitions into college and jobs. Professional School Counseling, 6(4), 252-260.


            This article analyzes several misconceptions about a "college-for-all" policy. These misconceptions range from those about the desirability of college for everyone and the undesirability of jobs after high school. Highlighted are rules of college and the labor market and the role of counselors in preparing students for learning and work transitions.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; College Attendance; Counselor Role; Decision-Making; Education Work Relationship; Educational Policy; Higher Education; Labor Market; School Counselors.


54. Schuetze, H., & Sweet, R. (Eds.). (2003). Integrating school and workplace learning in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.


            This volume discusses "alternation," various combinations of classroom (organized, theoretical) knowledge and workplace (practical) learning in Canada intended to adequately prepare secondary and postsecondary graduates for work in the new economy.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transition; Education; Cooperative Education; Occupational Training; Canada; Work and Learning.


55. Smyth, E., Gangl, M., Raffe, D., Hannan, D. F., & McCoy, S. (2001). A comparative analysis of transitions from education to work in Europe. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.


            This project aimed to develop a more comprehensive conceptual framework of school-to-work transitions in different national contexts and apply this framework to the empirical analysis of transition processes across European countries. It drew on these two data sources: European Community Labor Force Survey and integrated databases on national school leavers' surveys in France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Scotland, and Sweden. Three broad types of national systems were identified: countries with extensive vocational training systems at upper secondary level, linked to occupational labor markets (Germany, the Netherlands); countries with more general education systems with weaker institutionalized linkages to the labor market (Ireland); and Southern European (SE) countries with less vocational specialization and lower overall attainment than the other groups. In "vocational" systems, young people tended to make a smoother transition into the labor market, while those in SE countries found it more difficult to achieve a stable employment position. Educational level was highly predictive of transition outcomes, which varied by gender, social class, and national origin. Early educational failure had serious negative consequences for young people across all systems.


            KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Comparative Analysis; Comparative Education; Demography; Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Status Comparison; Employment Patterns; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Immigrants; International Studies; Labor Market; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Sex Differences; Social Status; Transitional Programs; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Young Adults; Youth.


56. Staff, J., & Mortimer, J. T. (2003). Diverse transitions from school to work. Work and Occupations: An International Sociological Journal, 30(3), 361-369.


            Reviews five books that illustrate the diversity in the paths youth take as they move from adolescence to adulthood: "Opportunity and Uncertainty" (Anisef et al.), "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Mickelson), "No Shame in My Game" (Newman), "The Exploited Child" (Schlemmer), and "The Ambitious Generation"(Schneider and Stevenson). Discusses the inequality in life chances and risks.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescents; Child Labor; Education Work Relationship; Equal Education; Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Homeless People; Student Employment.


57. Tannock, S., & Flocks, S. (2003). "I know what it's like to struggle": The working lives of young students in an urban community college. Labor Studies Journal, 28(1), 1-30.


            Working youth over the age of seventeen are the ignored workers of 21st century America. To draw attention to this group of workers, the authors report a study of the work experiences of young (ages 18-25) community college students in Northern California - students who are predominantly working class, immigrant and people of color, and who have long histories of cycling back and forth between work and school. The authors describe the workplace demands and needs of these working students and call on educators, unionists, policy makers, community, and youth organizers to address and improve the conditions of all working youth.


            KEY WORDS: Community Colleges; Young Adults; School-to-work Transition; Work and Learning.


58. Taylor, A. (2002, April 1-5). Credentialing the high school. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.


            In Canada, as in other countries, there has been increasing interest in developing the employability skills of students during compulsory education. While the notion of certifying skills does not necessarily translate into greater interest in differentiating the high school credential, the number of credentials offered in Alberta high schools has grown in recent years. This paper examines the increased interest in credentialing the Alberta high school focusing on these trends and their probable effect. Theoretical influences behind the credentialing trend are outlined, and a number of academic and vocational credentials are described in terms of why they were introduced, enrollment patterns, students targeted, and students served. The concluding sections draw on theoretical writings to analyze credentialing initiatives and their effects. The examination suggests that introducing new vocational credentials to make the high school diploma more relevant for certain groups of students does little to challenge hierarchical social relations in spite of progressive rhetoric. Suggestions are made for making forms of closure based on high school credentials more equitable.


            KEY WORDS: College Bound Students; Credentials; Employment Qualifications; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; High Schools; Job Skills; Vocational Education; Work and Learning.


59. Taylor, A., & Lehmann, W. (2002). Reinventing vocational education policy: Pitfalls and possibilities. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 48(2), 139-161.


            Examination of old and new vocational initiatives in Alberta suggests that educators and employers support new school-to-work programs (Tech Prep; Registered Apprenticeships; Careers, the Next Generation). However, these programs are hampered by mixed policy messages; the resilience of existing practices; and lack of provincial resources, research, attention to equity, and clarity in objectives.


            KEY WORDS: Career Exploration; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Labor Force Development; Partnerships in Education; Policy Analysis; School Business Relationship; Secondary Education; Tech Prep; Track System (Education); Vocational Education; Work Experience Programs.



60. Taylor, A. (2005). "Re-culturing" students and selling futures: School-to-work policy in Ontario. Journal of Education and Work, 18(3), 321-340.


