and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
Work and Learning and the Labour
1. Bacon, N.
(1999). Union derecognition and the new human relations: A
steel industry case study. Work, Employment and Society, 13(1),
article provides a detailed case study of a nonunion steel company in
England that adopted a comprehensive human resource management approach.
Similar records of such workplaces identify benefits for employees, e.g.,
a perceived lack of need for union membership. A rather different picture
is revealed here in a case where some gains for employees proved
deceptive. The strategies taken by managers were geared toward attitudinal
compliance, work intensification, & suppression of any counterbalancing
trade union activity. Non-compliance was punished & management was
exceptionally harsh on individuals who could not or would not fit in.
Unions; Human Relations Movement; Metal Industry;
Management Styles; Personnel Policy; Compliance; England.
2. Ball, M. (2002). Engaging
non-participants in formal education: Considering a contribution from
trade union education. Studies in Continuing Education, 24(2),
study of 66 British participants at the beginning of and 2 years into
labor education revealed that 80% had left school at age 16 and had
negative schooling experiences. However, continual engagement in union
activities and education, opportunities to see connections between work
and learning activities, and the mutual reinforcement of these activities
contributed to new perspectives on learning for these formerly disaffected
Adult Education; Educational Experience; Enrollment
Influences; Foreign Countries; Labor Education; Learning Motivation;
Negative Attitudes; Participation.
3. Berik, G., & Bilginsoy, C.
(2000). Do unions help or hinder women in training? Apprenticeship
programs in the United States. Industrial Relations, 39(4),
unions are frequently criticized for excluding women from skilled crafts
by denying them training. This article examines this argument by
estimating the retention & attrition probabilities of men & women in the
joint union-management & the unilateral employer-sponsored apprenticeship
programs. While men, on average, have higher retention & lower attrition
rates than women, joint sponsorship raises women's graduation probability
above (& lowers their quit probability below) those of men or women
apprentices in unilateral programs.
Unions; Females; Job Training; Apprenticeships; Vocational
Education; Attrition; United States of America.
4. Berik, G., & Bilginsoy, C.
(2002). Unions and women's training for the skilled trades in the U.S.
The Review of Black Political Economy, 29(4), 97-122.
unions in the US have a track record of exclusionary behavior toward women
& people of color who seek to enter the skilled trades via apprenticeship.
This study evaluates this argument by comparing women's representation in
apprenticeship programs organized with & without union participation.
Using a national-level dataset on new apprentices over 1989-1995, it finds
that women's share in training is higher in the union programs & that this
result holds for white women, black women, & Latinas. Moreover, compared
to their respective shares in the labor force, black women are better
represented among new apprentices than white women.
Unions; Working Women; Apprenticeships; Job Training;
Affirmative Action; Black Americans; Latin American Cultural Groups;
Whites; United States of America.
5. Berik, G., & Bilginsoy, C.
(2006). Still a wedge in the door: Women training for the construction
trades in the U.S. International Journal of Manpower, 27(4),
are individual-level data on registered apprenticeship for 10 largest
construction occupations from 31 states in the U.S. to evaluate the
variations in the entry and exit of women apprentices, overall and by
race/ethnicity, over the 1995-2003 period. Examined are how women's are
represented among new apprentices, and their attrition and retention rates
varies with individual, training program, and occupational
characteristics. Women's representation among new trainees is very low and
deteriorating. Findings confirm previous findings based on data for the
early 1990s that program sponsorship has significant impact on women's
representation and retention. Women have better chances of joining the
high-skill construction workforce if they enroll in union-contractor joint
programs. Joint programs feature higher shares of women in the incoming
classes and higher odds of graduation in comparison with the unilateral
contractor programs. The union impact on shares of enrollees is the
largest for Black women and the lowest for White women, while White women
have higher completion rates than Latinas and Black women. In conclusion,
union sponsorship enhances women's integration into the skilled trades,
but it is not sufficient. Increasing participation of women in
apprenticeship and skilled workforce requires major changes in policies,
priorities, and behavior of contactors, unions, and the government to
actively recruit women and improve working conditions at the construction
Economics; Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination;
Economics of Gender; Non-Labor Discrimination; Human Capital; Skills;
Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs;
On-the-Job Training; Trade Unions; Apprenticeship Training; Skilled
Trades; Women; Unions.
6. Berry, J. T. (2003).
Contingent faculty in higher education: An organizing strategy and Chicago
area proposal. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities
and Social Sciences, 63(11).
increasing employment of contingent (non-tenure track) faculty in U.S.
higher education has become one of the major issues in higher education
since the 1970s. Higher levels of activism among the contingent faculty
themselves has recently become a coordinated national movement. The rich
literature on contingent faculty is largely from the point of view of
administrators. Minimal published works have yet attempted to set forward
a comprehensive national strategy for contingent faculty organization,
though the discussion has begun. This PDE draws upon 2 decades of personal
experience. Current statistical data bases and published studies, as well
a personal experience, were consulted in order to create a map of the
workforce nationally and in more detail for Metro Chicago. Personal
interviews were conducted with organizers, covering nearly all of the
relevant campaigns in the Chicago area over twenty years. Interview
findings are reported and discussed. The core of this PDE is a strategic
plan for a social action project, namely the organization of contingent
faculty. Major considerations for a national strategic plan are then
applied to the Chicago area in the form of a specific proposal, along with
a brief local history. The main focus of the strategy is that the
particular characteristics of this workforce demand a unique combination
of elements to make an effective strategy and to maximize the evident
readiness of these workers for organization. The metro strategy, as it's
sometimes called, must include collective bargaining with individual
employers, as well as broader organization. The author describes how the
metro strategy might be applied to the over 16,000 contingent faculty in
Chicago. The author adds to the recent literature on new strategies for
union organizing by applying the emerging principles of member
mobilization and decision-making, tactical and organizational flexibility
and community alliances to the situation of one of the largest groups of
contingent workers. It is hoped that the study can be applied usefully by
organizers and organizational leaders.
