and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
Power Relations and Social Inequality
1. Ahmed, Z. N. (2000). Mapping rural women's perspectives on
nonformal education experiences. APS conceptual mapping
project research report. Occasional paper series. Retrieved
July, 2006, from http://www.eric.ed.gov
study explores how rural women in the village of Srefultoli, Bangladesh
describe, from their own point of view, their experiences with nonformal
education (NFE). Feminist research has revealed that existing NFE programs
in developing countries give women traditional knowledge of family
planning, nutrition, and health care, but they do not deal with the need
to increase women's understanding of their oppression and exploitation.
This study examines whether current NFE programs in this village in
Bangladesh give women new knowledge about their present situation in
society and in the family and whether these women are aware of their
strategic and practical needs.
Developing Nations; Educational Research; Empowerment;
Foreign Countries; Nonformal Education; Perspective Taking; Research
Methodology; Rural Women; Social Science Research; Social Mapping.
2. Anyon, J. (2005).
Radical possibilities. New York: Routledge.
book reveals the influence of federal and metropolitan policies and
practices on the poverty that plagues schools and communities in American
cities and segregated, low-income suburbs. Public policies - such as those
regulating the minimum wage, job availability, tax rates, federal transit,
and affordable housing - all create conditions in urban areas that no
education policy as currently conceived can transcend. In this first book
since her best-selling Ghetto Schooling, the author argues that we must
replace these federal and metro-area policies with more equitable ones, so
that urban school reform can have positive life consequences for students.
The author provides a much-needed new paradigm for understanding and
combating educational injustice. Radical Possibilities reminds us that
historically, equitable public policies have typically been created as a
result of the political pressure brought to bear by social movements.
Basing her analysis on new research in civil rights history and social
movement theory, Anyon skillfully explains how the current moment offers
serious possibilities for the creation of such a force. The book
powerfully describes five social movements already under way in U.S.
cities, and offers readers interested in building this new social movement
a set of practical and theoretical insights into securing economic and
educational justice for the many millions of America's poor families and
Poverty; United States; Public Policy; Social Movements.
3. Apple, M. (2001). Comparing
neo-liberal projects and inequality in education. Comparative
Education, 37(4), 409-423.
Neoliberalism claims that privatization, marketization, uniform standards,
and accountability - some important dynamics surrounding globalization in
education - increase choices and quality in education. However, numerous
studies show that the market has consistently devalued alternatives;
increased the power of dominant models; and exacerbated racial, gender,
and class differences in access and outcome. Context-specific effects are
Accountability; Comparative Education; Educational Change;
Educational Discrimination; Educational Philosophy; Equal Education; Free
Enterprise System; Middle Class Standards; National Standards; Politics of
Education; Power Structure; Privatization; Role of Education; School
Choice; Social Bias; Work and Learning.
4. Apple, M. (2002). Does
education have independent power? Bernstein and the question of relative
autonomy. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(4),
paper focuses on the ways Basil Bernstein's positions can help understand
questions of the autonomy of schools and of the “class belongingness” of
its cultural dynamics. The article demonstrates how differences of various
social fields of power & of the complex ways in which class relations work
within them enabling a considerably more subtle perspective on “who
controls what” & on what that “what” actually is. An example of the
pedagogic device in one specific nation is used to demonstrate how we can
employ it to more rigorously focus our attention on the possible effects
education itself has.
Class Relations; Power; Sociological Theory; Educational
Systems; Social Reproduction; Work and Learning.
5. Ball, S. J., Davies, J.,
David, M., & Reay, D. (2002). "Classification" and "judgment": Social
class and the "cognitive structures" of choice of higher education.
British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(1), 51-72.
issue of social class-related patterns of access to higher education (HE)
has become a matter of public debate in the UK recently, but is on the
whole portrayed one-sidedly in terms of issues of selection (elitism) and
the social dimensions of choice are neglected. Drawing on an Economic and
Social Research Council research study, examines choice of HE using
Bourdieu's concepts of “classification” and ”judgment”. HE is viewed in
terms of its internal status differentiations. Students' positive and
negative choices are addressed using qualitative and quantitative data,
and the “accuracy” of status perceptions is also tested. Argues that
choices are infused with class and ethnic meanings and that choice-making
plays a crucial role in the reproduction of divisions and hierarchies in
HE, but also that the very idea of choice assumes a kind of formal
equality that obscures “the effects of real inequality”. HE choices are
embedded in different kinds of biographies and institutional habituses,
and different “opportunity structures”.
Higher Education; Access; Inequalities; Social Class; UK;
Social Change; Change.
6. Ball, S. (2003). Class
strategies and the education market. London; New York: Routledge
and the Education Market looks at the ways the middle classes maintain and
improve their social advantages in and through education. Working with an
extensive series of interviews with parents and children, this book
identifies key moments of decision making in the construction of the
educational trajectories of middle class children. The author organises
his analysis around the key concepts of social closure, social capital,
values and principles and risk, while bringing a broad range of up-to-date
sociological theory to bear upon his subject. From this thorough analysis,
valuable and thought-provoking insights emerge into the diligent care and
considerable effort and expenditure which goes into ensuring the
educational success of the middle class child. This book provides a set of
working tools for class analysis and the examination of class practices.
