and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
T., & McQuillan, K. (2000). New jobs, new workers?
Organizational restructuring and management hiring decisions.
Relations Industrielles/ Industrial Relations, 55(3),
Recent studies of work have argued that organizational restructuring & the
introduction of technology are altering the nature & experience of work.
In this paper, we examine whether recent change has affected managerial
perceptions of the characteristics & abilities required of workers.
Drawing on interviews with human resource managers in three industries
(chemicals production, transportation equipment manufacturing, health
services) in southwestern Ontario, we conclude that management across
these industries is indeed seeking a "new" kind of worker, & is placing
new demands on their workers. Implications of these changes for employment
& for workers are discussed.
Employment Changes; Work Skills; Job Requirements;
Occupational Qualifications; Ontario; Personnel Management; Personnel
Policy; Manufacturing Industries; Chemical Industry; Health Care Services.
2. Andino, G. (2005). More
education for lower-income jobs. Revista Argentina de Sociologia, 3(4),
Labour and income gap among those who possess different education levels
has grown steadily. From the 1980's, the new productive pattern seems
reluctant to absorb a work force that is not highly qualified. Traditional
Fordist workers have been replaced by employees who must have more
autonomy, responsibility, functional variety; a continuous labour
qualification, implying an increasing education for work, as a result of
their formal education, their non-formal training; the knowledge obtained
during their working career. In situations of high unemployment and
poverty, as in Argentina, the characteristics described face a reality
where workers need to acquire more qualifications; find new employment;
find young people who are looking for their first job, can't find it; or,
women in precarious labour condition; with lower salaries than their male
partners, even with the same job, combine their own situations with their
belonging to a layer of vulnerability or social exclusion. Therefore,
coming from households that suffer from structural scarcities or low
incomes, or both, feel unable to gain a suitable education.
Education Work Relationship; Employment Changes; Social
Closure; Labor Market Segmentation; Argentina; Employability.
3. Aronowitz, S. (2004).
Against schooling: Education and social class. Social Text, 22(2-79),
discussing the idea that the function of public education in the US is to
prepare students to meet the "industrial & technological imperatives" of
the modern workplace, the contemporary crisis of education - particularly
in terms of the view that it is the key vehicle for achieving class
mobility - is explored. Arguments that improving access to educational
opportunities will help overcome class-based inequalities are challenged,
suggesting that the structure of schooling itself embodies the class
system of the larger society. The equation of access to schooling with
greater opportunities for working-class children is refuted, as is the
argument that increased enrollments in higher education signify an
increase in students with better qualifications for professional or
managerial jobs. Rather, it is suggested that mass higher education
effectively masks unemployment & underemployment. Pierre Bourdieu's
contention that "schools reinforce class relations by reinforcing rather
than reducing class-based differential access to social & cultural
capital" is supported. The idea of the labor & radical movements as
educational sites is proposed & the working-class intellectual that
emerges from these sites is characterized. The problem of academic
"standards" as the primary focus of educational policy is addressed, &
some suggestions for reforming schools - which today serve primarily as
"credential mills" & "institutions of control" - are offered.
Educational Inequality; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Reform; Schools; Social Reproduction; Social Inequality;
Educational Opportunities; Educational Policy; Educational Mobility.
4. Barton, P. (2000). What
jobs require: Literacy, education, and training, 1940 - 2006. Princeton:
Educational Testing Service.
report assembles the best information available on past and future trends
in employment and the education requirements of jobs in the post-World War
II period, focusing on data for 1986 and 1996 and projections to 2006. The
report's first section explains what is known from the 1992 National Adult
Literacy Study, which measured prose, document, and quantitative literacy
of more than 26,000 adults. The discussion of the literacy levels in terms
of real-life situations is background for the second section, "Literacy
and Occupations." This section presents employment trends in terms of the
literacy requirements of jobs and examines the most rapidly growing and
declining occupations, the occupations with the highest and lowest
literacy requirements, and the average for all employment for those years.
Information is gathered from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National
Adult Literacy Study, and the Position Analysis Questionnaire, a job
analysis program that has been applied to 2,200 jobs. The third section
discusses employment and training requirements of occupations. The fourth
section traces trends from World War II to the present, and the fifth
section explains what the analysis means in the broad context of the
operations of the labor market. The final section, "The Bottom Line,"
shows the long-term bias toward higher literacy requirements. Appendix A
shows prose, document, and quantitative literacy for 1986, 1996, and
projections for 2006.
Training; Education; Work and Learning.
R., & De Witte, M. (2001). Underemployment in the Netherlands: How
the Dutch 'poldermodel' failed to close the education-jobs gap.
Employment and Society, 15(1), 75-101.
paper describes the underemployment situation in the Netherlands between
1973 and 1995. It shows, through different methods that the
"education-jobs gap" has widened increasingly. The return to credentials
of Dutch employees has diminished for every educational category within
the total labour population, an increasing share of employees can be
considered as underemployed and deal with credential inflation. At the
lower levels of education men have suffered from credential inflation more
than women. At the higher levels of education it is the reverse. It also
appears that young people deal with a "waiting-room effect": they enter
the labour market at relatively low skill levels, given their educational
level and gender. A further breakdown by educational specialisation shows
that employees with an educational background in health care or technical
studies have suffered relatively more from credential inflation compared
to those with a commercial education. The paper concludes by stating that
in spite of much rhetoric about the skill deficiencies of the current
workforce, the lack of decent jobs has caused basic allocation problems at
the Dutch labour market. From a human resources perspective, the growing
wastage of employees' potential should not be underestimated or dismissed.
It argues that an effective allocation of knowledge and skills to
occupations will be the basic tenet of labour market policy and new forms
of work organisation.
Underemployment; Netherlands; Labor Market; Education Work
6. Belfield, C. R., & Harris,
R. D. F. (2002). How well do theories of job matching explain variations
in job satisfaction across education levels? Evidence for UK graduates.
Applied Economics, 34(5), 535-548.
ordered probit estimation technique this paper examines the job
satisfaction of recent UK graduates. Focusing primarily on explaining job
satisfaction in terms of individuals matching to jobs, with the match
depending on reservation returns, information sets and job offer rates.
Only limited support can be found for the argument that job matching
explains higher job satisfaction. In addition, stylizing graduates as a
peer group, who form satisfaction levels based on their rankings relative
to each other we examine whether or not education quality, which raises
peer group status and increases the job offer rate, is systematically
related to job satisfaction. The results broadly support the hypothesis
that job satisfaction is neutral across graduates of different education
qualities. However, our specification tests indicate that ordered probit
estimation may not be fully appropriate for identifying the
characteristics of those with high job satisfaction.
Labor-Market; Earnings; Unemployment; Unions; Wages;
Differentials; Unhappiness; Inequality; Happiness; Income.
7. Belzil, C. (2001).
Unemployment insurance and subsequent job duration: Job matching versus
unobserved heterogeneity. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(5),
study examines the relationship between unemployment insurance benefit
duration, unemployment duration and job duration. Results indicate
increasing benefit duration (1.0 to 1.5 days) with unemployment duration
but much smaller raise in job duration.
Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Benefits;
Unemployment Duration; Job Duration.
8. Berg, I. (2001). Employment
relations and work structures in the United States: From Huddersfield to
"industrial democracy" and back. In I. E. Berg & A. L. Kalleberg (Eds.),
Sourcebook of labor markets: Evolving structures and processes (pp.
165-186). New York: Kluwer Academic.
number of gross contextual developments regarding employment relations &
work structures in the US are examined. Macro- & microcosmic developments
that have influenced both the structure & function of labor markets are
considered. It is argued that though the prospects for an economic
downturn have remained unconvincing, this can be attributed to the fact
that the US & Western Europe have enjoyed a decade-long economic boom.
Unfortunately, this boom is being undermined by the concept of "industrial
democracy." Meanwhile, economists & labor market scholars have resorted to
mistaking a labor market shift for actual structural change.
Labor Relations; Labor Market; Economic Change; Economic
Structure; Industrial Democracy; Work Organization; United States of
9. Berg, I. (2003). Education
and jobs: The great training robbery. [Unabridged republication of 1970
edition with a new introduction]. Clinton Corners, NY: Percheron
book critically examines the by now well-known economic thesis that
investment in education shows a rate of return that compares favorably
with other forms of capital investment. While this is true as a
statistical generalisation, what this book argues is whether it should be
true. The fact that most employers have been talked into rewarding more
education with higher salaries does not necessarily mean that education
should be so rewarded. In fact it is by now very well-known that education
does little to provide many of its recipients with any skills, abilities
or knowledge that are at all likely to be of any use in employment. Most
employers accept that a graduate will be almost totally useless to them
until the job itself has taught him what he needs to know. Why then do
they pay more for useless qualifications? The honest answer of course is
that they are buying what they see as prestige. Berg punctures this
assertion by a whole series of studies making up the body of his book
which show that in fact the employees who are actually seen as most
productive and who are in fact promoted on merit generally turn out to be
not the better educated ones but rather in some cases the less educated
ones. Education is as often a negative predictor of a man's worth to his
employer as it is a positive one. This was shown to be true for technical
staff, unskilled staff and white-collar staff. It was even true of
professionals. Education was quite evidently not worth the extra money it
Occupations; Academic Requirements; United States; Surveys;
Education; Economic Aspects; Labor Turnover; Education and Employment;
Labour Economics; Employee Morale; Employees; Vocational Education.
10. Billett, S. (2001).
Learning throughout working life: Interdependencies at work. Studies in
Continuing Education, 23(1), 19-35.
Learning throughout working life results from everyday thinking and
acting, shaped by work practices. The quality of learning depends on the
kinds of activities and interdependencies available. Individuals' ability
to maintain vocational practice is shaped by their opportunities for
engagement and interaction.
Individual Development; Interpersonal Relationship; Job
Skills; Lifelong Learning; Skill Development; Work Environment.
11. Bills, D. B. (2003).
Credentials, signals, and screens: Explaining the relationship between
schooling and job assignment. Review of Educational Research, 73(4),
empirical relationship between educational attainment and credentials with
socioeconomic attainment is well established, but why this relationship
arises remains in doubt. The author of this article discusses seven types
of middle-range theories meant to explain the relationship: human capital,
screening (including filtering), signaling, control, cultural capital,
institutional, and credentialist theories. In each, the central causal
mechanism concerns how employers and job seekers acquire and use labor
market information. The author argues that occupational status attainment
and wage determination models are not adequate to explain the mechanisms
underlying the process whereby the highly schooled become the highly
placed in job hierarchies. He indicates the implications of
transformations of the American labor market for further assessment of the
relationship between educational credentials and job assignment.
Educational Screening; Employers; Job Matching; Labor
Markets; Socioeconomic Attainment; Human-Capital Theory; Labor-Market;
Educational Credentials; United-States; Strong Version; Hypothesis;
Information; Employers; Returns; Attainment.
12. Borghans, L., & de Grip,
A. (2000). The overeducated worker? The economics of skill utilization.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar 2000.
book deals with the relation between overeducation and the business cycle.
In line with the state of the art, it uses much cruder approaches to the
issue than would be needed for a full assessment of the returns to
specified (and possibly useless) education at the level of a single
individual. However, it explores several new approximations. It has eleven
essays, divided over an Introduction and three sections: Underutilization
or Upgrading?, Causes and Consequences of underutilization. In the first
section, Edward Wolff opens with an illuminating analysis of aggregate
skill trends in the US. The second section has two theory papers and two
empirical analyses. The third section, on consequences of
underutilization, has three papers.