College Faculty; Temporary Employment; Chicago, Illinois;
Unionization; Labor Movements.
Booth, A. L., Francesconi, M., & Zoega, G. (2003).
Unions, work-related training, and wages: Evidence for
British men. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57(1), 68-91.
data for the years 1991-96 from the British Household Panel Survey, the
authors investigate how union coverage affected work-related training &
how the union-training link affected wages & wage growth for a sample of
full-time men. Relative to noncovered workers, union-covered workers were
more likely to receive training & also received more days of training.
Among workers who received training, those with union coverage enjoyed
greater returns to training & higher wage growth than did those without.
While some of these results have been found in previous studies, others
are new. The wage results, in particular, suggest a need for rethinking
the conventional view that union wage formation in GB reduces the
incentives to acquire work-related training.
Unions; Wages; Great Britain; Job Training; Workers.
8. Bratton, J. (2001). Why
workers are reluctant learners: The case of the Canadian pulp and paper
industry. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(7/8), 333-343.
Explores worker flexibility, through learning, union strategies, and
resistance to learning issues of flexibility, learning, and quality are
subject of much debate, negotiation, and conflict in the Canadian pulp and
paper industry. A key bargaining issue for management has been to harness
flexibility among the manual craft workers, to improve labour
productivity. Within this context, workplace learning is not neutral or
independent of day-to-day union-management relations: it is a contested
issue. Learning new skills is viewed as a threat to job control and
security and presents a paradox: learning new trade skills enhances
individual workers' flexibility and employability but collectively weakens
the union through job losses. Data were collected from pulp mills in
British Columbia between 1996 and 1999 survey and qualitative data
provides evidence that workers' resistance to learning is part of the
contested arena of productivity and job control.
Trade Unions; Collective Bargaining; Workplace Learning.
9. Brown, W. A., & Ryan, P.
(2003). The irrelevance of trade union recognition? A comparison of two
matched companies. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Department of
UK business services companies are compared both to each other and to
their common state-owned industry background in order to assess the
implications of trade union recognition and changed bargaining structure.
Union recognition had been abandoned by one company under the agenda of
‘individualization’ and ‘personal contracts’ but retained by the other
under the agenda of ‘partnership’. Changes in the level at which
employment relationships are regulated occurred at both companies relative
to their ancestral public enterprises. The similarity of the companies in
terms of products, technologies and institutional history provides an
approximation to a natural experiment. The evidence suggests only
secondary effects from union presence upon operational attributes and
economic performance, but major effects from the decentralization of
employment relations, which formed part of a wider and more radical set of
changes in the relevant markets, technologies, ownership structures and
Labor Unions; Unions Recognition; Union Presence;
Bargaining; Institutional Relations; Great Britain.
10. Chung, Y.-D. (2001). The
two faces of unionism: A dual closure approach to contradictory behavior
in U.S. labor unions. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The
Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(1), 346-A.
study examines how union organizational characteristics influence union
behavior. This study starts with a criticism of Freeman and Medoff's
theory of "the two faces of unionism." I show that union membership
exclusion is related to union usurpation, i.e., union organizing drives.
Organized labor's contradictory behavior (exclusionary behaviors
undermining usurpationary activities) is argued to be a primary cause of
union decline in the U.S. Union bureaucracy and unresponsive union
leadership have been critical barriers to strengthening worker power and
to enhancing class solidarity among the working class. The growth of union
bureaucracy controlled by union leadership and the decline of union
democracy by the rank-and-file weakened class solidarity among the working
class and precipitated the withering of the labor movement. This model of
union dual closure as a new paradigm for unionism provides an
infrastructure for sociological theorizing in the analysis of organized
labor's contradictory behavior. The conceptualization of union dual
closure was mainly derived from a historical analysis from the
mid-nineteenth century to the modern period. I found that there have
existed two different types of union dual closure: positive union dual
closure and negative union dual closure. This study applied these
historical insights to develop a new model of the labor movement. Based on
this theory building, I examined the reciprocal relationships between
contemporary measures of exclusion and usurpation for the population of
111 U.S. national unions in 1990. Findings show that union democracy and
rank-and-file participation greatly increase usurpationary activities.
These results indicate that union democracy, rank-and-file internal voice,
and the inclusion of all the levels of the working class are a catalyst
for creating a robust labor movement. My analyses generally support the
theory of negative union dual closure. In order to build a strong labor
movement, it is ideal for all unions to pursue a collective
voice-usurpation model, which is based on the theory of negative union
dual closure. This implies that responsive union leadership and active
rank-and-file involvement in union activities are essential and must
develop further in order to revitalize the U.S. labor movement.
United States of America; Unions; Organizational Behavior;
Unionization; Working Class; Labor Movements; Social Closure.
11. Clark, P. F. (2000).
Building more effective unions. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Employers have long turned to behavioral science for guidance on making
their organizations more effective. Labor scholar Paul F. Clark believes
union leaders should also take advantage of the valuable discoveries made
in this field, and he offers a straightforward account of how they can do
so. Much of the behavioral science research relevant to unions relies on
complex statistical analyses and is disseminated through scholarly
journals. This clearly written book makes the findings of behavioral
science accessible to those committed to building a stronger labor
movement. It describes behavioral science's understanding of such topics
as organizational commitment and member participation and suggests how
this knowledge can best be applied to unions. Building More Effective
Unions offers practical strategies unions can use to their advantage in a
number of areas, including: -Union participation -Organization and
retention -Union orientation and socialization -Political action
-Grievance procedures -Information and communications -Union
image-building -Union culture -Union leadership The book features examples
of how unions and their leaders have benefited from putting the principles
of behavioral science into practice.
Labor Unions; United States; Labor Union Members;
12. Clark, P. F., Delaney, J.
T., & Frost, A. C. (2002). Collective bargaining in the private sector.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Private-sector collective bargaining in the United States is under siege.