Above all, Class Strategies and the Education Market offers new ways of
thinking about class theory and the relationships between classes in late
Middle Class; Education; Social Aspects; Educational Sociology;
Educational Equalization; Work and Learning.
7. Balser, D. B., & Stern, R.
N. (1999). Resistance and cooperation: A response to conflict over job
performance. Human Relations, 52(8), 1029-1053.
Research literature on job performance from both management-oriented and
industrial relations/sociology of work models is synthesized to produce a
more comprehensive understanding of how supervisors manage employee
performance problems. Two assumptions are derived from the synthesis: (1)
employees are active in accepting and resisting definitions of performance
issues made by supervisors; (2) informal interactions regarding the
interpretation of performance issues are pivotal in understanding how
performance problems are resolved. This study of university library
supervisors focuses on the informal exchanges and characterizes them as
negotiations over the definition of job performance. Results are reported
from a qualitative study of supervisors' interactions with employees
identified as having performance problems. Three types of interactions in
informal negotiations were found among 15 supervisor-employee dyads. The
supervisors' interpretations of their interactions with employees are
labeled as conformist, confrontational, or rebellious, designating how
supervisors enact their role as agents of the organization.
Conflict; Cooperation; Job Performance; Resistance;
Supervisor Employee Interaction; Librarians; Changes in Paid Work.
8. Behar, M. C. (2000). Women
weaving webs: Will women rule the Internet? Houston, TX: CBM Press.
book is a resource for women who want a role in shaping this new
technology, as well as for those who want to use the Internet to reach
women. Although the Internet is still male-dominated, communication in
cyberspace is particularly suited to a woman's way of acting using
cooperation, collaboration, sharing and constant communication. The author
addresses how women are using the Internet today, and how they can take
charge of the "virtual global village". It includes stories of women
around the world from Silicon Valley to Eastern Europe, from urban Japan
to rural Australia who are discovering the power of the Internet and
helping to shape its future.
Work and Learning; Women.
9. Bierema, L. (2001). Women,
work, and learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education,
are disadvantaged when it comes to opportunity and learning. Adult
educators can take steps to begin changing women's secondary status in the
Women; Adult Education; Workplace; Inequity.
10. Black, D. H., Amelia;
Sanders, Seth; Taylor, Lowell. (2006). Why do minority men earn less? A
study of wage differential among the highly educated. The Review of
Economics and Statistics [Cambridge], 88(2), 300-313.
gaps using nonparametric matching methods and detailed measures of field
of study are estimated for university graduates. Found was a modest
portion of the wage gap that is the consequence of measurement error in
the Census education measure. Hispanic and Asian men, the remaining gap is
attributable to premarket factors - primarily differences in formal
education and English language proficiency. Black men, only about
one-quarter of the wage gap is explained by these same factors. A
subsample of black men born outside the South, these factors do not
account for the entire wage gap.
Studies; Wage Differential; Education; Regression Analysis;
Minority; Ethnic Groups; Labor market.
11. Bowl, M. (2001).
Experiencing the barriers: Non-traditional students entering higher
education. Research Papers in Education: Policy and Practice, 16(2),
Examined the educational experiences of nontraditional, ethnic minority,
women students in the United Kingdom who were involved in a
community-based, flexible access to higher education project in the inner
city, highlighting financial and institutional barriers they experienced.
Students were frustrated participants in an unresponsive institutional
context, struggling against poverty, lack of time, tutor indifference, and
Access to Education; Adult Students; College Students;
Females; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Inner City; Minority Groups;
Nontraditional Students; Poverty; Time Factors (Learning); Barriers to
Participation; United Kingdom.
12. Breen, R., & Goldthorpe,
J. H. (2001). Class, mobility and merit: The experience of two British
birth cohorts. European Sociological Review, 17(2), 81-119.
controversial issue of “meritocracy'”can be most productively addressed if
it is treated as one of direction of change over time: i.e. whether
individual merit, understood in terms of ability, effort, or educational
attainment, is growing in importance in processes of social selection. To
test the thesis of “increasing merit selection”, the authors analyse data
from two British cohort studies relating to children born in 1958 and 1970
respectively. They find that, from the later to the earlier cohort, the
pattern of relative rates of class mobility changed little; and that
individual merit, as they are able to measure it, did not play a greater
part in mediating the association between class origins and destinations.
In fact, the effects of ability and educational attainment on individuals'
relative mobility chances diminished somewhat. These findings, the authors
argue, are less surprising than they may at first appear if viewed in the
context of the problematic relationship between the idea of meritocracy
and the operation of a free-market economy.
Class; Class Mobility.
13. Castells, M. (Ed.).
(1999). Critical education in the new information age. Lanham:
Rowan & Littlefield.
book in the Critical Perspectives Series (Macedo, general editor), a
series dedicated to Freire, focuses on new developments in education
capable of promoting social/political change. Leading educators critically
address crucial issues in light of communications technologies, the
information society, globalization, multiculturalism, ecology, feminism,
the media, & individual liberty. Contributors are committed to a pedagogy
of social justice in their search for new ideas to inform the practice of
education & contribute to a more humane civil society. It is maintained
that postmodern capitalism is facing a structural crisis that is mirrored
in new educational inequalities exacerbated by new networks & identities
that are products of the information society. Themes of postmodernism,
commodity fetishism, politicized pedagogies, & the crippling impact of
globalization on democracy are threaded through the essays. It is argued
that the crisis in capitalism reflects a radical rupture with the past
induced by globalization. Current discourses of postmodernism are examined
in light of insights that emerge from the dialectical relationship between
modernism & postmodernism.