Unskilled Labor; Supply and Demand; Skilled labor; Labor
Supply; Effect of Education on Underemployment.
13. Brkich, M., Jeffs, D., &
Carless, S. A. (2002). A global self-report measure of person-job fit.
European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18(1), 43-51.
study reports the development of a short, global measure of person-job fit
(P-J fit). The P-J Fit scale provides an assessment of the degree to which
an individual's knowledge, skills, abilities, needs and values match job
requirements. After a pilot study, the scale was tested with two samples:
Sample 1 consisted of 308 professionals from three occupational groups and
Sample 2 consisted of 174 adults working in call centres and related
administrative areas. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses
indicated that the nine items assess a single, global construct of P-J
fit. Construct and criterion-related validity were demonstrated by
correlating the scale with empowerment, job satisfaction and
Employee Characteristics; Job Characteristics;
Person-Environment Fit; Rating Scales; Self Report; Test Construction;
14. Brown, P., Hesketh, A., &
Williams, S. (2003). Employability in a knowledge-driven economy.
Journal of Education and Work, 16(2), 107-126.
Examines employability through the lenses of consensus theory and conflict
theory. Expands the latter into positional conflict theory, which explains
how the market for credentials is rigged and how individuals are ranked in
it. Argues that even employable people may fail to find jobs because of
positional competition in the knowledge-driven economy.
Knowledge Economy; Education and Employment; Work and
15. Brynin, M. (2002).
Overqualification in employment. Work, Employment and Society, 16(4),
is widespread evidence that many workers have higher qualifications than
are needed for their job. The finding of a substantial degree of
overqualification should not be the case if, as has often been argued,
there has been a consistent upgrading of the skills of the labour force as
a result of technological change. It might also be argued that even if
overqualification exists, this is a result of a new emphasis on flexible
employment & therefore increased labour-market uncertainty: people start
careers at a level below the traditional start, & so are initially
overqualified. In this case overqualification is only a temporary,
life-course phenomenon. Evidence is presented here using BHPS & LFS data
to suggest, first, that an upgrading of labour does not adequately
describe recent change in employment &, second, that overqualification is
not a temporary factor resulting from changed employment practices. We
should therefore view overqualification as having some sort of structural
causation. One tentatively given explanation is that the social demand for
education is causing a bunching of qualifications at the higher levels,
which means that employers cannot easily discriminate between different
apparent skill levels. As a result they reduce the rewards for such
Occupational Qualifications; Underemployment; Technological
Change; Employment Changes; Labor Market; Education Work Relationship;
A. P., & Desrochers, D. M. (2002). The missing middle: Aligning
education and the knowledge economy. Washington, DC: Office of
Vocational and Adult Education (ED).
growing importance of education in overall economic growth and individual
opportunity has necessitated that education reformers address the need for
the additional and better human capital needed to foster overall growth in
the new knowledge-based economy. Education reformers must also work to
reduce the growing differences in family incomes by closing the gap
between the nation's education-haves and education-have-nots. Addressing
these challenges requires strengthening the relationship between education
and work requirements and focusing more strongly on the years when
academic and applied learning overlap between the completion of basic
academic preparation and the completion of occupational or professional
training. Although jobs requiring an associate degree are expected to grow
the fastest, a sizable number of jobs will still be available for
less-skilled workers. The shift in the U.S. economy's structure to a
knowledge-based economy has increased the need for workers with reasoning,
problem-solving, and behavioral skills; a positive cognitive style; and
specific occupational and professional competencies. Although policy goals
are well defined in elementary and higher education, the middle sections
in the K-16 education pipeline needs revision to provide the appropriate
mix of academic and applied curricula for the transition years from high
school to college or high school to training and work.
Academic Education; Access to Education; Adjustment (to
Environment); Articulation (Education); Cognitive Style; College Bound
Students; Demand Occupations; Economic Change; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Change; Educational Environment; Educational
Needs; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Emerging Occupations; Employment Projections; Employment
Qualifications; Equal Education; Human Capital; Integrated Curriculum;
Labor Force Development; Labor Needs; Literature Reviews; Needs
Assessment; Noncollege Bound Students; Policy Formation; Postsecondary
Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.
17. Clayton, P., & Euscher, G.
(2001). Hidden treasure. Adults Learning (England), 13(1), 9-11.
100 women immigrants were interviewed in the United Kingdom, Denmark,
Czech Republic, and Germany. Two-thirds had participated in higher
education in their home countries, one-third had degrees, some had owned
businesses, and over half had good English skills. Despite their
qualifications, only five were currently not underemployed.
Educational Needs; Employment Qualifications; Females;
Foreign Countries; Immigrants; Underemployment.
18. Cline, R. R., & Mott, D.
A. (2000). Job matching in pharmacy labor markets: A study in four states.
Pharmaceutical Research, 17(12), 1537-1545.
Purpose. Reports from various pharmacy labor market sectors suggest that
the United States may be experiencing a shortage of pharmacists. To guide
policy making and planning with respect to this shortage it is necessary
to develop a better understanding of the process by which pharmacists
choose jobs. Using the economic theory of job matching, this study sought
to understand how (a) attributes of the practice setting, (b)
characteristics of pharmacists. and (c) regional and urbanization
variables are associated with pharmacy practice setting choices. Methods.
A secondary database containing information about employment
characteristics and work histories of 541 pharmacists in four states was
used. The data were augmented with information on the relative number of
employment opportunities in each of three practice settings (large: chain,
institutional, and independent) in the year the respondent's most recent
employment change occurred. Practice setting choices were modeled using
multinomial conditional logit regression. Results. A total of 477
pharmacists represented in the database met the inclusion criteria for the
study. Multivariate analyses showed that the impact of search costs and
wage differentials varied with the practice setting chosen. Pharmacists
choosing independent settings over large chain settings were more likely
to be white and to have worked in an independent setting in their prior
job. Pharmacists living in Oregon were less likely to choose institutional
settings compared to those living in Massachusetts, whereas those living
in areas with populations greater than 50,000 were more likely to choose
institutional settings. Conclusions. Pharmacist job matching appears to be
a complex process in which diverse factors interact to produce a final
match. Our results suggest that the: pharmacy labor market may actually be
composed of two distinct labor markets: an ambulatory market and an
Job Choice; Pharmacy Labor Markets; Discrete Choice
19. Cohen, M.
S., & Zaidi, M. A. (2002). Global skill shortages. London:
book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing
on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19
developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief
introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill
shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage theory,
insider-outsider theory, labor mobility, path dependence, job vacancies,
and measures of labor shortage. Chapter three discusses the forces that
drive globalization and make economies interdependent, market and
production globalization, and the need to look at occupational skill
shortages globally. Chapter four summarizes studies on labor and skill
shortages in 12 countries and Europe as a whole. Chapter five discusses in
detail, the methodology of measuring skill shortages by occupation and
country, the data used in the studies, and the results. Efforts are made
to validate the methodology. Chapter six examines factors that can explain
shortages and labor surpluses and analyzes the relationship between the
shortage indicators and other indicators in the 19 countries analyzed.
Chapter seven discusses how companies have coped with labor shortages.
Chapter eight contains brief concluding remarks. The book also contains an
appendix of data tables for all 19 countries, references for each chapter,
and an index.
Career Development; Comparative Analysis; Demand
Occupations; Economic Factors; Employment Opportunities; Foreign
Countries; Global Approach; Globalization; International Trade; Job
Skills; Labor Economics; Labor Force Development; Labor Needs; Labor
Supply; Skill Development; Skilled Occupations; Skilled Workers; Supply
20. Coleman, M. G. (2003). Job
skill and Black male wage discrimination. Social Science Quarterly, 84(4),
Objective. Debate over the causes of wage inequality have raised
suggestions that, rather than discrimination, skill differences may be the
reason for racial wage disparities. The purpose of this research is to
examine what impact on-the-job skill differences have on wage inequality.
Method. I regress the log wage onto race and a measure of skill. The
Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Employer Survey is particularly
useful in this analysis because it contains the employer's evaluation of
the worker's relative skill against other workers. Result. When white and
black men have the same employer's competitive performance rating, rather
than decreasing racial wage differences, the differences actually
increase. Conclusion. The wage gap is not a skills gap, but evidence of
racial discrimination in the labor market.
Employee Skills; Equity (Payment); Income Level; Race and
Ethnic Discrimination; Salaries; Blacks; Whites.
21. Cruikshank, J. (2003). The
flexible workforce: Implications for lifelong learning. Australian
Journal of Adult Learning, 43(1), 8-22.
globalized economy appears to promote economic insecurity and
underemployment. Lifelong learning is increasingly focused on competitive
advantage. Adult educators should encourage discussion and debate about
the nature of these changes and advocate lifelong learning that benefits
the whole person and broader community.
Adult Education; Education Work Relationship; Foreign
Countries; Lifelong Learning; Organizational Change; Role of Education;
22. Cully, M. (2002). The
cleaner, the waiter, the computer operator: Job change, 1986-2001.
Australian Bulletin of Labour, 28(3), 141-162.
Australian census data were analyzed to determine how the transition to a
knowledge economy has altered the character of jobs. Of 340 occupations,
84 declined and 64 doubled in overall employment. Occupations dominated by
women and part-time workers grew fastest. The knowledge economy has had
ambiguous effects; many workers are underemployed.
Demand Occupations; Economic Change; Employment Patterns;
Foreign Countries; Labor Market; Labor Needs; Tables (Data);
23. Culpepper, P. D. (2003).
Creating cooperation: How states develop human capital in Europe. Cornell
studies in political economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
book looks at ways European governments can create changes in institutions
that will foster cooperation among states, focusing on company investment
in general skills and using data from France and Germany. Chapter one
provides a general description of the challenges governments face in
developing policies to change company-level vocational training practices.
Chapter two contains an analysis of why actors (countries, companies,
etc.) have an interest in cooperation. It focuses on the experiences of
France and Germany, East German large firms, and French and German small
and mid-size firms. Chapter three examines the training behavior of
companies in Germany and France and provides an overview of government
training program reforms in the two countries, along with the results of
training reforms. Chapter four compares the policies of Saxony regarding
encouraging apprenticeships with those of neighboring state Saxony-Anhault.
Chapter 5 discusses the general failure of French vocational training
reform and contrasts it with the success of an association of employers in
the Valley of the Arve. Chapter six considers the broader implications of
the book's findings for cooperation and policy-making. The book also
contains a list of abbreviations, three appendixes, extensive references,
and an index.
Adult Vocational Education; Apprenticeships; Comparative
Education; Cooperative Programs; Economics of Education; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Foreign
Countries; Government Role; Government School Relationship; Human Capital;
Industrial Training; International Cooperation; Job Skills; Labor Force
Development; Postsecondary Education; Skilled Workers; Small Businesses;
Trade and Industrial Education.
24. de Jong, G. F., & Madamba,
A. B. (2001). A double disadvantage? Minority group, immigrant status, and
underemployment in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, 82(1),
study documents the magnitude of four types of underemployment experienced
by both native-born minority & ethnic immigrant male & female workers in
the US & tests a “double disadvantage“ economic outcome hypothesis that
minority workers tend to be channeled into secondary-sector jobs & that
immigrant workers face initial disadvantages in labor force assimilation.