Many factors have contributed to this situation, including the development
of global markets, a continuing antipathy toward unions by managers, and
the declining effectiveness of strikes. This volume examines collective
bargaining in eight major industries; airlines, automobile manufacturing,
health care, hotels and casinos, newspaper publishing, professional
sports, telecommunications, and trucking; to gain insight into the
challenges the parties face and how they have responded to those
challenges. The authors suggest that collective bargaining is evolving
differently across the industries studied. While the forces constraining
bargaining have not abated, changes in the global environment, including
new security considerations, may create opportunities for unions. Across
the industries, one thing is clear: private-sector collective bargaining
is rapidly changing.
Industrial and Labor Relations; Unions; Labor Studies;
Collective Bargaining; Private Sector.
13. Clawson, D., & Clawson, M.
A. (1999). What has happened to the US labor movement? Union decline and
renewal. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 95-119.
many years, US trade unions declined in density, organizing capacity,
level of strike activity, & political effectiveness, a decline variously
attributed to demographic factors, inaction by unions themselves, the
state & legal system, globalization, neoliberalism, & the employer
offensive that ended a labor-capital accord. The AFL-CIO (American
Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization) New Voice
leadership elected in 1995, headed by John Sweeney, seeks to reverse these
trends & transform the labor movement. Innovative organizing, emphasizing
the use of rank-&-file intensive tactics, substantially increases union
success; variants include union building, immigrant organizing, feminist
approaches, & industry-wide non-National Labor Relations Board organizing.
The labor movement must also deal with participatory management or
employee involvement programs, while experimenting with new forms,
including occupational unionism, community organizing, & strengthened
alliances with other social movements.
Unions; Membership; United States of America; Labor
Relations; Labor Movements; Organizational Effectiveness; Organizational
14. Clawson, D. (2003). The
next upsurge: Labor and the new social movements. Ithaca: ILR Press.
U.S. labor movement may be on the verge of massive growth, according to
Dan Clawson. He argues that unions don't grow slowly and incrementally,
but rather in bursts. Even if the AFL-CIO could organize twice as many
members per year as it now does, it would take thirty years to return to
the levels of union membership that existed when Ronald Reagan was elected
president. In contrast, labor membership more than quadrupled in the years
from 1934 to 1945. For there to be a new upsurge, Clawson asserts, labor
must fuse with social movements concerned with race, gender, and global
justice. The new forms may create a labor movement that breaks down the
boundaries between "union" and "community" or between work and family
issues. Clawson finds that this is already happening in some parts of the
labor movement: labor has endorsed global justice and opposed war in Iraq,
student activists combat sweatshops, unions struggle for immigrant rights.
Innovative campaigns of this sort, Clawson shows, create new strategies,
determined by workers rather than union organizers, that redefine the very
meaning of the labor movement. The Next Upsurge presents a range of
examples from attempts to replace "macho" unions with more feminist models
to campaigns linking labor and community issues and attempts to establish
cross-border solidarity and a living wage.
Sociology; Industrial and Labor Relations; Labor Unions;
Organizing; Social Movements; United States.
15. Crowther, J. E., Martin,
I. E., & Shaw, M. E. (1999). Popular education and social movements in
Scotland today. Leicester, UK: National Institute of Adult Continuing
Papers included in this review of contemporary popular education and
social movements in Scotland address issues related to adult education and
learning; community education; consciousness and social movements as well
as general issues related to educational policy and scientific
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Community Education;
Consciousness Raising; Cultural Context; Cultural Differences; Democracy;
Disabilities; Educational Change; Educational Objectives; Educational
Theories; Educational Trends; Empowerment; Essays; Foreign Countries;
Instruction; Labor Education; Minority Groups; Muslims; Politics of
Education; Popular Education; Racial Discrimination; Religion; Social
Action; Social Change; Teaching Methods; Trend Analysis; Unions; Women's
Education; Latin America; Scotland; Social Movements.
16. Delp, L. (Ed.). (2002).
Teaching for change. Los Angeles: UCLA Labor
Center. Retrieved December 29, 2003, from http://www.labor.ucla.edu/.
28 essays recount popular education's history and its multiple uses in the
labor movement today: to organize the unorganized, to develop new leaders
and activists, and to strengthen labor and community alliances. They
explore its other facets: theater and culture, economics education,
workplace safety and health, and classroom use and address experiences
from Canada and the United States (US)-Mexico border.
Activism; Adult Education; Collective Bargaining; Community
Involvement; Consciousness Raising; Economics Education; Employer Employee
Relationship; Empowerment; Labor Education; Labor Relations; Leadership
Training; Literacy Education; Nonschool Educational Programs; Occupational
Safety and Health; Popular Education; Social Change; Theater Arts; Union
Members; Unions; Workplace Literacy.
17. Diamond, W., & Freeman, R.
B. (2001). What workers want from workplace organisations. London:
Trade Union Congress.
report to the TUC’s Promoting Trade Unionism Task Group, written by two
distinguished research academics. This report is the first analysis of
data from the British Workplace Representation and Participation Survey -
the most extensive poll of workers and their attitudes to their job, trade
unions and their employer, that has been conducted in the UK for many
years. Presented to Congress 2001.
Labor unions; Great Britain; Industrial Relations;
Management; Employee Participation; Works Councils.
18. Ewer, P. (2000). Trade
unions and vocational education and training: Questions of strategy and
identity. Labour & Industry, 10(3), 37-56.
Australian unions entered the national training reform agenda in the late
1980s, promising themselves a high-skill, high-wage economy in which
lifetime learning was an integral part of paid employment. Here, data
obtained via interviews with workers & trainers & national statistics
indicate that the regulatory arrangements that the union movement used to
realize these goals have instead been used to promote the marketization of
vocational training, in which the business community has gained increased
leverage over training design, delivery, & assessment. As a result, unions
have seen one of their traditional strongholds - the male-dominated
apprenticeship system - cut back, while training access remains sharply
defined by class & gender. Unions now face questions of how best to
participate in the training market in ways that promote union identity.
Vocational Education; Job Training; Unions; Australia;
Business; Regulation; Markets; Commodification; Apprenticeships.