Critical Pedagogy; United States; Popular Education; Social
Aspects; Work and Learning.
14. Davis, J. M., & Watson, N.
(2001). Where are the children's experiences? Analysing social and
cultural exclusion in 'special' and 'mainstream' schools. Disability &
Society, 16(5), 671-687.
this article, we employ ethnographic data to show that disabled children
encounter discriminatory notions of "normality" & "difference" in both
"special" & "mainstream" schools, & that these experiences relate to the
structural forces in schools & the everyday individual & cultural
practices of adults & children. In contrast to much of the literature in
the field, this article examines the daily life experiences of adults &
disabled children from their own perspective. We bring to light disabled
children's own criticisms of "special" & "mainstream" schools to
illustrate the fluid nature of disabled children's lives within
educational settings. We argue that schools will be prevented from
becoming fully inclusive until adults who control schools recognize
children's views of specific educational processes & until educational
policymakers take on a more nuanced multilevel approach to inclusion.
Handicapped; Children; Discrimination; Mainstreaming;
Educational Inequality; Educational Policy; Adults; Policy Making;
15. Diekman, A. B., & Murnen,
S. K. (2004). Learning to be little women and little men: The inequitable
gender equality of nonsexist children's literature. Sex Roles: A
Journal of Research, 50(5-6), 373-385.
change in gender roles has been predominantly asymmetric: the roles of
women have changed more than the roles of men. To investigate the
reflection of such asymmetry in the popular culture, we examined how books
recommended to teachers & parents as "nonsexist" differed from books
categorized as "sexist." Multiple participants read a sample of
elementary-level novels & rated the portrayals of various forms of sexism,
including stereotypic personality, segregated work & family roles, status
inequality, gender segregation, the traditional idealization of
femininity, & unequal representation of the sexes. Although nonsexist
books were more likely than sexist books to represent female characters
who adopted male-stereotypic characteristics & roles, both types of books
similarly portrayed female-stereotypic personality, domestic chores, &
leisure activities. Such representations may contribute to the
perpetuation of gender inequality, particularly if they are held up as
examples of equality.
Literature; Children; Sex Stereotypes; Socialization
16. Downey, D. B., Broh, B.
A., & von Hippel, P. T. (2004). Are schools the great equalizer? Cognitive
inequality during the summer months and the school year. American
Sociological Review, 69(5), 613-635.
paper examines how schooling affects inequality in cognitive skills.
Reproductionist theory has argued that schooling plays an important role
in reproducing & even exacerbating existing disparities. However, seasonal
comparison research has shown that gaps in reading & math skills grow
primarily during summer vacation, suggesting that non-school factors (eg,
family & neighborhood) are the main source of inequality. Using the Early
Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-99, this paper
improves upon past seasonal estimates of school & non-school effects on
cognitive skill gains. Like previous research, this study considers how
socioeconomic & racial/ethnic gaps in skills change when school is in
session vs when it is not. This study reaches beyond past research by
examining the considerable inequality in learning that is not associated
with socioeconomic status & race. This "unexplained" disparity is more
than 90% of the total inequality in learning rates and is much smaller
during school than during summer. The results from the analysis suggest
that schools serve as important equalizers: nearly every gap grows faster
during summer than during school.
Schools; Cognitive Development; Socioeconomic Status;
Skills; Seasonal Variations; Educational Inequality; Black White
17. Dunn, N. A. W., & Baker,
S. B. (2002). Readiness to serve students with disabilities: A survey of
elementary school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 5(4),
Surveys the actual and perceived role elementary school counselors in
North Carolina have in working with students with disabilities. Data
reveals that many school counselors acquired some formal education about
students with disabilities prior to entering the profession, yet many have
found the demands for them to possess expertise in this domain have
exceeded their perceived level of knowledge.
Counselor Attitudes; Counselor Role; Counselor Training;
Disabilities; Elementary Education; School Counseling; School Counselors;
Special Needs Students; Surveys.
18. Fenwick, T. (2004). What
happens to the girls? Gender, work and learning in Canada's 'new economy'.
Gender and Education, 16(2), 169-185.
Policies hailing lifelong learning in the so-called New Economy promote
equitable knowledge work & work-related learning opportunities for all.
Gender is hardly mentioned in these discourses; some might assume gender
is “resolved“ in a new economy emphasizing entrepreneurism, technology,
knowledge creation, & continuous learning. However, a closer look reveals
that gendered inequity persists both in access to & experience of these
learning opportunities. Indeed, familiar issues of women, work, & learning
are exacerbated in the changing contexts & designs of work comprising the
so-called New Economy. This is argued in the frame of Canada's most recent
policies on work & learning, drawing from contemporary Canadian studies &
statistics to underline the point. Current provisions for girls' & women's
vocational education in Canada are assessed in light of these issues,
focusing on particular learning needs of girls & gendered issues they face
in entering the labor market of the New Economy. To move beyond a critical
analysis & outline a possible way forward, four directions for change are
suggested: more gender-sensitive career education for girls; sponsored
vocational education for women; management education in gendered issues
arising in the changing economy; & critical vocational education in both
schools & workplaces.