            This article situates recent school-to-work transition policy in Ontario, Canada, within the historical context of secondary school reform in the past 50 years. This understanding informs our analysis of interviews with representatives from government, business, organised labour, education and partnership brokers. Data suggest tensions between the rhetoric of corporatism and the reality of a market model, the rhetoric of enhancing opportunities for all students and the reality of lower graduation rates associated with new curriculum. We argue that these tensions reflect historical and continuing struggles around education and training and the adoption of neo-liberal policy approaches that decrease rather than enhance opportunities for non-college-bound students.


            KEY WORDS: School-to-work Transition; Vocational Training; Ontario; Career.


61. Taylor, A. (2006). "Bright lights" and "twinkies": Career pathways in an education market. Journal of Education Policy, 21(1), 35-57.


            This paper examines what happens to "vocational education" within an education market. We ask the question: how does the policy emphasis on competition and choice fit with the rhetoric of facilitating school-to-work transitions for all students? Findings from interviews with high school principals and representatives from the Edmonton Public School Board in Alberta, Canada confirm that policies which promote parental choice and partnerships with employers and post-secondary institutions create pressures on schools to attract high academic students (the "bright lights") while reducing their numbers of low achieving students. Differences across schools in student populations and programming reflect these influences. As a result, what is offered to low achieving students and those without concrete career plans ("twinkies") to facilitate their transitions is arguably less valuable than what is offered to high academic students. After examining the current situation, possibilities for the development of a high skill, high trust system is discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Vocational Education; Urban Schools; Equal Education; School Choice; Competition; Educational Policy; Educational Change; Education Work Relationship; Partnerships in Education; Interviews; Foreign Countries.


62. Tchibozo, G. (2002). Meta-functional criteria and school-to-work transition. Journal of Education and Work, 15(3), 337-350.


            Uses a microeconomic model to explain behavior of actors in school-to-work transition that proposes optimal strategies and explains causes of failure. Suggests that metafunctional criteria (personality, behavior, employment stability, productivity, adaptability, social involvement) are crucial factors in recruitment decisions.


            KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Employment Practices; Microeconomics; Personnel Selection; Recruitment; Economic Theory; Work and Learning.


63. Thomas, M., & Venne, R. A. (2002). Work and leisure: A question of balance. In Aging and Demographic Change in Canadian Context (pp. 190-222). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


            An examination of the current state of knowledge about patterns of participation in work & leisure in Canada focuses on the balance between work & leisure during the life course. The many complex definitions of leisure, work, & time are explored. A review of the time use literature draws on John Robinson's & Geoffrey Godbey's, Time for Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time (1997); Canada's General Social Surveys conducted by Statistics Canada in 1986 & 1992; & participation surveys related to leisure & work. The demographic implications of work over the life course are discussed in relation to Canada's aging population. Time use in Canada is compared to that in the US. A discussion of the policy implications indicates a need to strike a balance between the differing perspectives of shareholders, corporate CEOs, & un/underemployed individuals. Suggestions for possible workplace strategies & further research stress the need for multidimensional demographic analyses that address both demographic changes & shifting workplace realities.


            KEY WORDS: Work Leisure Relationship; Time Utilization; Life Cycle; Canada; Demographic Change; Work Environment.


64. Velde, C., & Cooper, T. (2000). Students' perspectives of workplace learning and training in vocational education. Education + Training, 42(2), 83-92.


            Interviews with 30 student apprentices, 12 vocational educators, and 15 employers indicated that (1) students were motivated by hands-on experiences and a head start on employment; (2) all groups felt the program developed social skills and work attitudes; and (3) teachers perceived problems not observed by students in school-to-work transitions and the status of vocational education.


            KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Cognitive Style; Motivation; Student Attitudes; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes.


65. Warren, J. R. L., Jennifer C. (2003). The impact of adolescent employment on high school dropout: Differences by individual and labor-market characteristics. Social Science Research, 32(1), 98-128.


            The authors discuss five questions. First, how do individual- and labor-market-level factors influence high school students' paid employment behaviors? Second, to what extent is student employment associated with high school dropout net of these factors? Third, does the association between student employment and dropout vary by students' race/ethnicity and other socio-demographic characteristics? Fourth, to what extent do local labor-market opportunities influence high school dropout? Fifth, does the association between student employment and high school dropout vary by local labor-market circumstances? Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, we find that many individual and labor-market-level factors influence students' employment behaviors; that adolescent employment and dropout are strongly associated, even after adjusting for individual- and labor-market-level factors; that this association doesn't vary by individual-level attributes; and that this association doesn't vary across labor markets. Described are 2 perspectives on the mechanisms linking adolescent employment and dropout.


            KEY WORDS: Economy; Employment Status; High School Students; Individual Differences; School Dropouts; Demographic Characteristics; Racial and Ethnic Differences; Regional Differences.




About the CFI Project

1. General Resources
for Work & Learning

2. Work

3. Learning

4. Work & Learning

   4.1 General Perspectives

   4.2 Formal Training

   4.3 Informal Learning

   4.4 Unpaid Work

   4.5 Education-Job Match

   4.6 Power Relations

   4.7 Labour Unions

   4.8 School-to-Work


   4.9 Life Course Learning

5. Other Topics in
Learning & Work


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