19. Fairbrother, P., & Yates,
C. (Eds.). (2002). Trade unions in renewal: A comparative study.
London/New York: Continuum.
years, unions in Anglo-American countries have suffered stagnant or
declining memberships. They have experienced diminishing political and
economic influence and many are going through crises in the representation
of members. During the 1990s a number of unions and labour federations
began to debate these problems, and as a result have experimented with a
host of new ideas and practices aimed at rebuilding membership and
restoring their political and economic strength.
Unions in Renewal brings together a series of studies of union renewal
from five different countries - the United States, Australia, New Zealand,
the United Kingdom and Canada. Although unions in the five countries have
all been influenced by recent debates surrounding the organizing model,
several unions and the five national federations have charted their own
course of renewal. These range from internal union democratization and
membership mobilization to new partnership models with employers and
contributors to this volume are among the leading researchers and
commentators on trade unionism in their countries. The introduction offers
a rare comparative analysis of convergence and divergence in union renewal
strategies across these five countries, while the separate chapters offer
a penetrating, critical analysis of union renewal strategies and pose some
difficult questions about the likely success of unions as they try to
Trade Unions; Renewal; United States; Australia; New
Zealand; United Kingdom; Canada.
20. Fine, J. (2006). Worker
centers: Organizing communities at the edge of the dream. Ithaca: ILR
Press/Cornell University Press.
Low-wage workers in the United States face obstacles including racial and
ethnic discrimination, a pervasive lack of wage enforcement,
misclassification of their employment, and for some, their status as
undocumented immigrants. In the past, political parties, unions, and
fraternal and mutual-aid societies served as important vehicles for
workers who hoped to achieve political and economic integration. As these
traditional civic institutions have weakened, low-wage workers must seek
new structures for mutual support. Worker centers are among the
institutions to which workers turn as they strive to build vibrant
communities and attain economic and political visibility. Community-based
worker centers help low-wage workers gain access to social services;
advocate for their own civil and human rights; and organize to improve
wages, working conditions, neighborhoods, and public schools. In this
path-breaking book, Janice Fine identifies 137 worker centers in more than
eighty cities, suburbs, and rural areas in thirty-one states. These
centers, which attract workers in industries that are difficult to
organize, have emerged as especially useful components of any program
intended to assist immigrants and low-wage workers of color. Worker
centers serve not only as organizing laboratories but also as places where
immigrants and other low-wage workers can participate in civil society,
tell their stories to the larger community, resist racism and
anti-immigrant sentiment, and work to improve their political and economic
Sociology: Industrial and Labor Relations; Political
Science; Unite States; Canada; Alien Labor; Immigrants Services;
Employment Agencies; Community Centers; Community Organization; United
21. Forrester, K., & Payne, J.
(2000). Trade union modernisation and lifelong learning. Research in
Post-Compulsory Education, 5(2), 153-171.
review of labor education in Britain examines the role of expert systems
and an environment characterized by risk and reflexivity. Concludes that
union education is hampered by the emphasis in lifelong learning rhetoric
and policy on individuals and full-time, younger learners as well as by
employer reluctance to participate.
Foreign Countries; Labor Education; Lifelong Learning;
Modernization; Public Policy; Unions; United Kingdom.
22. Forrester, K. (2001).
Modernised learning: An emerging lifelong agenda by British trade unions.
Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(7/8), 318-325.
Argues that trade union education has tended to mirror the wider fortunes
and complexities both within the particular union (or unions) and within
the wider socio-economic environment. The present period is, arguably, one
such "moment" where the conceptions and practices informing trade union
education are strongly informed by wider societal considerations. This
paper examines this "moment".
Trade Unions; Education; Workplace Learning.
23. Forrester, K. (2002).
Work-related learning and the struggle for employee commitment. Studies
in the Education of Adults, 34(1), 42-55.
Recent policy developments have involved adult educators and unions in
work-related learning. However, an uncritical analysis of learning in the
workplace risks aligning these activities with new forms of oppression and
Adult Education; Employee Attitudes; Lifelong Learning;
Public Policy; Research and Development; Unions.
24. Foster, J. (2003). Class
action: Building political activism among union activists. Just Labour,
research into the political attitudes and behaviours of union activists
challenges traditional beliefs about the prospects for politicizing
unionists in Canada. This study of union activists in Alberta finds two
significant results. First union activists are more politically active
than the average Canadian. This challenges conventional wisdom about union
activists. Second, unions can play a direct and important role in
fostering political participation among their activists, a finding that
has the potential to extend to the general membership. However, to be
effective in mobilizing unionists politically, unions need to approach the
project differently than they do at present. It is a project of action,
not words, and it must be grounded in the lived experience of union
workers. In particular, perceptions of class play a central role in
shaping the political decisions of unionists. Relational articulations of
class lead to political mobilization, and thus union actions must reflect
the lived experience of being working class in Canada.
Unions; Activism; Political Mobilization; Alberta; Canada;
Labour Movement; Work and Learning.
25. Frost, A. C. (2001).
Creating and sustaining local union capabilities: The role of the national
union. Relations industrielles/Industrial Relations, 56(2),
Drawing on case study evidence from the automotive, steel, & glassmaking
industries, this article examines the role played by the national union in
shaping local unions' abilities to develop & sustain the capabilities
critical to managing ongoing workplace restructuring. The author presents
evidence suggesting the importance of five national union characteristics.
These characteristics are the breadth of the national union's
representational coverage; the extent of its education & training focus on
new workplace issues; the resources it devotes to research on the
implications of new workplace practices; the presence of multiple
communication channels; & its structuring of local union representation.
Manufacturing Industries; Unions; Workplaces;
Organizational Change; Employment Changes.