Canada; Women's Education; Vocational Education; Education
Work Relationship; Educational Policy; Educational Opportunities; Economic
Change; Labor Market.
19. Ganding, L. A., & Apple,
M. (2002). Can education challenge neoliberalism? The citizen school and
the struggle for democracy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Social Justice, 29(4),
Examines how negotiating local control of schooling can be an effective
force of resistance against the market-economy paradigm of education,
describing the policies of the popular administration in Porto Alegre,
Brazil. Focuses on the Citizen School, "which provides quality education
to impoverished people." Also examines proposals that are explicitly
designed to radically change both the municipal schools and the
relationship between communities, the state, and education.
Citizenship Education; Democracy; Educational Change;
Educational Policy; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries;
Governance; Politics of Education; Poverty; Social Change; Work and
Gibson-Graham, J. K., Resnick, S., & Wolff, R. D. (2001).
Toward a poststructuralist political economy. In J. K.
Gibson-Graham, S. Resnick & R. D. Wolff (Eds.), Re/presenting class
(pp. 1-22). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
book is a collection of essays that develops a poststructuralist Marxian
conception of class in order to theorize the complex contemporary economic
terrain. Both building upon and reconsidering a tradition that Stephen
Resnick and Richard Wolff—two of this volume's editors—began in the late
1980s with their groundbreaking work Knowledge and Class, contributors aim
to correct previous research that has largely failed to place class as a
central theme in economic analysis. Suggesting the possibility of a new
politics of the economy, the collection as a whole focuses on the
diversity and contingency of economic relations and processes.
Investigating a wide range of cases, the essays illuminate, for instance,
the organizational and cultural means by which unmeasured surpluses-labor
that occurs outside the formal workplace, such as domestic work-are
distributed and put to use. Editors Resnick and Wolff, along with J. K.
Gibson-Graham, bring theoretical essays together with those that apply
their vision to topics ranging from the Iranian Revolution to
sharecropping in the Mississippi Delta to the struggle over the ownership
of teaching materials at a liberal arts college. Rather than understanding
class as an element of an overarching capitalist social structure, the
contributors-from radical and cultural economists to social
scientists-define class in terms of diverse and ongoing processes of
producing, appropriating, and distributing surplus labor and view class
identities as multiple, changing, and interacting with other aspects of
identity in contingent and unpredictable ways.
Poststructuralism; Class Analysis; Marxism; Political
21. Gouthro, P. A. (2002).
Education for sale: At what cost? Lifelong learning and the marketplace.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(4), 334-346.
Critical and feminist analyses illustrate how the marketplace has
influenced lifelong learning discourses to emphasize competition and
individualism. Justice, equity, and critical thinking are suppressed when
the marketplace predominates in education.
Competition; Critical Theory; Discourse Analysis; Economic
Factors; Equal Education; Individualism; Lifelong Learning; Role of
22. Green, A., Preston, J., &
Sabates, R. (2003). Education, equality, and social cohesion: A
distributional approach. Compare, 33(4), 453-470.
article distinguishes social capital from societal cohesion and argues
that education acts in different ways for each. The article goes on to
develop a distributional model showing the relationship between equality
of educational outcomes and various measures of social cohesion. A
discussion of theories explaining country trends and variations in
educational inequality and social inheritance in education is also
Adult Literacy; Comparative Analysis; Comparative
Education; Cultural Pluralism; Educational Policy; Equal Education;
Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Learning Processes; Life Style;
Secondary Education; Social Capital; Social Integration; Socialization.
23. Ground, I. E. (Ed.).
(2000). Lifelong learning, equity and inclusion. Proceedings of the
UACE Conference, March 29-31, 1999: Cambridge, UK: Universities
Association for Continuing Education.
document contains 41 plenary papers, speeches, papers, abstracts, and
workshop presentations from a conference on continuing education, lifelong
learning, equity, and inclusion in further education (FE) and higher
education (HE). Some papers contain substantial bibliographies.
Access to Education; Adjustment (to Environment); Adult
Learning; Articulation (Education); Case Studies; Change Agents; Community
Education; Continuing Education; Corporate Education; Disabilities;
Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change;
Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Technology; Equal
Education; Ethnic Groups; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries;
Inclusive Schools; Individual Development; Lifelong Learning;
Mainstreaming; Minority Groups; Needs Assessment; Open Education; Parent
School Relationship; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education;
Rural Education; School Business Relationship; Sex Differences; Social
Integration; Staff Development; Student Educational Objectives; Technology
Guthrie, J. W., & Springer, M. G. (2004).
Returning to square one: From Plessy to Brown and back to Plessy.
Peabody Journal of Education, 79(2), 5-32.
paper describes significant legal & policy system changes in America's
50-year crusade to curtail or eliminate racially segregated public school.
In retrospection, a more forceful initial policy system stance regarding
judicial enforcement may well have resulted in greater desegregation
success. After 5 decades of judicial & operational compliance trial &
error, American public schools presently appear almost as racially
segregated as before the landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education. The
modern-day cause of school segregation relates more with income & housing
patterns than with explicit apartheid policies. Regardless of cause,
however, even if something much closer to equal educational opportunity
exists now than was true 50 years ago, there clearly is not anything
close, nationally, to racial parity of educational achievement. Aware of
the remaining achievement gap, this paper posits that it is time to
reconsider past policies built almost exclusively around busing &
achieving physical mixes of Black & White students. It is now time to rely
on new strategies involving elevated expectations, explicit learning
standards, notions of financial "adequacy," & effective accountability. In
effect, it is time to measure racial policy progress by student success,
not by transportation & school resource processes.