Data for men & women aged 25-64 who are in the labor force & not attending
school were derived from the 1990 Census Bureau Public Use Microdata
Sample. Multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to estimate
the effect of minority group membership & immigrant status on the odds of
unemployment, part-time employment, working poverty, & job mismatch,
relative to adequate employment. Descriptive results showed greater
overall underemployment among females than males. Blacks & Hispanics had
higher unemployment & working-poverty rates compared to non-Hispanic
Whites & Asians, with job mismatch highest among Asians. Immigrant
underemployment was greater than that of the native-born. Asians posted
the largest disparity in immigrant vs native-born underemployment, &
Blacks had the smallest. Multivariate models showed that minority group
effects were stronger than immigrant status effects in predicting
underemployment. Increased likelihood of underemployment across the
different minority groups vs non-Hispanic White workers was not fully
accounted for by the expected influences of human-capital, demographic,
industry, & occupational variables. It was concluded that the double
disadvantage hypothesis of minority group & immigrant status is accepted
only for Asian men & women with jobs mismatched to their skills & for
Asian women, who are most likely to be unemployed or be among the working
Underemployment; Nativism; Minority Groups; Immigrants;
United States of America; Labor Force Participation; Comparative Analysis;
25. de Wolff, A. (2000).
Breaking the myth of flexible work: Contingent work in Toronto. A study
conducted by the workers project. Toronto: Toronto Organizing for Fair
survey of 205 people, 4 group interviews with approximately 30 people, and
6 design and analysis meetings involving approximately 40 people were
conducted in a 1999 participatory study of contingent workers in Toronto.
(Contingent work was defined to be lower-waged forms of non-permanent work
arrangements that include contracting, employment through a temporary
agency, sequential short term employment multiple job holding,
non-permanent part-time work, and self-employment where the worker does
not hire anyone else.) The study found that, despite popular perception of
the attractiveness of such "flexible" work arrangements, most contingent
workers wanted to break into or rejoin the permanent, core workforce but
were prevented from doing so by rules of temporary employment agencies,
lack of education, immigration status, or discrimination. These workers
received very low wages, had breaks in employment between assignments,
worked long days on short notice, and usually lacked benefits such as sick
leave, disability, and unemployment insurance. The study determined that
the so-called work flexibility is not favored by most contingent workers
and is usually a hidden form of unemployment or underemployment. The
researchers concluded that increasing the incidence of contingent work may
have detrimental long-term consequences for the workers as well as for
society as a whole.
Adults; Employee Attitudes; Employer Attitudes; Employer
Employee Relationship; Employment Patterns; Employment Practices;
Employment Services; Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Flexible Working Hours;
Fringe Benefits; Immigrants; Job Satisfaction; Job Security;
Organizational Development; Part Time Employment; Public Policy; Quality
of Working Life; Salary Wage Differentials; Tables (Data); Temporary
Employment; Underemployment; Unemployment; Wages; Work Attitudes; Work
26. Di Pietro, G. (2002).
Technological change, labor markets, and 'low-skill, low-technology
traps'. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 69(9),
is evidence that in several European countries in the last decade, the
demand for skilled workers did not keep pace with the relative supply,
thereby leading to the creation of a large pool of overeducated &
underutilized workers. This paper analyzes whether this mismatch can be
attributed to a technology-related explanation. According to this
hypothesis, pockets of overeducated & underutilized workers stem from
firms' inability to reap the benefits associated with a high rate of
technological progress because of strict employment protection regulation.
Firing restrictions may prevent firms from immediately taking advantage of
upward changes in skilled workforce availability & hence they may
discourage firms from adopting new technologies. This, in turn, may
diminish firms' growth prospects & thereby may reduce the number of
vacancies that can be filled with highly skilled workers. Data from the
1995 wave of the European Community Household Panel survey support the
hypothesis of technology-related pockets of overeducated & underutilized
Supply and Demand; Labor Supply; Employment Opportunities;
Occupational Qualifications; Adoption of Innovations; Europe;
Technological Change; Education Work Relationship; Underemployment.
27. Dube, A., & Mercure, D.
(1999). New flexibility-based qualification models: Between
professionalization and the Taylorization of work. Relations
Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 54(1), 26-50.
Attempts to identity new forms of job qualification, based on results of a
large-scale questionnaire survey conducted among employees of four groups
of Quebec manufacturing firms. Focus is on whether Quebec firms are truly
searching for flexibility & its potential impact on required worker
qualifications. Five forms of flexibility are investigated: financial,
technical, organizational, numerical, & functional. Three new
qualification models, all based on flexibility, are highlighted:
occupational-conceptual, Taylorist, & adroit-analytical. Results reveal
that, although employers are increasingly seeking functional flexibility,
it does not necessarily follow that job fragmentation & decomposition
among certain categories of workers are being abolished. In other words,
the argument that Taylorist forms of work are being maintained or
reinforced is not incompatible with the position that employers have
developed new requirements with regard to work flexibility.
Flexibility; Occupational Qualifications; Flexible
Specialization; Taylorism; Manufacturing Industries; Employment Change;
Work Skills; Quebec.
28. Elias, P., McKnight, A., &
Kinshott, G. (1999). Redefining skill: Revision of the standard
occupational classification (SOC2000). Skills task force research paper
19. Nottingham: DfEE.
paper considers issues relating to the measurement of skill for national
statistical purposes. It draws upon the work program and research
underlying the revision of the national occupational classification for
the United Kingdom (UK), SOC90 (Standard Occupational Classification
introduced in 1990). The report's introduction states the intention to
reflect upon the review-related research findings; detail the perceived
inadequacies of SOC90; describe the problems associated with occupational
definition in certain areas; show how the revised classification will
affect the analysis of skill change; and cause experts to rethink the
forecasts of occupational change. Section 2 presents an overview of the
history of occupational classification in the UK. Section 3 describes the
conceptual basis of the SOC. Section 4 details the perceived weaknesses in
SOC90 and the constraints surrounding the development work undertaken to
revise this classification. Section 5 outlines some key processes that
were influential in bringing about a redefinition of occupations for
statistical purposes. Section 6 discusses the resources that were used to
investigate the processes of occupational change from a statistical and
definitional perspective. Section 7 examines the revised classification in
terms of its ability to distinguish and discriminate between occupations
and the new analytical opportunities it will provide. Section 8 concludes
that SOC2000 (published in spring 2000) makes better use of its conceptual
base, solves problems inadequately dealt with earlier, and provides a
better tool for job matching purposes than did SOC90.
Adult Education; Career Guidance; Classification; Developed
Nations; Employment Qualifications; Foreign Countries; Job Analysis; Job
Skills; Occupational Information; Occupations; Postsecondary Education;
Research Problems; Secondary Education; Standard Setting; Statistical
Analysis; Vocational Education; United Kingdom.
29. Elliott, J. R. (2000).
Class, race, and job matching in contemporary urban labor markets.
Social Science Quarterly, 81(4), 1036-1052.
Recent research on job matching has demonstrated the significance of
personal contacts in linking workers to jobs. Few studies, however, have
examined how these dynamics vary by class position. I investigate this
issue, focusing on nonsearches in addition to formal & informal job
matching. Data are drawn from the Multi-City Survey of Urban Inequality,
which is based on a random sample of households in Atlanta, Boston, & Los
Angeles. Statistical analyses show that job matching varies significantly
by class position, with managers more likely to be matched through
nonsearches, skilled labor through formal channels, & general labor
through personal intermediaries. The analyses also show that differences
in racial composition among classes cannot fully explain this variation or
its effects on hourly wages. These findings suggest that class position
plays a key role in shaping contemporary job matching & merits more
detailed attention in future research.
Labor Market; Urban Population; Social Networks; Network
Analysis; Class Analysis; Employment Opportunities; Atlanta, Georgia;
Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California.
30. Evetts, J., & Dingwall, R.
(2002). Professional occupations in the UK and Europe: Legitimation and
governmentality. International Review of Sociology/Revue Internationale
de Sociologie, 12(2), 159-171.
on the work of Herbert Spencer & Michel Foucault to examine the rise of
the regulatory state in Europe & the implications of the construction of
common regulatory regimes for professions. National arrangements are being
changed by supranational /international organizations being formed to
regulate licensing, training, & educational requirements. The emergence of
a European regulatory framework is outlined, & forms of state development
associated with professions are examined, maintaining that the EU's
increased role represents the shift of sovereignty from member states to
the EU. Foucault's (1979) ideas about legitimacy frame a discussion about
the legitimacy of both the international profession & the international
state. Limitations of the role of law in processes by which
professionalism is internationalizing are explored, along with the link
between the authority of states & professions in the reproduction of
legitimate political & professional power. It is concluded that the
changing nature of states & professions represents a redefinition of their
functions rather than a decline.
Professional Workers; Professional Training; Job
Requirements; Certification; Government Regulation; European Economic
Community; Legitimacy; Foucault, Michel; Spencer, Herbert.
31. Fallows, S., & Weller, G.
(2000). Transition from student to employee: A work-based programme for
"graduate apprentices" in small to medium enterprises. Journal of
Vocational Education & Training: The Vocational Aspect of Education, 52(4),
Graduate Apprenticeship Scheme places new college graduates in small and
medium-sized enterprises and provides skill development workshops to
enhance their employability. Employers thus have a low-risk means of
evaluating potential employees and graduates gain experience that helps
them avoid underemployment.
Apprenticeships; College Graduates; Education Work
Relationship; Employment Potential; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Job
Skills; Small Businesses.
32. Felstead, A., Gallie, D.,
& Green, F. (2002). Work skills In Britain 1986-2001. Nottingham,
UK: Department for Education and Skills.
paper gives findings from the 2001 Skills Survey. This survey is a high
quality representative survey of working individuals in Britain aged
20-60. It collected a great deal of information about the skills utilised
at work, using an innovative methodology that had previously been
developed for an earlier survey in 1997. The paper explains how several
different aspects of work skill can be measured, and examines the
distribution of skills among workers. The report also describes changes
that have taken place since 1986, by making comparisons with previous
surveys. Finally, the extent to which different types of skills are valued
in the labour market is investigated.
Discretion; Decision-Making; Occupation; Class Analysis;
33. Fernandez, R. M. (2001).
Skill-biased technological change and wage inequality: Evidence from a
plant retooling. American Journal of Sociology, 107(2), 273-320.
of the most popular explanations for the increased wage inequality that
has occurred since the late 1970s is that technological change has
resulted in a downward shift in the demand for low-skill workers. This
pattern is also alleged to account for the growth in racial inequality in
wages over the same period. This article reports on a case study of the
retooling of a food processing plant. A unique, longitudinal, multimethod
design reveals the nature of the technological change, the changes in job
requirements, & the mechanisms by which the changes affect the wage
distribution for hourly production workers. This research finds that,
indeed, the retooling resulted in greater wage dispersion & that the
changes have also been associated with greater racial inequality in wages.
However, contrary to the claims of advocates of the skill-biased
hypothesis, organizational & human resources factors strongly mediated the
impact of the changing technology. Absent these "high road" organization
choices, this impact on wage distribution would have been even more
Technological Change; Employment Changes; Income
Inequality; Food Industry; Factories; Income Distribution; Social
Inequality; Racial Differences; Work Skills; Midwestern States.
34. Flynn, N. T. (2003). The
differential effect of labor market context on marginal employment
outcomes. Sociological Spectrum, 23(3), 305-330.
employing a new structuralist approach & focusing on the area opportunity
structure, along with the traditional human capital framework, I link both
the local labor market context & individual qualities that affect
employment outcomes (Browne 1997; Cotter et al 1997; McCall 2000). In this
article, I examine the effect of contextual factors, specifically the area
levels of occupational sex-segregation & the size of the service sector
industry, on men & women's marginal employment outcomes during the early
1990s. Several findings stand out. First, women post higher chances of
working for low wages than their male counterparts. However, employment in
the expanding service sector does reduce men & women's chances of
experiencing part-time work. Second, the protection afforded by
individual-level, human capital qualities remains relatively constant for
women across metro areas, but labor market context significantly affects
women's odds of employment marginalization. Context is not as salient for
men, but the value of their personal attributes vary across labor markets.