26. Fung, A., Hebb, T.,
Rogers, J., & Gerard, L. W. (2001). Working capital: The power of
labor's pensions. Ithaca: ILR Press.
pension funds are now worth more than $7 trillion, and many people believe
that the most important task for the labor movement is to harness their
share of this capital and develop strategies that will help, rather than
hurt, workers and unions. Working Capital challenges money managers and
today's labor movement by asking how workers' hard-earned savings can be
put to use in socially and economically progressive ways. Responsible
management of pensions will create greater growth and prosperity in
America, and the authors of Working Capital show that the long-term
interests of pension plan beneficiaries are well served through a
"worker-owners" view of the economy. This book builds on the work of the
Heartland Forum supported by the United Steelworkers of America, the
AFL-CIO's Center for Working Capital, and several foundations, including
the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation, to draw together the
wisdom of a number of experts on labor's next best moves in the pension
Pension Trusts; Investments; United States; Labor Unions;
Economics & Finance; Industrial and Labor Relations.
27. Gall, G. (Ed.). (2003).
Union organizing: Campaigning for trade union recognition. London:
many years of indifferent decline, trade union membership is now being
revitalized; strategies known as “union organizing“ are being used to
recruit and re-energize unions around the globe. This book considers
exactly how trade unions are working to do this and provides a much-needed
evaluation of these rebuilding strategies. By comparing historical and
contemporary case studies to assess the impact of various organizing
campaigns, this book assesses the progress of unions across Europe and
America. It raises key debates about the organizing culture and considers
the impact of recent union recognition laws on employers and the
government's Fairness at Work policy. A topical and in-depth study into
the experiences of trade unions across Europe and America, this is a
comprehensive and thought provoking book which is essential reading for
those in the industrial relations field.
Labor Unions; United States; Great Britain.
Gereluk, W., Briton, D., & Spencer, B. (1999).
Learning about labour in Canada. NALL Working Paper
No. 7. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
questions of what and how working people learn about labor organization
and activity in Canada were explored through a review of available
literature and face-to-face interviews with more than 30 education
officers and union leaders. Unions continue to be the principal source of
labor education. Of the many courses and educational experiences that
unions offer their membership, steward-training courses tend to be the
best developed and documented. However, steward-training courses
constitute only a small portion of the labor education that is currently
being made available to trade union members and staff. Many unions are
offering a sophisticated and integrated educational experience that is
allowing union members to learn a variety of skills and knowledge that
could be recognized by the formal education system. Special events and
schools range from modest 1-day affairs to week-long functions. The
measure of the various courses/ programs is their success in preparing
union members and activists to deal with the concrete demands they face in
the workplace, their union, and their community. Some unions insist that
labor education be provided primarily by rank-and-file members, others
deliver courses through an educational officer, and yet others have
"specialists" deliver courses.
Adult Education; Educational Needs; Educational
Opportunities; Educational Practices; Educational Quality; Educational
Supply; Educational Trends; Employee Attitudes; Employees; Information
Sources; Labor Demands; Labor Education; Needs Assessment; Nonformal
Education; Participation; Training; Union Members; Unions.
29. Green, F., Machin, S., &
Wilkinson, D. (1999). Trade unions and training practices in British
workplaces. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 52(2), 179-195.
British labor-force survey data indicated that the probability of
receiving training and the amount of training received were substantially
higher in unionized workplaces.
Employment Practices; Foreign Countries; On-the-Job
30. Grossfeld, J., & Podesta,
J. D. (2005). A temporary fix. The American Prospect [Princeton], 16(3),
White House and congressional conservatives has decided to make the
approaching four years memorable, and it is easy to miss some of their
less conspicuous exploits. Many of those have taken place at the National
Labor Relations Board, which has issued multiple decisions that are
costing millions of Americans their best chance to join the middle class.
A fast growing contingent workforce could benefit from labor and
management partnerships, but the NLRB stands in the way.
Workforce; Labor Relations; Temporary Employment; Labor
Unions; United States; US; National Labor Relations Board; NLRB.
31. Heery, E., Conley, H.,
Delbridge, R., & Stewart, P. (2004). Beyond the enterprise: trade union
representation of freelances in the UK. Human Resource Management
Journal [London], 14(2), 20-35.
growing interest in methods that trade unions can use to organize and
represent the substantial proportion of the workforce engaged in
"contingent work." Examined are trade union representation of
self-employed freelances in the UK. Empirical material is given from case
studies of the media and entertainment unions, with their long history of
representing freelances, and more recently established unions representing
freelance tour guides, interpreters, and translators. Analysis suggest
that there is a distinctive form of freelance unionism in the UK which is
distinguished by organizing and representing workers in the external
labour market where they seek work and develop a mobile career. This
orientation "beyond the enterprise" distinguishes freelance unionism from
the dominant form of unionism in Britain.
Entertainment Industry; Freelance; Labor Unions; Studies;
Recreation; Western Europe; Experimental/Theoretical; Labor Relations;
32. Huzzard, T., Gregory, D.,
& Scott, R. (Eds.). (2004). Strategic unionism and partnership. Boxing
or dancing? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
can trade unions make sense of social partnership? What are the
implications of partnership for union renewal? This volume takes an
international perspective to explore these issues based on an ongoing
dialogue between researchers and union practitioners in eight countries.
The authors develop the metaphors “boxing” and “dancing” to denote
contrasting strategic choices to the employment relationship, yet argue
that neither approach alone can offer an exclusive trajectory for union
development. The authors conclude by identifying lessons for union
Unionization; Labour Economics; Industrial Relations.
33. Hyman, R. (2002). The
future of unions. Just Labour, 1, 7-15.
twenty years now, it has been common to refer to a crisis of trade
unionism. What the future holds for labour movements – or indeed, whether
they even have a future – seems increasingly uncertain. For many trade
unionists as well as academics, unions in most countries appear as victims
of external forces outside their control, and often also of their own
conservative inertia. However, unions hold the capacity to shape their own
future. In all countries, they possess powerful traditions and inherited
structures; these all too frequently constitute a straitjacket, but can
also provide a resource for creative initiative.
Unions; Labour; Globalization.