Educational Inequality; Racial Segregation; Educational
Policy; Judicial Decisions; School Desegregation; United States of
25. Hattery, A. J. (2003).
Sleeping in the box, thinking outside the box: Student reflections on
innovative pedagogical tools for teaching about and promoting a greater
understanding of social class inequality among undergraduates. Teaching
Sociology, 31(4), 412-427.
Teaching about social stratification & social inequality is essential to
any curriculum in sociology. Yet time and again students are not as
excited about these courses as they are about others. In order to involve
students in active learning, the author developed a course that used a
variety of pedagogical strategies designed to provide experiential &
service-learning situations to help students connect readings such as
those by Marx, Olin Wright, & Davis & Moore with the situation of social
class in contemporary US. Students were required to keep journals of their
experiences to provide the data for this paper. Though there is
considerable room for improvement, the data suggest that the teaching
tools employed were successful in promoting a deeper level of learning
around issues of inequality, particularly social class inequality, as it
exists in the US.
Sociology; Education; Social Stratification; Social
Inequality; Teaching Methods; United States of America.
26. Jackson, S. (2003).
Lifelong earning: Working-class women and lifelong learning. Gender and
Education, 15(4), 365-376.
Argued is that despite the rhetoric that surrounds lifelong learning,
barriers to participation for working-class women are too often ignored or
made invisible. From a critique of current policies and practices of
lifelong learning, the article addresses the diversities of working-class
women's multiple identities while considering some of the (apparent) wider
benefits of learning for working-class women. Concluded is that many
working-class women are trapped in a cycle of lifelong earning that
centers on low-paid, low-status jobs. In a learning society driven by
market forces based in inequalities of gender, race, & class, there is no
Adult Education; Women’s Education; Females; Working Class.
27. Jones, S. T. (2004).
Living poverty and literacy learning: Sanctioning topics of students'
lives. Language Arts, 81(6), 461-469.
article examines the social class differences among students and its
impact students' engagement with literacy practices in the classrooms. The
article stresses that teachers must hear and validate stories of poverty
as an effective strategy to gain class-specific understanding.
Social Differences; Poverty; Literacy Education; Social
Class; Language Teachers; Teaching Methods; Relevance (Education).
28. Karen, D. (2005). No child
left behind? Sociology ignored! Sociology of Education, 78(2),
part of a special journal symposium on the George W. Bush administration's
2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the author argues that this
legislation was implemented with poor funding & an even worse
implementation plan. Most egregiously, NCLB is based on an insufficient
understanding or complete contradiction of a large body of sociological &
other research that has identified factors in schools & communities that
impact the academic achievement of children from disadvantaged
backgrounds. The NCLB provisions are examined & potential contributions
that sociologists can make in its implementation & evaluation are
reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the ways that the social
structure of inequality in the US shapes children's achievement, a fact
that the NCLB's focus on test scores as a measure of school success
Academic Achievement; Educational Policy; Disadvantaged;
Opportunity Structures; Learning; Schools; Achievement Tests; Sociological
Research; Sociology; Education.
29. Lamb, S., Long, M., &
Malley, J. (1998). Access and equity in vocational education and training:
Results from longitudinal surveys of Australian youth. Melbourne:
Australian Council for Educational Research.
study examined access and equity in vocational education and training
(VET) in Australia for youth from different social and educational
backgrounds using data from a program of national longitudinal surveys.
Secondary VET participation was low; youth from lower socioeconomic
backgrounds were more likely to enroll; and students were more likely to
proceed to further studies in the postschool VET sector. Post-school
education and training participation had grown, with substantially
increased rates of entry to higher education for girls and to postschool
VET for boys; higher education was the main destination for youth from
higher status origins, VET for those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds
and early school leavers; and rural youth were more likely to participate
in VET. Apprenticeship continued to be male dominated; it was stronger
among lower socioeconomic groups and was chosen by middle and low
achievers. Traineeships were important for females. Technical and further
education (TAFE) completion rates varied by course, rural or urban
location, and level of schooling attained. Work-based findings showed
younger employees received less formal and more informal training, and
higher educational qualifications were associated with higher levels of
training. Durations of unemployment were shorter and earnings higher for
males with apprenticeship training or who participated in TAFE diploma
courses; female higher education graduates had a substantial earnings
advantage; and males with a TAFE diploma training or who completed
apprenticeship had the highest average weekly earnings.
Academic Achievement; Access to Education; Apprenticeships;
Educational Background; Educational Benefits; Educational Discrimination;
Enrollment Influences; Enrollment Rate; Enrollment Trends; Equal
Education; Foreign Countries; Geographic Location; Longitudinal Studies;
Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Vocational Education; Youth;
30. Lewis, L. S. (2003). Will
education reform create more opportunity? Society, 40(5(265)),
article analyses the value of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001"
(H.R.1) which is intended to "close the achievement gap" among America's
children. The main goals of the program are to increase standardized test
scores, decrease student/teacher ratios, & improve the quality of
teachers. Although well intentioned, the law is likely to fail because it
is based on five questionable assumptions: (1) school attendance is valued
by all individuals; (2) school practices significantly affect academic
achievement; (3) cognitive skills are learned almost exclusively in
school; (4) socioeconomic success is largely determined by the possession
of cognitive skills; & (5) education creates opportunities.