Finally, women working in areas with higher levels of occupational sex
segregation were relatively worse off than those in areas with more
Labor Market; Occupational Segregation; Service Industries;
Employment; Part Time Employment; Wages; Human Capital; Sex Differences;
Opportunity Structures; Working Women; Working Men; United States of
35. Frenette, M. (2000).
Overqualified? Recent graduates and the needs of their employers.
Education Quarterly Review, 7(1), 6-20.
article focuses on co-op studies. At the college level, co-op graduates
are generally just as likely to be overqualified as non-co-op graduates.
Graduates of co-op studies at the bachelor's level are typically less
prone to overqualification than graduates of non-co-op bachelor's
programs, while master's graduates and master's co-op graduates have
roughly equal rates. Reliable results for doctoral graduates are not
available because of low sample sizes. The rates of overqualified
graduates by region are based on the region's needs for skilled workers,
as well as the desire of skilled workers to live in the region. An
economically stagnant region may require very few skilled workers, and
this would tend to increase the rate of overqualification. However, the
region's skilled workers may choose to move to more prosperous regions
where their skills may be in greater demand. The result is that the
mobility of workers tends to reduce regional disparities in rates of
Job Skills; Postsecondary Graduates; Employment;
Statistics; Work and Learning.
36. Friedberg, L. (2003). The
impact of technological change on older workers: Evidence from data on
computer use. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 56(3),
Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study data indicated
that rates of computer use were similar for all but the oldest workers,
perhaps due to impending retirement. Computer users retired later than
nonusers. Possible explanations are because they have valuable skills or
because they already intend to delay retirement and thus acquire more
Computer Use; Job Skills; Older Workers; Retirement;
37. Garavan, T. N., Morley,
M., Gunnigle, P., & McGuire, D. (2002). Human resource development and
workplace learning: Emerging theoretical perspectives and organisational
practices. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(2-4), 60-71.
Identifies a shift in workplace learning from formal, intermittent and
discontinuous to informal, experiential, asynchronous, and situated.
Highlights themes in both workplace learning and human resource
development: knowledge, expertise, competence, organizational learning,
Competence; Employment Potential; Job Skills;
38. Gingras, Y., & Roy, R.
(2000). Is there a skill gap in Canada? Canadian Public Policy/Analyse
de Politiques, 26, 159-174.
increased employment of knowledge workers in the Canadian economy,
combined with the growing number of employers reporting difficulties
recruiting qualified employees, raises questions concerning the supply of
skills in Canada. By drawing principally on an analysis of descriptive
statistics, the authors conclude that there is no reason to believe that,
globally, Canada is suffering from a broad-based shortage of skilled labor
or that its workforce cannot fulfill the economy's needs. Examination of
macroeconomic data reveals an increased frequency of specific labor
shortages in certain sectors & occupations in recent years. Nonetheless,
it does not appear that these shortages are more common today than they
were in the past at similar stages of the business cycle. The authors
conclude that, while there may be a growing labor shortage (skilled & low
skilled), there is no aggregate shortage of skilled labor. Available data
indicate that Canada compares favorably with many of its principal
competitors in world markets, both in terms of investments in human
capital & in the stock of skills. We investigate the minimum skill level
necessary for success in the Canadian labor market. We conclude that, at
the very least, young people today need a high school diploma to qualify
for even the lowest-skill jobs.
Canada; Labor Supply; Work Skills; Human Capital;
Employment Changes; Postindustrial Societies; Work and Learning.
39. Glenn, A., McGarrity, J.
P., & Weller, J. (2001). Firm-specific human capital, job matching, and
turnover: Evidence from major league baseball, 1900-1992. Economic
Inquiry, 39(1), 86-93.
two dominant labor market turnover hypotheses, the firm-specific human
capital model (FSHCM) and the job-matching model, suggest different
patterns of player mobility in major league baseball. The matching
hypothesis predicts greater mobility of players in positions that require
substantial production. A better match may offer large productivity gains.
Alternately the FSHCM predicts players in positions requiring the greatest
amount of team work will benefit from specific knowledge, making them less
likely to change teams. We examine the frequency distribution of trades by
player position from 1900-1992 and find the FSHCM provides the best
explanation for turnover in this industry.
Human Capital; Job Matching; Firm-specific Human Capital;
40. Glover, D., Law, S., &
Youngman, A. (2002). Graduateness and employability: Student perceptions
of the personal outcomes of university education. Research in
Post-Compulsory Education, 7(3), 293-306.
Surveys of 408 British students at the beginning and 425 at the end of
university studies explored tensions between "graduateness" (effect of
college degrees on knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and employability.
Evidence suggests economic motivations are more important than pursuit of
knowledge and employability is an increasing expectation of higher
College Graduates; Degrees (Academic); Employment
Potential; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Job Skills; Outcomes of
Education; Student Educational Objectives; Student Motivation.
41. Gottfredson, L. S. (2003).
The challenge and promise of cognitive career assessment. Journal of
Career Assessment, 11(2), 115-135.
Abilities are as important as interests in career choice and development.
Reviving cognitive assessment in career counseling promises to help
counselees better understand their career options and how to enhance their
competitiveness for the ones they prefer. Nearly a century of research on
human cognitive abilities and jobs’ aptitude demands in the U.S. economy
reveals that the two domains are structured in essentially the same way.
The author describes that common structure and how it can be used in
assessing person-job match in terms of general ability level and ability
profile. She also suggests ways of resolving various technical and
professional questions, such as which cognitive abilities to assess, how
to assess them, what the most useful aptitude-based occupational
classification would be, and how to use cognitive assessments in a broader
“reality-based exploration” process intended to expand people’s career
Ability Level; Cognitive Ability; Occupational Aspirations;
Occupational Guidance; Person-Environment Fit; Career Development;
Cognitive Assessment; Occupational Choice.
42. Green, F., S. McIntosh,
S., & Vignoles, A. (1999). "Overeducation" and skills: Clarifying the
concepts. London: Centre for Economic Performance.
is now a burgeoning literature on the topic of “overeducation” (and the
complementary concept of ”undereducation”), and a growing quantity of UK
empirical evidence on this issue. However, as Joop Hartog indicated in his
keynote address to the Applied Econometrics Association, "a solid relation
[of the overeducation/ undereducation literature] with a formal theory of
the labour market is lacking" (Hartog, 1997). Furthermore, the term
”overeducation”, in particular, is often used interchangeably with similar
but distinct concepts such as “qualification inflation”. This paper
attempts to define and measure “undereducation” and “overeducation” more
precisely, to quantify the extent of genuine skill and educational
mismatch and to link these phenomena into the existing literature on
skill-biased change and wage inequality. The authors provide new empirical
evidence on this issue, using data from the International Adult Literacy
survey, the recent UK Skills Survey, and the National Child Development
Study. Specifically, they find convincing evidence of skill
under-utilisation in the British labour market. For example, 20% of IALS
respondents have reading and comprehension skills that appear to be under-utilised
in their jobs. They also show that “genuine” overeducation is a
significant phenomenon in Britain. For instance, a new survey of graduates
by the University of Newcastle suggests that just over 20% of recent
graduates are genuinely “overeducated” for their jobs. They discuss the
policy and welfare implications of their findings.
Overeducation; Undereducation; Labour Market; Skill;
Educational Mismatch; Skill Under-utilisation; Graduates; Policy; Welfare.
43. Groot, W.,
& Maassen van den Brink, H. (2000). Overeducation in the labor
market: A meta-analysis. Economics of Education Review, 19(2),
meta-analysis of studies on overeducation and undereducation in the labor
market reveals that of the four different definitions of overeducation
distinguished in the literature, only the one based on variation in years
of education within occupational groups appears to yield significantly
lower-than-average rates of overeducation.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment;
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education;
Labor Force; Labor Market; Meta Analysis; Salary Wage Differentials;
Supply and Demand; Europe; Overeducation; Rate of Return; United States.
44. Handel, M. J. (2000).
Trends in direct measures of job skill requirements. Working paper no. 301.
New York: Jerome Levy Economics Institute. Retrieved on October 22, 2003
from http://www.levy.org/docs/wrkpap/ papers/301.html.
Assumptions have been made that jobs in the United States require
ever-greater levels of skill and that this trend is accelerating as a
result of the diffusion of information technology. These assumptions have
led to substantial concern over the possibility of a growing mismatch
between the skills workers possess and the skills employers demand,
reflected in debates over the need for education reform and the causes of
the growth in earnings inequality. However, efforts to measure trends have
been hampered by the lack of direct measures of job skill requirements. A
study used previously unexamined measures from the Quality of Employment
Surveys and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine trends in job
education and training requirements and provide a validation tool for
skill measures in the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." Results
indicate that job skill requirements have increased steadily over the
1970s-1990s but that there has been no acceleration in recent years that
might explain the growth in earnings inequality. There is also no dramatic
change in the number of workers who are undereducated. These results
reinforce the conclusions of earlier work that reports of a growing skills
mismatch are exaggerated and that the recent growth in the U.S. wage
inequality may not be a result of a skills shortage.
Academic Achievement; Adults; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Change; Educational Needs; Employment Patterns; Employment
Projections; Employment Qualifications; Job Performance; Job Skills; Job
Training; Salary Wage Differentials; Skill Development; Wages Dictionary
of Occupational Titles; Income Disparities; Panel Study of Income
45. Handel, M. J. (2003).
Skills mismatch in the labor market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29,
Researchers across a wide range of fields, policymakers, & large segments
of the public believe that the work-related skills of the labor force do
not match the requirements of jobs & that this explains a large part of
the growth of wage inequality in the US in the past 20 years. Opinions are
divided on whether the trend is driven by workforce developments, such as
an absolute decline or declining growth of human capital due to changes in
educational attainment or test scores, or employer-side changes, such as
accelerating growth of job skill requirements due to the spread of
computers & employee involvement techniques. Some believe the problem has
grown worse over time. However, the evidence is often more ambiguous &
fragmentary than recognized, & the argument overlooks the roles of
institutional changes & management's policies toward labor in workers'
changing fortunes. Evidence suggests that the growth in educational
attainment has decelerated, cognitive skill levels have remained stable, &
job skill requirements have gradually increased, but a large portion of
employer dissatisfaction relates to effort levels & work attitudes of
young people that may represent transitory, life-cycle effects. There is
little information on whether job demands are actually exceeding workers'
capacities. The absence of a standardized, up-to-date method of collecting
information on the actual skill content of jobs is a significant obstacle
to answering this question with confidence.
Labor Force; Human Capital; United States of America; Work
Skills; Work Attitudes; Work Orientations; Youth Employment; Employment
Changes; Educational Attainment.
46. Handel, M. J. (2005).
Worker skills and job requirements: Is there a mismatch? Washington:
Economic Policy Institute.
is a widespread belief that U.S. workers' education and skills are not
adequate for the demands of jobs in the modern economy. Many believe that
this presumed mismatch between the skills workers possess and the skills
that jobs require will become even more serious as the workplace becomes
increasingly high-tech and service-oriented. But many simple assumptions
regarding skills mismatch in the U.S. labor market do not stand up well to
closer examination. This article provides an overview of the skills
mismatch debate, reviews research on skill levels, and scrutinizes trends
in the skills workers possess, the skills employers demand, and the
evidence for a mismatch between the two.