34. Jackson, A. (2005).
Work and labour in Canada: Critical issues. Toronto: Canadian
original and timely book focuses on critical issues surrounding work and
labour in Canada. It is an ideal text for sociology of work courses, which
often integrate labour, industry, and the global economy from a Canadian
perspective. This book will also be relevant to a wide range of courses in
Labour Studies and Industrial Relations programs across Canada. Outside of
the academy, policy makers and labour activists will be keenly interested
in this new book.
thesis is change. Work and Labour in Canada examines changes in the labour
market, and in workplaces, with a strong empirical component based upon
recent Statistics Canada data. The chapters are tailored to an
undergraduate audience. They are masterfully written from a labour
perspective - that is, concerned with the impacts of changes on workers -
but also written on the basis of empirical evidence with supporting
summaries of the academic research literature.
Work; Labour; Canada; Sociology of Work; Labour Studies;
Industrial Relations; Employment Policy; Workplace Change; Labour Market.
35. Jarley, P., Harley, B., &
Hall, R. (2002). Innovation in Australian trade unions. Industrial
Relations, 41(2), 228-248.
Building on the study of innovation in American national unions, this
article specifies & tests a model of the determinants of innovation in
Australian trade unions. The results generally support the principal
Delaney, Jarley, & Fiorito (1996) finding that the degree of union
innovative activity is positively associated with rationalization & size -
an indicator of resource availability. Several contrasts between the
Australian & American findings are also noted & discussed.
Innovations; Unions; Australia; United States of America;
Rationalization; Organization Size.
Kerchner, C. T., Koppich, J. E., & Weeres, J. G. (1998).
Taking charge of quality. How teachers and unions can
revitalize schools. An introduction and companion to "United mind
workers". California: Jossey-Bass.
book suggests that teachers and teacher unions should take the lead in
making changes to promote educational quality and prepare students for the
21st century, where knowledge rather than industry will be the organizing
principle. Part 1, "A Call to Action," describes how American society is
changing and how these shifts necessitate the transformation of American
education. It discusses educational challenges and what teachers and
unions can do to deal with the challenges. Part 2, "A Commitment to
Quality," explores the role that teachers and unions must take in bringing
about educational change, discussing how to improve the craft of teaching,
upgrade educational standards, and evaluate the work of peers. Part 3,
"Organizing Around Transforming Schools," lays out a proposal for how
unions can organize around a primary commitment to improving education. It
discusses new contracting strategies, hiring and rewarding teachers,
creating more career flexibility for teachers, and what teachers can do
now to begin the process of change.
Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational
Improvement; Educational Quality; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Peer
Evaluation; Public Education; Standards; Teacher Associations; Teacher
Competencies; Teacher Evaluation; Teacher Role; Teachers; Unions.
37. Lawrence, M., & Walters,
M. (2003). How unions help all workers. Briefing Paper 143.
Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Unions have a substantial impact on the compensation and work lives of
both unionized and nonunionized workers. This report presents current data
on unions’ effect on wages, fringe benefits, total compensation, pay
inequality, and workplace protections.
Unions; Compensations; Work Lives; Unionized Workers;
Nonunionized Workers; Wages; Fringe Benefits; Pay Inequality; Workplace
38. Menezes-Filho, N. A., &
Van Reenen, J. (2003). Unions and innovation: A survey of the theory
and empirical evidence. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
paper surveys the economic literature on the impact of trade unions on
innovation. There are many theoretical routes through which unions may
have an effect on innovation, for example through their effects on
relative factor prices, profitability and their attitudes towards the
introduction of new technology. Recent theoretical work has focused on the
possibility that trade unions will “hold up” firms by expropriating sunk
R&D (research and development) investments through demanding higher
rewards. The hold up problem may be mitigated (or exacerbated) by
strategic incentives to compete in R&D races. In an attempt to resolve the
theoretical ambiguity we focus on surveying recent micro-econometric
results in the areas of R&D, innovation, technological diffusion and
productivity growth. North American results find consistently strong and
negative impacts of unions on R&D. By contrast, European studies (mainly
in the UK) generally do not uncover negative effects of unions on R&D.
There is no consensus of the effects of unions on our other main measures:
technological diffusion, innovation or productivity growth even in the
North American studies. These cross-country differences in the R&D impact
of unions could represent either unsolved econometric problems or genuine
institutional differences between nations in union attitudes and ability
to bargain. We suspect the latter is the main reason.
Labor Unions; Technological Innovations; Research;
39. Milkman, R., & Voss, K.
(Eds.). (2004). Rebuilding labor: Organizing and organizers in the new
union movement. Ithaca: ILR Press.
order to recruit new members on a scale that would be required to
significantly rebuild union power, unions must fundamentally alter their
internal organizational practices. This means creating more organizer
positions on the staff; developing programs to teach current members how
to handle the tasks involved in resolving shop-floor grievances; and
building programs that train members to participate fully in the work of
external organizing. Such a reorientation entails redefining the very
meaning of union membership from a relatively passive stance toward one of
continuous active engagement.
Sociology; Labor Industrial; Labor Relations.
40. Payne, J.
(2001). Lifelong learning: A national trade union strategy in a global
economy. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(5),
Addresses the concepts of modernization and risk society in relation to
trade unions. Discusses the role of unions in education and training.
Argues the need for a coherent union strategy regarding education and
places the discussion within the context of globalization.
Foreign Countries; Labor Education; Lifelong Learning;
Modernization; Unions; Global Economy; United Kingdom.
41. Payne, J. (2001). What do
trade unions want from lifelong learning? Research in Post-Compulsory
Education, 6(3), 355-373.
Analysis of British government, employer, and union policies on lifelong
learning reveals different emphases. A case study of a union-sponsored
workplace basic skills program illustrates the competing agendas of
competitiveness, equality, and union organizing. The role of further
research to influence policy and practice was emphasized.
Basic Skills; Foreign Countries; Labor Education; Labor
Relations; Lifelong Learning; Public Policy; Unions; United Kingdom.
42. Probert, B., Ewer, P., &
Whiting, K. (2000). Work versus life: Union strategies reconsidered.