United States of America; Educational Policy; Educational
Reform; Theoretical Problems; Academic Achievement; Social Inequality;
Income Inequality; Educational Opportunities; Social Influence.
31. MacNevin, A. L. (2004).
Embodying sociological mindfulness: Learning about social inequality
through the body. Teaching Sociology, 32(3), 314-321.
article uses a sociology teaching method that communicates the reality of
social inequality through attention to everyday body language & proxemics.
By using role playing & nonverbal exercises, students are reminded that
power relations are an intimate & intuitive experience. Body language, as
observed by Edward Sapir (1949), is "an elaborate & secret code that is
written nowhere, known by none & understood by all." Body language
maintains an intricate role in maintaining social order, through subtly
communicating dominance, threat, & submission (Henley 1977). Along with
assigned readings in body & social class, gender, & power, as part of a
third-year sociology course called "Body & Society," developed by the
author, the exercises offer a moving understanding of dominance &
subordination in intimate relationships & in formal status hierarchies.
Sociology; Education; Nonverbal Communication; Social
Inequality; Spatial Behavior; Power; Hierarchy; Role Playing; Teaching
32. Marks, A. (2000). Lifelong
learning and the 'breadwinner ideology': Addressing the problems of lack
of participation by adult, working-class males in higher education on
Merseyside. Educational Studies, 26(3), 303-319.
Considering the cultural and economic positions of working-class men in
the context of Merseyside, their attitudes towards education and the
effects on their levels of participation in higher education. Taken from
research into mature students in British universities, the author suggests
that universities themselves need to change if they are to offer an image
and environment that will appeal to the adult working class, and in
particular the adult working-class male and the universities must reassess
their “community” role.
Lifelong Learning; Males; Men; British University;
33. McCowan, T. (2003, March).
Participation and education in the landless people's movement of Brazil.
Retrieved July, 2006, from http://www.jceps.com/index.php?pageID=article&articleID=6
article analyses the significance of participation in the educational work
of the Landless People’s Movement of Brazil (MST), a social movement for
agrarian reform that has established a network of schools in its
communities. In contrast to the tokenist approaches of many government and
supranational agencies, the MST’s view of participation is grounded in
principles of radical democracy and social justice. The movement aims to
enable the landless to participate fully as citizens in society and to be
active in challenging and reformulating societal structures. Education in
the MST is related to participation in two ways: first the education
system itself is participatory, allowing the involvement of all
stakeholders in planning, implementation and evaluation; second, education
is a means by which landless people can develop the skills and knowledge
to participate more effectively in the wider society. While there are
certain areas, such as gender, where the MST is still developing an
effective strategy, the movement demonstrates high levels of internal
participatory equality, and has developed a pedagogy designed to enable
transformatory participation in the political, economic and cultural
Work and Learning; Globalization; Class Struggle; Class
Relations; Brazil; Education and State.
34. Mehran, G. (1999).
Lifelong learning: New opportunities for women in a Muslim country (Iran).
Comparative Education, 35(2), 201-215.
Examines literacy education for women in postrevolutionary Iran and
whether it empowers women. Discusses seemingly contradictory roles
demanded of Muslim women (traditional wife and mother plus social and
political supporter of revolutionary ideology) and the role of literacy
education in linking women to the sociopolitical network. Analyzes content
of textbooks and reading materials in literacy classes.
Adult Basic Education; Content Analysis; Cultural
Maintenance; Empowerment; Females; Foreign Countries; Islamic Culture;
Literacy Education; Muslims; Propaganda; Sex Role; Textbook Content;
Traditionalism; Women's Education; Iran.
35. Merrill, B. (2004).
Biographies, class and learning: The experiences of adult learners.
Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 12(1), 73-94.
education in the United Kingdom is historically connected with
working-class movements in the nineteenth century. Recently, with the
popularity of postmodernism, social class has become a neglected concept
among sociologists & adult educators. An increase in participation
strategies has raised the number of adult students returning to education,
many from the working class. This article examines the biographies of
working-class learners to illustrate the continued centrality of class &
class inequalities in the lives of adult learners. Biographies reveal how
class inequalities confine learning in many ways, making it a risk;
however, through the utilization of agency, education can also be
transformative. Adult educators need to take note of the voices of
working-class adult learners & challenge the structures, policy &
practices in their institutions in order to improve the learning
experiences as well as to reassert class in academic debates.
Adult Education; Learning; United Kingdom; Autobiographical
Materials; Social Class; Working Class; Social Inequality.
36. Mojab, S., & McDonald, S.
(2001). Women, violence and informal learning. NALL Working Paper
No. 41. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
comparative study of the impact of violence on immigrant women's learning
was conducted among immigrant women of two communities in the Toronto
area: the Spanish-speaking community and the Kurds. The two authors of the
study each worked with one of the communities in which they had knowledge
of the language. An in-depth, non-structured, conversational interview was
used with 14 women of each group in order to document the life histories
of these women as they experienced them. The Spanish-speaking women also
participated in a workshop wherein they focused on learning about the law.