United States; New Economy; Job Skills; High Tech; Job
47. Hartog, J. (2000).
Over-education and earnings: Where are we, where should we go?
Economics of Education Review, 19(2), 131-147.
Drawing on empirical studies from five countries (Netherlands, Spain,
Portugal, United Kingdom, and United States), over 2 decades, outlines
irregularities in the incidence of over- and under-education and
consequences for individual earnings. The overall incidence of
overeducation in the labor market is about 26 percent.
Comparative Education; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Attainment; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign
Countries; Job Skills; Labor Market; Mathematical Models; Salary Wage
Differentials; Sex Differences; Netherlands; Overeducation; Portugal;
Spain; United Kingdom; United States.
48. Haunschild, A. (2003).
Managing employment relationships in flexible labour markets: The case of
German repertory theatres. Human Relations, 56(8), 899-929.
theatres, “new”' forms of employment are rather old. Based on qualitative
case study research, this article analyses policies for managing human
resources in a German non-profit repertory theatre. Referring to Marsden's
theory of employment systems, the article suggests regarding these
policies as being embedded in an interorganizational employment system,
which comprises rules of job design and task assignment, the labour
market, inter-firm institutions and the education system. This employment
system for German theatre artists is marked by high labour mobility and
contingent work arrangements, but is also characterized by an ensemble
structure providing (temporary) stability of the workforce. By studying
how employment relationships are “managed” in theatres and how the
organizational level is linked to the field's labour market
characteristics, this article aims at contributing to the exploration of
institutional prerequisites and organizational consequences of contingent
work arrangements. In doing so, the article continues recent efforts to
link studies on careers, labour markets and work arrangements in the
cultural industries to the “future of work” debate.
Theatre Management; Labor Relations; Organizational
49. Hyslop-Margison, E. J., &
Welsh, B. H. (2003). Career education and labour market conditions: The
skills gap myth. Journal of Educational Thought/ Revue de la Pensee
Educative, 37(1), 5-22.
Asserts that it is a questionable claim that a widespread knowledge and
skill shortage is causing current labour market supply problems,
unemployment, or increased social stratification. Adds that the percentage
of new jobs requiring high levels of knowledge and skill is limited when
compared to low-skilled service industry occupations. Questions the
foundations of career education.
Career Education; Education Work Relationship; Employment;
Labor Force Development; Labor Market; Labor Needs; Skill Development; Two
Year Colleges; Vocational Education.
50. Jackson, M. (2001). Non-meritocratic
job requirements and the reproduction of class inequality: An
investigation. Work, Employment and Society, 15(3), 619-630.
article evaluates the presence or absence of the "Increased Merit
Selection" (IMS) theory or meritocracy in society, as it relates to the
employment process in order to distinguish whether this theory is valid in
today's society, thus creating social mobility for individuals regardless
of their social class. Through the analysis of a random sample of 322 job
listings in national, regional, & local newspapers, it was found that
"merit" in the form of qualifications, ability & effort, meritocratic
characteristics, & experience & technical skills was predominate, yet
ascriptive characteristics in the form of social skills & personal
characteristics still made their way into these findings. Therefore, it
seemed we still are unable to fully escape "where we come from" & "who we
are" because it is just these characteristics that provide us with
suitability for a job that another individual with more so-called
achievements may not possess.
Meritocracy; Social Mobility; Social Class; Hiring
Practices; Occupational Mobility; Job Requirements; Social Background.
51. Janssen, O. (2000). Job
demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work
behaviour. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 73(3),
Building on person-environment fit theory and social exchange theory, the
relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour was assumed
to be moderated by fairness perceptions of the ratio between effort spent
and reward received at work. This interaction of job demands with
perceptions of effort-reward fairness was tested among 170 non-management
employees from a Dutch industrial organization in the food sector. Results
demonstrated a positive relationship between job demands and innovative
work behaviour when employees perceived effort-reward fairness rather than
Employee Attitudes; Energy Expenditure; Null Hypothesis
Testing; Organizational Behavior; Job Characteristics; Job Satisfaction;
Justice; Person-Environment Fit.
52. Jensen, L., & Slack, T.
(2003). Underemployment in America: Measurement and evidence. American
Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1-2), 21-31.
important way in which employment hardship has come to be conceptualized &
measured is as underemployment. Underemployment goes beyond mere
unemployment (being out of a job & looking for work), to include those who
have given up looking for work, part-time workers whose employer(s) cannot
give them full-time work, & the working poor. To provide needed background
for the other articles in this special issue, we trace the history of the
concept of underemployment, review existing empirical literature, offer a
critique of the measurement of underemployment as conventionally
operationalized, & provide up-to-date evidence on the trends & correlates
of underemployment in the US.
Underemployment; Measures (Instruments); Measurement;
United States of America.
53. Jones, R. T. (2003). What
employers expect of education. Liberal Education, 89(2), 41-43.
Describes the expectations held by employers for graduates in a world of
global competition and rapid change, and discusses why preparation for
work and for higher education now require the same academic standards.
Academic Standards; College School Cooperation; Education
Work Relationship; Educational Needs; Employer Attitudes; Employment
Qualifications; Higher Education; Job Skills.
54. Kager, M. B. (2000).
Factors that affect hiring: A study of age discrimination and hiring.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social
Sciences, 60(11-A), 4201.
study examines the effect applicant age on the selection recommendations
of human resource managers. An original, fractional, factorial survey
design with a vignette format was used. This form of design allows the
researcher to use a relatively large number of factors and levels within
those factors to enhance the resemblance between the real and the
experimental world. The, dimensions used in constructing the vignettes
included: job requirements, personal characteristics and employment
experience of the applicant, unemployment duration and previous, as well
as, proposed salary levels. Seventy-eight levels were created within
seventeen dimensions. The vignettes were designed to represent the
interviewer's personal notes about twelve hypothetical candidates and to
reflect information gathered in the pre-interview, interview and post
interview phases of the hiring process. The survey was mailed to a random,
national sample of 500 members of a national association of human
resources managers. Two mailings produced a response rate of 24.5% (N =
118), and generated 1,416 vignette judgements. Respondents were seventy
percent female, with thirty-five percent overall having ten or more years
of experience as a human resource professional. Logistic regression
analysis of the data found that twenty-five levels among the seventeen
dimensions were significantly associated with selection decisions at the
5% level or below. Personality/Attitude and mode of dress had the
strongest effects on selection recommendations. For example, candidates
represented as "enthusiastic, energetic and eager" the odds of a favorable
recommendation were increased by more than 400% over those who were
"unresponsive and lacked eye contact." No significant effects of age,
gender or race on selection recommendations were found. These findings
suggest that when age discrimination in hiring occurs it is prior to or
subsequent to interaction with experienced human resources management
professionals. In addition, the findings suggest that for all applicants
regardless of age, race or gender, the interviewer's selection decisions
can be affected by factors largely within the applicant's control.
Age Differences; Age Discrimination; Personnel Selection.
55. Lamba, N. K. (2003). The
employment experiences of Canadian refugees: Measuring the impact of human
and social capital on quality of employment. La Revue
Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie/The Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology, 40(1), 45-64.
Examining the resettlement experiences of 525 adult refugees living in
Canada, this study uses a multiple regression approach to investigate the
impact of human & social capital on refugees' quality of employment.
Giddens's structuration theory acts as a useful interpretive framework to
describe how refugee agency is constrained & enabled by the rules &
resources governing the employment integration process. Results show that
refugees use both family & ethnic group ties as resources in searching for
employment. However, constrained by a combination of structural barriers,
a significant proportion of refugees find that their human capital has
little or no value in the Canadian labor market &, moreover, that the
networks refugees are presently employing may not be sufficient to
compensate for their downward occupational mobility.
Refugees; Canada; Human Capital; Cultural Capital; Social
Networks; Employment; Labor Market; Quality of Working Life; Agency and
56. Landrum, R. E., & Harrold,
R. (2003). What employers want from psychology graduates. Teaching of
Psychology, 30(2), 131-133.
undergraduate psychology majors do not opt for graduate school but attempt
to enter the workforce. We surveyed employers in 3 regions of the United
States to assess the importance of qualities, skills, and abilities that
psychology graduates need. Results indicate that the 5 most important
qualities, skills, and abilities to employers are listening skills, desire
and ability to learn, willingness to learn new and important skills,
getting along with others, and ability to work with others as part of a
work team. Faculty members advising students may wish to emphasize the
importance of these people and teamwork skills in an effort to ensure that
students have a sense of what is important to employers.
Education; Educational Research; Multidisciplinary
Research; Employee Skills; Employer Attitudes; Psychology; Undergraduate
57. Larsen, C. A. (2003).
Structural unemployment. An analysis of recruitment and selection
mechanisms based on panel data among Danish long-term unemployed.
International Journal of Social Welfare, 12(3), 170-181.
perception of structural unemployment - summarised in the notion of “Eurosclerosis“-
became almost hegemonic during the 1990s. Policy makers all over Europe
tried, by means of supply-side policies, to counteract the lack of
incentives in the developed European welfare states, the lack of
qualification on the post-industrial labour markets and the personal decay
due to long-term unemployment. However, based on the critical case of
Denmark, this article challenges the perception of structural unemployment
and suggests an alternative business cycle/barrier perception. At the
macro level it is difficult to explain the Danish decline in unemployment
from 1994 to 2000 within the structure perception. The lack of explanatory
power of the structure perception is further highlighted in micro-level
analyses conducted on a panel study of long-term unemployed. Based on the
unemployed's own assessments, we find no indications of supply-side
problems. These results are supported by analyses of actual labour market
integration of the long-term unemployed in the period between 1994 and
1999, which show that education level and previous unemployment had no
noteworthy influence on labour market integration, whereas age had a
decisive influence. These surprising results further undermine the
perception of structural unemployment and the supply-side policies rooted
in this 'mistaken' problem definition.
Labor Market; Unemployment; Unemployment Rates; Denmark;
Business Cycles; Labor Policy.
58. Lester, B.
Y., & McCain, R. A. (2001). An equity-based redefinition of
underemployment and unemployment and some measurements. Review of
Social Economy, 59(2), 133-159.
attempt is made in this article to redefine underemployment & unemployment
without making reference to an excess supply of labor or any causal
mechanism of unemployment. Instead, underemployment & unemployment are
defined in terms of equity, which draws upon the individual's preferences.
A specific proposal is that underemployment be defined by the presence of
contribution inequity relative to at least half the persons employed in a
field that the underemployed person might prefer to move into.
Empirically, most recent survey data on preferences for contingent & other
nontraditional employment are used to illustrate the application of the
concept. The major finding is that nearly 10 million Americans in the
nontraditional workforce are underemployed.
Underemployment; Unemployment; Equity; United States of
59. Linsley, I. (2005). Causes
of overeducation in the Australian labour market. Australian Journal of
Labour Economics, 8(2), 121-143.
form of labour underutilization which occurs when the formal education
level of a worker exceeds that which is required for the job known as
overeducation. Close to 30 per cent of workers are overeducated and are
underutilizing their skills in Australia. Data from the Negotiating the
Life Course survey, the author determines the causes of overeducation in
Australia. Four of the key theories that have been used to explain
overeducation are tested: human capital, job competition, assignment and
the career mobility theories. Tests show that the job competition model
best explains the existence of overeducation in the labour market in
Analysis of Education; Human
Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity (Formal Training
Programs; On-the-Job Training; Job; Occupational and Intergenerational
Mobility; Promotion; Australia; Education; Human Capital; Skill
60. Livingstone, D. W. (1999).
The education-jobs gap: Underemployment or economic democracy.