Labour & Industry, 11(1), 23-47.
findings of two major research projects examining the tensions between
employees' lives at and outside of work are discussed. Both studies were
based on large scale survey data and focus group discussions in finance
and education sectors. In spite of improved flexible working provisions
and policies in both industries, balancing work and family is becoming
more difficult. Work intensification, restructure and pressure to work
longer hours combined with uncooperative management attitudes towards
employee use of entitlements, even when good provisions exist, exacerbate
the difficulties. Employee ignorance of entitlements also exists.
Strategies to combat these problems, such as legislative action to provide
for citizenship rights, are canvassed.
Finance Sector Union; Australian Education; Union; Work;
Life; Flexible Entitlements; Paid Maternity Leave; Family Leave; Part-Time
Work; Job-Sharing; Working Day; Working Hours; Work Intensification.
Rose, J. B., & Chaison, G. N. (2001).
Unionism in Canada and the United States in the 21st century: The
prospects for revival. Relations industrielles/Industrial Relations, 56(1),
on a review & comparison of recent developments in organizing, collective
bargaining, & political action, this paper considers the potential for
union revival in Canada & the US. Although unions have devoted
considerable energy & resources to new initiatives, the overall evidence
leads us to generally pessimistic conclusions. The level & direction of
union density rates indicates the two labor movements lack the
institutional frameworks & public policies to achieve sustained revival.
Significant gains in union membership & density levels will require
nothing less than a paradigm shift in the industrial relations systems: a
broadening of the scope & depth of membership recruitment, workplace
representation, & political activities.
Unions; Labor Movements; United States of America;
Unionization; Collective Bargaining; Political Action; Canada.
Rubinstein, S. A., & Kochan, T. A. (2001).
Learning from Saturn: Possibilities for corporate governance and employee
relations. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
last two decades of the twentieth century were a tumultuous time of
innovation for business and labor. Perhaps the boldest and most
far-reaching experiment in industry was the creation of the Saturn
Corporation. Working together as partners, the UAW and General Motors
built a new small car in Spring Hill, Tennessee, with American suppliers
and American workers. Saturn's locally designed manufacturing system
featured self-directed teams and the integration of union representatives
into management's strategic and operational decision-making processes.
Saul A. Rubinstein and Thomas A. Kochan have followed the Saturn story
since its beginning in 1983. Through surveys as well as hundreds of
interviews with company managers, union representatives, and employees,
and with leaders of GM and the UAW, they trace the history of, and the
lessons to be learned from, this "Different Kind of Company." The Saturn
experiment embodied a new concept of labor-management relations,
management, and organizational governance. Has it been a success or a
failure? Is it relevant in the current industrial environment? What effect
has it had on GM and the UAW? The authors resist overly simplistic
conclusions; Saturn's strengths and limitations must be fairly assessed
before the company's experience can provide lessons on the future of
unions, labor-management relations, work organization, and corporate
Saturn Corporation; Automobile Industry; Trade Unions;
United States; Management; Employee Participation; International Union;
United Automobile Workers of America (CIO); Economics & Finance;
Industrial and Labor Relations; Business Management; Human Resources.
45. Salt, B.
(2000). Factors enabling and constraining worker education programs'
responses to neo-liberal globalisation. Studies in Continuing
Education, 22(1), 115-144.
Analysis of 18 worker education programs in several countries found that
constraints of neoliberal globalization (funding, university-union
relations, lack of grassroots outreach) outweigh enablers (commitment,
technology, political changes, increased consciousness). Although
constraints hamper union challenges to transnational corporations, the
potential for a golden age of worker education exists.
Adult Education; Corporations; Foreign Countries; Labor
Education; Unions; Globalization; Neoliberalism.
Salt, B., Cervero, R. M., & Herod, A. (2000).
Workers' education and neoliberal globalization: An
adequate response to transnational corporations? Adult Education
Quarterly, 51(1), 9-31.
Analysis of 10 worker education programs indicated that their responses to
globalization ranged from accommodation to transformative learning. There
was no consensus on whose interests were served by globalization. Some
programs promoted international solidarity, which can challenge the
dominance of neoliberalism. The disunified provision of worker education
hampers this effort.
Adult Education; Course Content; Foreign Countries; Labor
Education; Unions; Globalization; Multinational Corporations;
47. Sawchuk, P. H. (2001).
Trade union-based workplace learning: A case study in workplace
reorganization and worker knowledge production. Journal of Workplace
Learning, 13(7-8), 344-351.
case study of Canada's telecommunications industry found the union engaged
in education and research that helped build the potential for workplace
democracy. However, scarce resources for these activities and management
concerns about worker empowerment constrained progressive change.
Democracy; Foreign Countries; Labor Education; Labor
Relations; Organizational Change; Telecommunications; Unions; Workplace
48. Sawchuk, P. H. (2001).
Online learning for labour movement activists. NALL Working Paper No.
46. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
study explored informal learning in relation to online communications and
working class people's use of computers as a socially situated practice
rooted in collective, communal relationships. It drew on analysis of
online learning workshop participation in specially initiated sessions
among Canadian labor activist/educators. Findings were based on analysis
of interview and survey data and content and interaction analysis of
online postings. Survey data indicated participants had computer literacy
levels exceeding those of the general population; the majority had access
to home and/or workplace computers for workshop participation; and
communication with participants and non-participants beyond the formal
structure of the workshop was crucial. Interviews showed a better
understanding was needed of the dynamics of informal learning in virtual
space; key barriers to online learning among activist/educators were
resources, time, distance, and extensive reading and writing requirements;
and a less obvious barrier concerned "communication literacy," a basic
appreciation of the mechanics of interaction, turn-taking, and explicit
framing and re-framing of the situation. Strong evidence suggested online
learning could be a valuable addition to the labor movement's education/
communication capacity, an important part of which revolved around
recognition of informal learning, tacit dimensions of participation,
broader context of participants' lives, and linkages between the online
and offline worlds.
Activism; Adult Education; Communication Skills; Computer
Assisted Instruction; Computer Attitudes; Computer Literacy; Developed
Nations; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Informal Education;
Interaction; Labor Education; Online Courses; Online Systems;
Telecommunications; Unions; Working Class; Workshops.