All the women had been involved in violence, whether the mostly-domestic
violence that the Spanish-speaking women had experienced or the political
violence in which the Kurdish women or their husbands, sons, and brothers
had participated. The study, reported separately for each group, found
that the experience of violence places stress on the women that impedes
their learning. The study also found that learning should be viewed as
larger than just the learning of content - it includes learning to trust
and act on their own behalf and take charge of their own learning. Some of
the recommendations of the study included having peer-oriented learning
groups to teach women about the legal system and the provision of legal
materials in their native languages.
Adult Basic Education; Adult Literacy; Anxiety; Battered
Women; Cognitive Style; Developed Nations; Educational Attitudes; Fear;
Females; Foreign Countries; Functional Literacy; Immigrants; Informal
Education; Kurdish; Language of Instruction; Law Related Education; Laws;
Learning Processes; Learning Strategies; Legal Problems; Literacy
Education; Minority Groups; Peer Teaching; Personal Narratives; Refugees;
Spanish Speaking; Stress Variables; Teaching Methods; Victims of Crime;
Violence; War; Women’s Education; Kurds; Ontario (Toronto).
37. Overwien, B. (2000).
Informal learning and the role of social movements. International
Review of Education, 46(6), 621-640.
Discusses the benefits of an enlarged view of learning that emphasizes the
abilities of the individual learner and the role of the teacher as partner
in a joint educational process and includes informal acquisition of skills
on-the-job. Argues that much is to be learned from popular educational
movements in Latin America.
Case Studies; Conference Papers; Disadvantaged Youth;
Education Work Relationship; Entrepreneurship; Foreign Countries; Informal
Education; Inservice Education; Nonformal Education; On-the-Job Training
Popular Education; Vocational Education; Latin America; Nicaragua.
38. Raffo, C. (2003).
Disaffected young people and the work-related curriculum at key stage 4:
Issues of social capital development and learning as a form of cultural
practice. Journal of Education and Work, 16(1), 69-86.
work-based learning initiative was examined in interviews and focus groups
with 110 disaffected/at-risk British youth. Results show how
configurations of networks and values at macro, meso, and micro levels
enhance or constrain social learning and the ability to develop forms of
cultural practice and social capital that aid school-to-work transition.
Adolescents; Cultural Influences; Disadvantaged Youth;
Foreign Countries; High Risk Students; Networks; Postsecondary Education;
Social Capital; Sociocultural Patterns; Student Development; United
Kingdom; Work Based Learning; Work and Learning.
39. Ranson, S. (2003). Public
accountability in the age of neo-liberal governance. Journal of
Education Policy, 18(5), 459-480.
Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational
governance since the demise of professional accountability in the
mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for
educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic
Accountability; Democratic Values; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Governance; Liberalism; Work and Learning.
40. Smyth, J. (2003). The
making of young lives with/against the school credential. Journal of
Education and Work, 16(2), 127-146.
Interviews with 209 Australian young people who chose not to complete
secondary education reveal the complexity of this decision is based on
their individual agency in constructing alternative lives. They resist
credentialing, which poses an impediment rather than serves as an access
Australia; Credential; Early School Leavers; Work and
41. Thiessen, V., & Blasius,
J. (2002). The social distribution of youth's images of work. The
Canadian of Sociology and Anthropology, 39(1), 49-79.
extent and manner in which youth's description of work reflects their
location in the social structure is examined using face-to-face structured
interview responses from 1,209 17-year-olds. In this paper, the authors
show that social class is the primary organizing principle when youth look
at their parents' work, whereas it is gender with respect to their own
expected work. The fundamental cognitive principle when youth looks at
parental occupations is an evaluative one, juxtaposing desirable with
undesirable work characteristics. This evaluative opposition evaporates
when youth contemplate their own future jobs, except among working-class
boys, who are more likely to expect work with undesirable characteristics.
Children & Youth; Attitudes; Sociology; Employment; Social
Classes; Youth; Polls and Surveys; Work; Social Aspects; Work and
42. Torres-Velasquez, D.
(2000). Sociocultural theory: Standing at the crossroads. Remedial and
Special Education, 21(2), 66-69.
introductory article to this special issue on sociocultural perspectives
in special education focuses on sociocultural theory in the 21st century,
especially cultural shifts as a function of history, demographic shifts,
power shifts to such groups as non-government organizations, and the
importance of assuring equal access to education for children with
Access to Education; Cultural Context; Demography;
Disabilities; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Equal Education; Social
Influences; Sociocultural Patterns; Special Education; Theories; Trend
43. Tseng, V. (2004). Family
interdependence and academic adjustment in college: Youth from immigrant
and U.S.-born families. Child Development, 75(3), 966-983.
study is an examination of family interdependence and its implications for
academic adjustment among late adolescents and young adults in college (18
to 25 years). Survey data and university records were collected on 998
American youth with Asian Pacific, Latino, African/Afro-Caribbean, and
European backgrounds. Results indicate that Asian Pacific Americans placed
more importance on family interdependence than did European Americans.
Across all pan-ethnic groups, youth with immigrant parents placed greater
emphasis on family interdependence than did youth with U.S.-born parents.
The study distinguished between family interdependence attitudes and
behaviors and found that they had counteracting influences on academic
adjustment: Family obligation attitudes contributed to greater academic
motivation among youth from immigrant as compared with U.S.-born families,
but greater behavioral demands detracted from achievement.