Boulder/Toronto: Westview press/Garamond press.
Confronting conventional wisdom, this book argues that the major problem
in education-work relations is not education, but work. Formal schooling,
further education, and informal learning have continued to increase while
the knowledgeable and skilled are increasingly underemployed. Using
analysis based on Canadian and U.S. large-scale surveys of work and
learning experiences, NALL - the first representative survey on
underemployment, and in-depth interviews at university placement offices
and food banks, the author exposes the myth of the "knowledge economy" and
the limits of human capital theory. The author assesses six facets of the
underemployment: the talent-use gap, structural unemployment, involuntary
reduced employment, the credential gap, the performance gap, and
subjective underemployment. He explains the wastage of workers' useful
knowledge in terms of the conflicting forces driving current economic
restructuring. Finally, he provides a critical review of basic economic
alternatives (shareholder capitalism, stakeholder capitalism, and economic
democracy) and gauges their prospects for overcoming the education-jobs
Work; Learning; Education Work Relationships; Education-job
Matching; Underemployment; Underqualification.
61. Livingstone, D. W. (2000).
Public education at the crossroads: Confronting underemployment in a
knowledge society. In D. Glenday & A. Duffy (Eds.), Canadian society
surviving into the 21st century (pp. 143-167). Don Mills:
Oxford University Press of Canada.
author evaluates three alternatives to reforming education in Canada to
meet contemporary needs: (1) The market-driven option would restrict entry
to postsecondary education & tailor the curriculum more closely to
employment prospects. (2) The knowledge economy option would encourage
advanced education at increased personal expense. (3) The economic
democracy option would support public education as a civil right & reform
paid employment to better fit individuals' learning capabilities. The
author discusses the history of Canadian education, informal learning, the
myth of the knowledge economy, underemployment, life-long learning, & the
popular demand for knowledge.
Educational Reform; Educational Systems; Public Schools;
Educational Policy; Knowledge; Underemployment; Economic Systems; Canada;
Education Work Relationship.
62. Livingstone, D. W., &
Hart, D. J. (2005). Public attitudes towards education in Ontario 2004:
The 15th OISE/UT survey. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in
Education of the University of Toronto.
commitment of the new Liberal government to increase resources for public
education does not yet appear to be sufficient in the eyes of most
Ontarians,” says David Livingstone, director of the Centre for the Study
of Education and Work at OISE/UT. He conducted the 15th biennial survey,
Public Attitudes Towards Education in Ontario 2004, with co-author Doug
Hart, at OISE/UT. “There is a widespread consensus among virtually all
social groups that further funding increases are still needed,”Livingstone
Public Opinion; Public Education; Attitudes; Funding;
63. Lloyd, C., & Payne, J.
(2002). Developing a political economy of skill. Journal of Education
and Work, 15(4), 365-390.
little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a
high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side
proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of
conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical
political economy of skill.
Capitalism; Change Agents; Foreign Countries; Job Skills;
Labor Force Development; Labor Needs; Politics; Public Policy.
64. Loos, R. (2002).
Innovations for the integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong
learning and the labour market: Case studies from six European countries.
report presents innovative vocational training (VT) initiatives to improve
integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor
market. Chapter 1 describes study structure and methodology. Chapter 2
addresses the theoretical basis for observing innovations. It analyzes the
definition and significance of innovation in system theory and VT;
examines the practical definition of innovation and explains differences
between good practice and best practice innovation; presents the
innovation typology and its significance as an instrument of observation
for identifying and evaluating innovations; and introduces the European
Commission's definition of lifelong learning and assessment of its
relevance for analyzing innovations for integrating the low-skilled.
Chapter 3 analyzes innovative case studies with practical relevance for
integrating low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor
market in these six European countries: Spain, Greece, Austria, Denmark,
Luxembourg, and Liechtenstein. Case analysis is divided into three
thematic areas: program/project development and its objectives; innovative
elements of the project/program; and the initiative's implementation and
transfer potential. Chapter 4 summarizes the most important innovations
identified and analyzes to what extent and under which circumstances
transfer of these innovative practices to other EU states and candidates
would be possible.
Adoption (Ideas); Adult Education; Case Studies;
Definitions; Demonstration Programs; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Innovation; Foreign Countries; Information Transfer; Job
Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Labor Market; Lifelong
Learning; Postsecondary Education; Program Development; Program
Implementation; Secondary Education; Semiskilled Workers; Technology
Transfer; Unskilled Workers; Vocational Education.
65. Mason, G. (2002). High
skills utilisation under mass higher education: Graduate employment in
service industries in Britain. Journal of Education and Work, 15(4),
Britain, the retailing, computer services, transportation, and
communications industries have hired increasing numbers of college
graduates, both because of demand for skills and oversupply of graduates.
This has contributed to temporary and permanent job upgrading through
expansion of tasks and responsibilities in certain jobs.
College Graduates; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Job
Development; Job Skills; Labor Supply; Personnel Selection; Service
Occupations; Underemployment; Work and Learning.
66. May, C. (2000).
Information society, task mobility and the end of work. Futures, 32(5),
emergence of global information society has led to a decline of
manufacturing employment & the expansion of the service sector in the most
developed economies of the global system. To replace lost manufacturing
jobs, many commentators & policy makers have suggested that information &
knowledge work represents the future for displaced workers, & have
recommended policies to support IT skills. However, in this article, I
argue that informational labor is just as amenable to task migration as
manufacturing work, &, thus, policy prescriptions based on the presumption
that developed states will retain most if not all knowledge work are
mistaken. Some developing states such as India & the Caribbean Islands are
already successfully competing against knowledge services in the OECD
states. With the further development of global electronic networking
informational tasks are likely to be increasingly mobile. While this will
aid development outside the rich states, it will also reinforce the
dynamic of income inequality & underemployment in Europe & America. Thus,
the global information society represents a further challenge to the
developed states' labor forces rather than their delivery from low cost
Globalization; Information Technology; Income Inequality;
North and South; Labor Force; Employment Changes; Manufacturing
Industries; Service Industries; Developing Countries; Industrial
McBride-King J. et al. (2000). What to do before the well runs
dry: Managing scarce skills. Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada.
Today's organizations face a rapidly changing business and labour
environment. A particular concern is the difficulty experienced in
recruiting and retaining the skills needed to compete in the global
marketplace. This report notes that effectively managing the scarce skills
problem depends on more than the best efforts of individual organizations.
It also requires the integrated efforts of many stakeholder groups
including the education system and government. This study identified
actions that were statistically significant predictors of recruitment and
Skills; Changes; Business; Labour Market; Recruitment;
Global Marketplace; Scarce Skills; Education System; Canada.
68. Mills, V. (2002).
Employability, globalization and lifelong learning - A Scottish
perspective. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(4),
ideological transformation of the Labour Party to New Labour has resulted
in supply-side approaches to lifelong learning that are not succeeding in
Scotland's low-wage, low-skill economy. Despite the rhetoric, acquiring
job skills does not automatically result in employability, without
Employment Potential; Foreign Countries; Government Role;
Ideology; Job Development; Job Skills; Lifelong Learning.
69. Munro, A., & Rainbird, H.
(2002). Job change and workplace learning in the public sector: The
significance of new technology for unskilled work. New Technology, Work
and Employment, 17(3), 224-235.
Interviews (n=350) and a survey (n=323) of managers, trainers, and union
representatives in British health care agencies showed that technology
caused some job enlargement and enrichment; positive or negative effects
depended on context. Other jobs were deskilled due to work organization,
not technology. Technology's impact on job change was diversified and
Foreign Countries; Job Development; Job Skills; Public
Sector; Technological Advancement; Unskilled Workers.
70. Nabi, G. R.
(2003). Graduate employment and underemployment: Opportunity for skill use
and career experiences amongst recent business graduates. Education &
Training, 45(7), 371-382.
Graduate underemployment continues to be a serious and growing problem in
the UK. Yet, there is a scarcity of research that has attempted to
identify the nature, extent and specificity of the problem. This study
examines the opportunity for skill use (skill requirements of the job,
personal skill levels, congruence between these two measures) and
intrinsic (job, career, life satisfaction) and extrinsic career success
(salary, promotion) amongst underemployed graduates. Appropriately
employed graduates (those who were in jobs for which they required their
degree) were used as a comparison group. Questionnaire data were collected
from 203 business graduates in the UK. The key findings suggested that
underemployed graduates reported significantly lower levels of opportunity
for skill use and intrinsic (job, career, life satisfaction) and extrinsic
career success (salary). The implications of these findings and avenues
for further research are discussed.
Graduates; Underemployment; Ability; Business Students;
Career Development; Employment Status; Graduate Students; Life
Satisfaction; Personnel Promotion; Salaries.
71. Ono, H. (2001). Temporary
employment and the spot market: Reflections from a qualitative study.
Michigan Sociological Review, 15, 93-123.
recent years, the growth rate of temporary employment has far surpassed
the growth rate of aggregate nonfarm employment. Market uncertainty, such
as the rapid pace of technological change, has given rise to a practice
wherein employers hesitate to hire workers into their core workforce, &
rely increasingly on contingent labor. The result is a "just-in-time"
practice of human labor, with employers purchasing skills on an as-needed
basis. While previous studies have focused on either the supply- or the
demand-side factors behind temporary employment growth, this paper focuses
on the actual temp-employer matching process that takes place within
temporary staffing firms. Based on interview results from managers &
executives in temporary staffing firms in the US, I argue that the
explosive growth of temporary employment can be attributed to its spot
market features, which allow employers to adjust freely to market changes
while minimizing transaction costs.
Part Time Employment; Underemployment; Labor Market; Labor
Supply; Technological Change; Modern Society; United States of America;
72. Oosterbeek, H. (2000).
Introduction to special issue on overschooling. Economics of Education
Review, 19(2), 129-130.
special issue was inspired by Greg Duncan and Saul Hoffman's 1981 article
on the "incidence and wage effects of overeducation." These researchers
used a Mincer earnings equation to determine that a substantial number of
American workers were over- or under-educated for their chosen
Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment;
Educational Economics; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Higher Education;
Human Capital; Labor Market; Mathematical Models; Measurement; Salary Wage
Differentials; Overeducation; Return on Investment.
73. Orr, L. L. (2001). What
are they doing? Performance Improvement, 40(5), 28-31.
Explains how to develop job profiles that describe the output expected
from employees and the competencies required to meet the output so that
managers understand and appreciate what their employees actually do.
Discusses needs assessments and how clear descriptions of competencies,
skills, knowledge, and values are useful in developing training.
Administrator Attitudes; Administrators; Competence; Job
Analysis; Job Skills; Needs Assessment; Skill Analysis; Task Analysis;
Training Methods; Values.
74. Parent, D. (2002).
Matching, human capital, and the covariance structure of earnings.
Labour Economics, 9(3), 375-404.
paper tests the theory of job matching and the theory of human capital by
examining the covariance structure of residuals from a typical Mincer log
earnings equation using methods of moments techniques. Job matching theory
predicts that we should observe an eventual decrease in the contribution
of the job-match component in the residual variance as workers acquire
tenure on the job. This prediction is mildly supported by the data. On the
other hand, human capital theory predicts a trade-off between job-specific
intercept and slope parameters. This prediction, which is not shared by
the theory of matching, is strongly supported by the data. This is
especially true for men with at least a high school degree.