49. Sawchuk, P. H. (2003). The
‘unionization effect’ among adult computer learners. British Journal of
Sociology of Education, 24(5), 637-648.
Findings from qualitative & quantitative research in Canada are combined
to explore the links between adult participation in progressive trade
unionism & patterns of learning. Progressive trade unionism is defined
partially by an organization's commitment to member education & the
effective “buffering' of supervisory discipline within the labor process.
With a focus on computer learning specifically, the data suggest that
involvement in such organizations & community formations encourages
different subjective appreciation for learning & education, more effective
informal learning practice, as well as greater access to material
resources & greater involvement in formalized courses. Informal learning
networks among manufacturing workers are described comparatively. Central
to this effect is the formation of a proletarian public sphere articulated
by culturally & materially stable forms of class-based community.
Unionization; Adult Education; Learning; Computers;
Industrial Workers; Ontario.
50. Spencer, B. (2002). Unions
and learning in a global economy: International and comparative
perspectives. Toronto: Thomson Educational.
Labour education is one of the most important forms of adult education,
and in many countries it attracts more participants than any other form of
non-vocational adult education. But it is also a field that is often
under-reported in discussions about adult learning, labour relations or
generally in discussions about the role of unions in society.
contributions from eight different countries, this is the first book to
offer international and comparative perspectives on labour education. It
provides context, discusses issues and examples, and reports on new
initiatives, programming and courses. The authors are leading labour and
adult educators and all have union and labour relations backgrounds.
book will be of special interest to labour educators, union officials and
members; and those working in the field of industrial relations and
applied economics. Students of adult education will draw from it a deeper
understanding of the contribution of labour education and the role it will
continue to play in the twenty-first century.
Labor Unions; Labour Education; Adult Education;
51. Taylor, J. (2001). Union
learning: Canadian labour education in the twentieth century. Toronto:
100,000 Canadian workers participate annually in educational programs
conducted by their union or the broader labour organizations to which
their union belongs. Union-based education is the most significant
nonvocational education available to working people. This activity has
been going on for decades, and Jeffery Taylor's Union Learning: Canadian
Labour Education in the Twentieth Century is the first comprehensive
history of it.
Learning chronicles the rise and decline of the Workers' Educational
Association, the development of internal union educational programs, the
consolidation of the Canadian Labour Congress's educational system after
1956, the origin and growth of the Labour College of Canada, and the
patchy history of university and college involvement in labour education.
Taylor argues that a new emphasis on broad-based and activist education
today promises to rekindle the sense of an educational movement that was
present in the labour movement in the 1930s and 1940s.
Labor Unions; Education; Canada; History; Working Class.
Wallerstein, M. (2000). Unions in decline?
What has changed and why. Annual Review of Political Science, 3,
1950 to 1980, labor markets grew increasingly organized in advanced
industrial societies. Union membership in most countries expanded at a
faster rate than the labor force, centralized wage setting became more
common, and union members became increasingly concentrated in a small
number of large unions. From 1980 to 1992, however, union density fell on
average, and centralized wage setting became rare. Only union
concentration increased in the 1980s. Existing theories of union
organization and collective bargaining institutions largely explain both
the trends over time and much of the cross-national variation from 1950 to
1980, but they fail to account for the dramatic declines in union strength
that some (but not all) countries have experienced since 1980.
Unions; Labour; Globalization.
53. Wills, J. (2003).
Geographies of organised labour: The reinvention of trade unionism in
millenial Britain. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.
British trade union movement is at a cross-roads and this fellowship
research seeks to map current and future developments. After two decades
of decline British unions are refocusing on organising, seeking workplace
renewal through local activism and/or partnership agreements with
employers. Taking a geographical perspective, this research will explore
the extent to which these new developments vary across Britain and the
implications this has for the trade union movement, employers and the
national economy. Moreover, by undertaking qualitative research into union
renewal in particular places, this fellowship will look at the degree to
which new unionism and partnership complement and/or contradict one
another in practice. The British trade unions have recognised the need to
change their cultures and structures of organisation if they are to
survive into the next millennium: this research is designed to chart their
progress in this endeavour.
Trade Union; British Trade Union Movement; Union Renewal;
Activism; Partnership; Employers; Geographical Perspective.
54. Worthen, H., & Haynes, A.
(2003). Getting in: The experience of minority graduates of the building
bridges project pre-apprenticeship class. Labor Studies Journal, 28(1),
Chicago-area Building Bridges Project is a cooperative effort involving
construction trades unions, churches in minority communities, & the
Chicago Interfaith Committee. Goals of the project are to increase
awareness of union apprenticeship programs in minority communities,
broaden access to those programs, & organize construction work in these
same communities. This study focuses on the experience of graduates of the
Building Bridges Project preapprenticeship class as they apply to
apprenticeship programs. It reports the ongoing negotiations among
partners in the project as they identify, explain, &, in some cases,
address factors that emerge as barriers to access to those programs. It
argues that the key factor in the success of the project is that it is
guided by the primary goal of organizing.
Chicago, Illinois; Apprenticeships; Minority Groups;
Unions; Community Involvement; Access; Outreach Programs; Graduates;
Zeitlin, M., & Weyher, L. F. (2001). "Black
and white, unite and fight": Interracial working-class solidarity and
racial employment equality. American Journal of Sociology, 107(2),
do the policies & practices of rival workers' organizations affect the
level of racial inequality under advanced capitalism? This article
addresses this theoretical question by assessing how the interracial
unions of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, as opposed to the
racially exclusionist affiliates of the American Federation of Labor,
affected the level of employment equality between black & white workers
during the 1940s. The study finds that in the 37 non-southern states, &
especially in the 15 highly unionized states, the stronger the CIO unions
were, the more equal were the reductions in the unemployment rates of
white & black workers, 1940-1950.
Unions; Unemployment Rates; Black White Differences; Social
Inequality; Working Class; United States of America; Black White