College Students; Family Relations; Immigration; Racial and
Ethnic Differences; School Adjustment; Academic Achievement Motivation;
American Indians; Asians; Blacks; Hispanics; Whites.
44. Vite Perez, M. A. (2003).
Notes for thinking about the new social inequality. Sociologica, 18(52),
Changes in the welfare state in the last 20 years leading to the new
social inequality are reviewed, using Mexico as a case. The new social
inequality is the product of capitalist accumulation utilizing
privatization & deregulation within a neoliberal perspective. Neoliberal
policy introduced market logic into social services administered by the
welfare state, so that the state is now in a position of serving only a
limited population, with the consequent deterioration of the collective
welfare. High levels of unemployment & underemployment have also led to
new modes of social inequality. Contradictions between the logic of
capital & the logic of state have reduced the capacity of the state to
guarantee social rights. Poverty and limited access to basic services have
serious negative effects on the excluded population, who are even
criminalized for their role in the problem.
Neoliberalism; Mexico; Social Inequality; Privatization;
Deregulation; Social Services; Welfare State; Social Closure.
45. Wedgwood, N. (2005). Just
one of the boys? A life history case study of a male physical education
teacher. Gender and Education, 17(2), 189-201.
Studies of physical education teacher training have already established
that hegemonic forms of masculinity are reinforced and reproduced both in
the hidden curriculum (Flintoff, 1997) and the informal student culture
(Skelton, 1993). Given this, an important feminist concern is whether male
PE teachers whose own masculine identities are anchored in their athletic
prowess simply "teach" their young male charges to construct hegemonic
forms of masculinity through PE and school sport and/or whether they
necessarily marginalize and inferiorize female students. This paper
provides a life history case study of a male PE teacher's role both in
reproducing and challenging gendered norms in his capacity as coach of a
schoolboy and schoolgirl Australian Rules football team.
High Schools; Masculinity; Hidden Curriculum; Physical
Education Teachers; Gender Issues; Males; Foreign Countries; Sex
Stereotypes; Sex Role; Teacher Influence; Women’s Athletics.
46. Willis, P., & Carden, P.
(Eds.). (2004). Lifelong learning and the democratic imagination:
Revisioning justice, freedom and community. Flaxton: Post Pressed.
book is a collection of essays from Adult and Community Educators in
Australia, New Zealand, England, Scotland, Canada, America and South
Africa. There is a general belief here that democracy is about people
consciously sharing power and that such deliberate choices to share power,
draw on ideals and values of sharing with and including others. In modern
life this generous and equitable stance has to be learned and re-learned
against competing cultures of individualism and competition. Such learning
needs more than logical argument. It occurs when powerful evocations of
human equality and dignity capture the human imagination and move the
heart. The work of this book is to pursue what needs to be done to
generate suitable pre-dispositions for this unselfish sociable spirit to
take root and grow. The book has five sections. The first concerns visions
of democratic imagining: the second looks at predispositions for
democratic imagining. The last three explore the educational work of
imagining democracy in three learning arenas: community and work
locations, higher and work-related education and schools.
Lifelong Learning; Australia; New Zealand; England;
Scotland; Canada; America; South Africa; Democratic Values; Work; Higher
47. Wright, E. O. (Ed.).
(2005). Approaches to class analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge
concepts have been as central to sociology as ”class” and yet class
remains a perpetually contested idea. Sociologists not only disagree on
how best to define the concept of class but on its general role in social
theory and as well on its continued relevance to the sociological analysis
of contemporary society. Some people understand that classes have largely
dissolved in contemporary societies; others think class remains one of the
fundamental forms of social inequality and social power. Some view class
as a narrow economic phenomenon whilst others adopt an expansive
conception that includes cultural dimensions as well as economic
conditions. This book examines the theoretical foundations of six major
perspectives of class with each chapter written by an expert in the field.
It concludes with a conceptual map of these alternative approaches by
posing the question: ”If class is the answer, what is the question?”
Sociology of Work; Work and Learning; Class Analysis.
48. Zvoch, K. (2001).
Contextual effects on adolescent educational expectations: A life history
perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A:
Humanities & Social Sciences, 62(4-A), 1328.
from the U.S. National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988 (NELS: 88) is
analyzed investigating macro-level effects on adolescent educational
expectations. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the logic of life
history theory, adolescents living in economically disadvantaged
neighborhoods (i.e., high mortality contexts) are more likely to discount
the value of intermediate or advanced levels of education (as reflected in
expectations of future educational attainment) when compared with peers
from more advantaged areas. Neighborhood influence is robust to individual
and macro-level controls. Adjusting for the effects of familial SES, child
achievement, parental support, and several aspects of the school
environment, neighborhood context, an average of within-neighborhood
familial SES scores remained the strongest macro-level influence on
adolescent expectations. To assess whether adolescents with short
educational time horizons are more likely to engage in behaviors that
bring short term gain, data from the longitudinal component of NELS:88 are
analyzed. Analysis of follow-up data indicate that adolescents who report
low educational expectations in the eighth grade are more likely to later
drop out of school, engage in risky sexual behavior, and begin reproducing
when considered relative to peers with high educational expectations.
Educational Aspirations; Expectations; Socioeconomic