Matching; Firm-specific Human Capital; Generalized Method
Of Moments; Job Seniority; Wages Rise; Young Men; Mobility; Turnover;
Workers; Information; Tenure.
75. Parvinder, K. (2005).
Graduate overeducation in Australia: A comparison of the mean and
objective methods. Education Economics, 13(1), 47-72.
paper studies the extent of graduate overeducation in Australia utilising
both the objective and mean methods. As well, the paper tests for
non-linear returns to overeducation. It is found that the rates of
graduate overeducation vary by both gender and with the methods utilised,
and stand between 21% and 46%. Non-linear returns to overeducation were
evident among some groups of graduates. Young male graduates seem to
suffer no penalty for overeducation compared with their matched peers, but
this may be a reflection of technological change altering workplace
requirements faster than changes in occupational titles.
Graduate Overeducation; Labour Market Mismatch.
76. Pastor, M., Jr., &
Marcelli, E. A. (2000). Social, spatial, and skill mismatch among
immigrants and native-born workers in Los Angeles. San Diego:
University Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.
Racially different economic outcomes stem from multiple causes, including
various "mismatches" between minority employees and available jobs. A
skill mismatch occurs when individuals' education and job skills do not
qualify them for existing jobs. A spatial mismatch means that people live
far from the work for which they qualify. A social mismatch refers to the
practice of finding jobs through social networks; when friends and family
are not well-connected to good jobs, one's chances of finding a good job
decrease. This paper explores how these mismatches determine labor market
outcomes, particularly wage impacts, in Los Angeles County for different
racial groups and for immigrant versus native-born workers. Data on male
workers were drawn from the Los Angeles Survey of Urban Inequality, census
responses for Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs), and a unique dataset on
job location and composition in southern California. The results indicate
that all three types of mismatch matter, but they affect various groups
differently. Social network quality mattered most for Anglos. For African
Americans, the skill gap was more important than social networks or job
growth in the local neighborhood. For recent Latino immigrants, individual
characteristics mattered more than spatial or skill mismatches. Individual
variables (including English fluency) also played a large role for
longer-term immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos, but the skill gap also
mattered. Asian Americans were affected by spatial and skill mismatches.
Asian Americans; Blacks; Educational Needs; Educational
Status; Comparison; Employment Potential; Hispanic Americans; Immigrants;
Income; Job Skills; Labor Market; Males; Neighborhoods; Poverty; Racial
Differences; Social Networks; Whites; Latinos.
77. Pelsma, D., & Arnett, R.
(2002). Helping clients cope with change in the 21st century: A balancing
act. Journal of Career Development, 28(3), 169-179.
current environment requires personal agency. Successful individuals need
four abilities: (1) willingness to cope with uncertainty; (2) ability to
overcome obstacles; (3) ability to take risks and learn from experience;
and (4) ability to make decisions.
Career Counseling; Career Development; Change Strategies;
Coping; Job Skills; Self Determination.
78. Reitz, J. G. (2001).
Immigrant skill utilization in the Canadian labour market: Implications of
human capital research. Journal of International Migration and
Integration, 2(3), 347-378.
quantitative significance of the underutilization of immigrant skills may
be assessed, albeit imprecisely, in human capital earnings analysis.
Earnings deficits of immigrants may arise from (1) lower immigrant skill
quality, (2) underutilization of immigrant skills, & (3) pay inequities
for immigrants doing the same work as native born Canadians. Consistent
with numerous studies, 1996 census microdata show that underutilization of
immigrant skills is significant, though less so than unequal pay within
occupations. In 1996 dollars, the total annual immigrant earnings deficit
from all three sources was $15 billion, of which $2.4 billion was related
to skill underutilization, & $12.6 billion was related to pay inequity.
Discussion considers adjustments to these estimates, taking account of
difficulties measuring the skill levels of occupations & immigrant skill
Immigrants; Canada; Work Skills; Income Inequality;
Underemployment; Human Capital; Employment Discrimination; Labor Market.
79. Richards, P. (2001).
Towards the goal of full employment: Trends, obstacles and policies.
Expanding upon a report presented to the International Labor Organization
(ILO), this book documents the current world employment situation,
including how it has fallen short, how current economic policies interact
with world employment, and how improvements can be made. Chapter one, "The
Commitment to Full Employment," describes how the ILO measures and defines
employment and unemployment and discusses the concept of creating a
universal employment strategy in developing, industrialized and transition
countries. Chapter two, "The Current Employment Picture" looks at broad
trends in employment globally and regionally and the characteristics of
employment quality, including freedom of association and equal
opportunity. Chapter three, "The Employment Effects of Current Policies,"
discusses the recent experiences of developing countries in East and
Southeast Asia and Latin America, as well as the older Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members. Chapter four presents
conclusions, including discussions of poverty, income distribution and
economic growth, full employment policies, and how the ILO helps promote
full employment in a global context and at the national level. Extensive
bibliographic notes follow each chapter. The document contains data tables
and an index.
Adult Education; Careers; Developed Nations; Developing
Nations; Economic Development; Employment; Employment Opportunities;
Employment Patterns; Equal Opportunities (Jobs); Foreign Countries; Labor
Economics; Labor Force Development; Labor Market; Labor Standards;
Postsecondary Education; Poverty; Quality of Working Life; Skill
Development; Underemployment; Unemployment.
80. Rogers, J. K. (2001).
There's no substitute: The politics of time transfer in the teaching
profession. Work and Occupations, 28(1), 64-90.
Recent scholarly attention has turned to the imbalance of work time in the
US. Although some workers experience overwork, others remain
underemployed, often in contingent employment. School districts across the
US are experiencing shortages of substitute teachers, while regular
teachers experience long workdays & significant work-family conflict.
Without the ability to recruit more substitutes, many districts propose
solutions to classroom coverage problems that involve a time to transfer
from a group of substitute teachers' work hours. Although substitutes who
were interviewed expressed a desire for more teaching hours, they were
constrained by their need to make a living either through multiple jobs or
finding a higher wage job. This case study demonstrates the process
through which a time transfer is proposed, contested by teachers, &
ultimately without challenging the disparities between these groups of
Teachers; United States of America; Time Utilization;
81. Sawchuk, P. H. (2003).
Adult learning and technology in working-class life. Cambridge, UK /
New York: Cambridge University Press.
date little is known about the everyday activities that make up the
majority of people's learning lives. This book presents a critical
approach to learning using situated learning and activity theory, drawing
on the writings of Marx, Gramsci, Marxist-feminists, as well as the
sociology of Bourdieu. Though many have demonstrated that schooling and
adult training are deeply affected by issues of social class, this book
explodes the myth that everyday learning, despite its apparent openness
and freedom, can be understood as class-neutral. Based on life-history
interviews, selected ethnographic observations in homes and factories,
large-scale survey materials as well as microanalysis of human computer
interaction, the analysis explores learning across the various spheres of
'working-class life'. The author draws on his own experience as a factory
worker, labour educator and academic to offer the most detailed
examination of computer literacy and lifelong learning practice amongst
working-class people currently available.
detailed, extended excerpts from 'learning life-history' interviews with
• Combines micro
and macro perspectives on learning, technology and social class
• Clear and
accessible introduction to political economy, class analysis, and
Adult Learning; Informal Learning; Business and Industrial
Personnel; Human Computer Interaction; Social Class; Technology.
82. Scherer, S. (2004).
Stepping-stones or traps? The consequences of labour market entry
positions on future careers in West Germany, Great Britain and Italy.
Work, Employment and Society, 18(2), 369-394.
article addresses the question of whether the first job functions as a
‘stepping stone’ or as a ‘”trap”’. It does so by using individual
longitudinal data to estimate the consequences on future occupational
attainment of entry into the labour market via (a) ”under-qualified” jobs
or (b) via temporary contracts. A cross-national comparison of West
Germany, Great Britain and Italy allows assessment of the impact of
different labour market structures on this allocation process. With regard
to ‘under-qualified’ positions, the findings are not consistent with the
stepping-stone hypothesis but provide some support for the entrapment
hypothesis. Despite the greater mobility chances of over-qualified
workers, the initial disadvantage associated with status-inadequate jobs
is not fully overcome during their future careers. The article shows,
however, that the negative effects are not due to the mismatch as such but
rather to the relatively lower level positions. These effects are mediated
by the national labour market structure, with the British flexible model
providing the best chances of making up for initial disadvantages, and the
more tightly regulated and segmented markets in Germany and Italy leading
to stronger entrapment in lower status positions. No negative effects of
the type of contract are found for later occupational positions in any of
Great Britain; Italy; Federal Republic of Germany;
Occupational Mobility; Occupational Achievement; Labor Force
Participation; Occupational Qualifications; Underemployment.
83. Sigworth, D., Hawkins, C.,
& Daiek, D. (2003). 21st century skills: Are we teaching what
students need to know? Community College Enterprise, 9(1), 39-47.
Discusses the institutional inventory completed at Schoolcraft College
(Michigan), which focused on how to learn or teach necessary skills, the
skills that are important for success, and the best way to assess skills
necessary for competency. Reports that most stakeholders agreed on the
skills that are important for success, but they held various opinions
about how best to assess, learn, and teach them.
Administrator Attitudes; Community Colleges; Educational
Assessment; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Skill
Analysis; Two Year Colleges.
84. Sirgy, M. J., Efraty, D.,
Siegel, P., & Lee, D.-J. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life (QWL)
based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social Indicators
Research, 55(3), 241-302.
measure of quality of work life (QWL) was developed based on need
satisfaction & spillover theories. The measure was designed to capture the
extent to which the work environment, job requirements, supervisory
behavior, & ancillary programs in an organization are perceived to meet
the needs of an employee. We identified seven major needs, each having
several dimensions. These are: (a) health & safety needs (protection from
ill health & injury at work & outside of work, & enhancement of good
health); (b) economic & family needs (pay, job security, & other family
needs); (c) social needs (collegiality at work & leisure time off work);
(d) esteem needs (recognition & appreciation of work within the
organization & outside the organization); (e) actualization needs
(realization of one's potential within the organization & as a
professional); (f) knowledge needs (learning to enhance job & professional
skills); & (g) aesthetic needs (creativity at work as well as personal
creativity & general aesthetics). The measure's convergent & discriminant
validities were tested & the data provided support to the construct
validity of the QWL measure. Furthermore, the measure's nomological
(predictive) validity was tested through hypotheses deduced from spillover
theory. Three studies were conducted: two using university employees & the
third using accounting firms. The results from the pooled sample provided
support for the hypotheses &, thus, lent some support to the nomological
validity to the new measure.
Quality of Working Life; Job Satisfaction; Work
Environment; Measures (Instruments); Needs; Job Characteristics; Superior
Subordinate Relationship; Management Styles.
85. Skinner, C. (2001).
Measuring skills mismatch: New York City in the 1980s. Urban Affairs
Review, 36(5), 678-695.
author develops a new methodology to measure occupational skill
requirements in New York City. The analysis matches locally derived skill
ratings for detailed census occupations to years of local schooling & then
estimates the change in mean skill requirements for employed New York City
residents & the change in local employment of occupational skills classed
by level of required education during the 1980s. The results show
insignificant change in employment weighted skill means for all
occupations. But the disaggregated analysis shows skill requirements
bifurcated during the decade, with employment growth concentrated in
college-level & sub-high school graduate-level occupations relative to
high school graduate-level occupations. The findings suggest that
demand-side forces are destroying mid-skilled jobs, casting doubt on the
efficacy of supply-side policy measures intended to improve labor market
outcomes for workers with less than a college education.
Research Methodology; Occupational Qualifications; Work
Skills; New York City, New York; Education Work Relationship.
86. Smith, A. (2002).
Evidence of skill shortages in the engineering trades. Leabrook, SA:
National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
Statistical information about employment in 13 engineering trades
occupations in Australia was examined to identify skill shortages in the
country's engineering trades. Data from various Department of Employment,
Workplace Relations and Small Business (DEWRSB) reports regarding the
supply of and demand for skills in the engineering trades including a 1999
DEWRSB survey of Australian employers' recent experience of skill
shortages in the engineering trades were analyzed. Overall, the
combination of commencements in new apprenticeship training, the
availability of nonapprenticeship training pathways to the engineering
trades, declining employment growth in recent years, and projected low
growth in the future has been sufficient to keep pace with employment
trends in the trades. However, despite continuing declines in total
employment in the engineering trades, skill shortages are likely to
persist especially for the more specialized metals trades. The study
suggested that the issues of relevance and quality of training for
existing workers and new entrants to the engineering trades will be even
more critical than increasing the numbers of individuals in training. The
biggest challenge to meeting Australia's rapidly changing engineering
skill needs appears to be ensuring that the content and coverage of
training keeps pace with the rapid rate of technological change in
Apprenticeships; Competence; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Needs; Employer Attitudes; Employment Level; Employment
Patterns; Employment Projections; Employment Qualifications; Engineering
Technicians; Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Job Skills; Labor Needs;
Labor Supply; Metal Working; Needs Assessment; Postsecondary Education;
Relevance (Education); Secondary Education; Technological Advancement;
Technology Transfer; Trade and Industrial Education.
87. Spill, R. (2002). An
introduction to the use of skill standards and certifications in WIA
programs, 2002. Washington, DC: National Skill Standards Board.
report focuses on the use of nationally recognized, industry-based skill
standards and occupational certifications that promote certificate
portability, skill transferability, worker mobility, and education and
training consistency within and across states and nationwide. Chapters 1,
2, and 3 define what is meant by skill standards and certifications,
present the case for their use, and discuss their benefits for
individuals, employers, educators and trainers, Workforce Investment
Boards (WIBs), and others. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 outline the mission of the
National Skill Standards Board and its role in developing and promoting an
industry-based skill standards and certifications system and then examine
some key representative applications in education and training delivery
systems and in WIB contexts. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 provide WIBs with a
practical 22-step process approach for identifying and selecting
industry-based occupational certifications that match local-, regional-,
and state-determined workforce needs; explain the purpose and advantages
of the locally designed Work Readiness Certification; and provide a brief
resource guide to WIBs for further follow-up assistance.
Adult Education; Educational Certificates; Industry; Job
Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Labor Needs; National
Standards; Occupational Mobility; Postsecondary Education; Secondary
Education; Student Certification; Vocational Education.
88. Staff, J., & Uggen, C.
(2003). The fruits of good work: Early work experiences and adolescent
deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3),
theories of crime suggest that “adult-like” work conditions will diminish
adolescent delinquency, whereas others suggest that a precocious entry
into adult work roles will increase youth problem behaviors. We consider
the relationship between delinquency and several dimensions of adolescent
employment, including learning opportunities, freedom and autonomy,
status, demands and stress, wages, and the compatibility between work and
school. More specifically, we ask: (1) Do these early work conditions
affect adolescent deviance net of the number of hours worked and
self-selection processes? (2) If so, are “adult-like” work environments
harmful or beneficial for adolescents? And, (3) which employment
dimensions are the most important for theory and research on crime and
delinquency? We find the lowest rates of 12th grade school deviance,
alcohol use, and arrest among adolescents whose jobs supported rather than
displaced academic roles and provided opportunities for them to learn new
things. In contrast, many qualities of work considered desirable for
adults (autonomy, social status, and wages) appear to increase delinquency
in adolescence. We conclude that work conditions have age-graded effects
on delinquency that are contingent on the life course stage of the worker.
Adolescent Development; Juvenile Delinquency; Youth
Employment; Deviant Behavior; Delinquency Prevention.
89. Stevens, M. (2003).
Earnings functions, specific human capital, and job matching: Tenure bias
is negative. Journal of Labor Economics, 21(4), 783-805.
article investigates the hypothesis that when measures of specific human
capital (such as job tenure) are included in earnings functions, there may
be a sample selection bias because of job-matching effects because workers
with high unobserved match quality receive and accept high wage offers. We
develop a model for wage offers in a labor market characterized by both
specific human capital and job matching. The model provides a theoretical
basis for empirical earnings functions containing specific capital, and it
demonstrates that sample selection bias reduces the estimated return to
specific human capital and tenure.
Wages Rise; Seniority; Investment; Labor.
90. Stier, H., & Levanon, V.
(2003). Finding an adequate job: Employment and income of recent
immigrants to Israel. International Migration, 41(2), 81-107.
study examines the early market experience of recent immigrants to Israel
from the former Soviet Union (FSU) & their mobility patterns a few years
after migration. The Labour Utilization Framework, proposed by Clogg &
Sullivan (1983), was analyzed to identify the employment difficulties
immigrants experienced upon arrival, their short-term mobility in the
labor market, & the income consequences of their disadvantaged position in
the market. Using a panel study of immigrants who arrived in Israel during
1990, we found that although most of them found employment, only a
minority did not experience employment hardships. Four years after their
arrival, most immigrants were still employed in occupations for which they
were overqualified, & only a small portion of the group managed to find
adequate employment. Women had more severe employment hardships & a lower
rate of mobility into the better positions. For men & women alike, almost
any deviation from a stable adequate employment entailed wage penalties.
Immigrants; Israel; Income; Employment Opportunities;
Slavic Cultural Groups; Occupational Mobility.
91. Stofferahn, C. W. (2000).
Underemployment: Social fact or socially constructed reality? Rural
Sociology, 65(2), 311-330.
Analyzes merged data from 1987-1990 surveys & in-depth interviews with 33
persistently underemployed rural residents to determine whether the
researchers were imposing their definition of reality on the interviewees.
The data from the interviews largely demonstrated a correspondence between
the objective definition of reality as defined by measures of
underemployment & the informants' subjective interpretation of their
employment situation. This procedure demonstrated that the underemployed
had created their own subjective reality, which had become an objective
reality, ie, a socially created fact. A few cases, however, raised
concerns about the extent to which that reality, was widely shared because
the interviewees' definitions did not correspond to the researchers'
objective definitions or did not make sense in their own situations. Other
interviewees' comments raised significant questions about the
applicability of formal labor market concepts & measures, which tend to
overlook the unique characteristics of rural labor markets, eg,
uncompensated labor, self-employment, & multiple job holding. Thus the
in-depth interviews provided conceptual checks on the extent to which
researchers can impose their definitions of the situation on respondents'
Underemployment; Rural Population; Interviews; Social
Constructionism; Subjectivity; Ethnomethodology; Methodological Problems;
92. Tremblay, D.-G. (2001).
New learning models for the new knowledge-based economy: Professional and
local-personal networks as a source of knowledge development in the
multimedia sector. Paper presented at the Conference of the European
Society for Research on the Education of Adults (3rd), Lisbon, Portugal,
September 13-16, 2001.
role of professional and local-personal networks as a source of knowledge
development in the new knowledge-based economy was examined in a 15-month
study that focuses on people working in the multimedia industry in
Montreal, Quebec. The study focused on the modes of exchange and learning,
collaborative work, and management and development of knowledge within
firms through exchanges between workers. Of the approximately 50 firms
contacted, 18 agreed to participate in the study. Sixty open-ended
interviews (48 with workers and 12 with employers or managers) were
conducted. The interview responses were analyzed within the contexts of
the concepts of collective competence and communities of practice. The
interviews established that collaborative work, teamwork, and knowledge
sharing have become normal in multimedia firms. The perceptions and values
of the workers interviewed appeared to counter those of the traditional
tayloristic vision of work, which assumes a strong division of labor and
little if any exchange between workers. Most interviewees were ready to
share information, often without expecting anything in return, and most
enjoyed teamwork. Many firms used capacity to work in a group as a
selection criterion when hiring employees. The managers reported looking
for complementary specializations within teams.
Adult Learning; Competence; Foreign Countries; Group
Dynamics; Individual Development; Information Networks; Learning
Processes; Models; Organizational Climate; Organizational Communication;
Organizational Objectives; Professional Development; Teamwork; Work
93. Van Ham, M., Mulder, C.
H., & Hooimeijer, P. (2001). Local underemployment and the discouraged
worker effect. Urban Studies, 38(10), 1733-1751.
effect of poor local labor market opportunities on occupational
achievement is an important aspect of the spatial mismatch hypothesis.
Much of the research has concentrated on the direct link between
geographical access to jobs & employment outcomes. In contrast, little
attention has been given to the discouraging effect of poor chances on job
search activities. The discouraged worker effect is defined as the
decision to refrain from job search as a result of poor chances on the
labor market. Discouragement effects can arise from a lack of individual
qualifications, from discrimination in the labor market, or from a high
local level of underemployment. The empirical findings of this paper,
based on the Netherlands Labor Force Surveys 1994-1997, show that
discouragement can enter the job search process both at the stage of
deciding to enter the labor force & at the stage of deciding to engage
actively in a job search. Gender differentials in discouragement are
revealed in the process of self-selection into the labor force. Poor labor
market chances lead to less activity in both off-the-job & on-the-job
search, indicating a role of discouragement in the spatial mismatch.
Individual qualifications & ascribed characteristics turn out to be more
decisive than the local level of underemployment.
Labor Market; Job Search; Employment Opportunities;
Occupational Qualifications; Netherlands; Spatial Analysis;
94. Vann, J.
W., Wessel, R. D., & Spisak, S. A. (2000). Job opportunity
evaluation matrix: Ability to perform and job attractiveness. Journal
of Career Development, 26(3), 191-204.
People evaluating job opportunities must decide whether to allocate their
energies, knowledge, skills, and a portion of their lives to a prospective
job. Inappropriate allocations will mean wasted resources and potentially
negative outcomes. This paper demonstrates how an adaptation of an
opportunity evaluation scheme used in business (Aaker, 1998) can be used
by the job seeker. The evaluation scheme utilizes a two-dimensional matrix
that simultaneously represents job attractiveness (JA) from the
perspective of the job seeker and the job seeker's ability to perform the
job (ATP). This matrix simplifies the opportunity assessment process by
combining multiple variables that determine job attractiveness and that
determine ability to perform into one summary variable for each and then
generates a recommended course of action for the job seeker based on the
coordinates of those two summary variables in the matrix.
Employee Skills; Job Characteristics; Job Search;
Occupational Guidance; Job Applicant Attitudes; Occupational Interests.
G., Krop, R., & Rydell, P. (1999). Closing the education gap:
Benefits and costs. Santa Monica: Rand.
study explored the implications of demographic trends on the quality of
the future labor force and on public social expenditures. It also focused
on the educational costs and social benefits of educational and
immigration policy alternatives designed to close the gap in educational
attainment between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics and blacks. The RAND
Education Simulation Model examines U.S. population flows through the
primary, secondary, and postsecondary education systems, dividing the
nation into two regions California and the rest of the nation with
California chosen for the study because it has the largest immigrant and
minority populations. The model estimates that in spite of the rapid
growth in the percentage of minorities in the nation's population, the
educational attainment of the adult population (age 25 and over) will be
higher in 2015 than it was in 1990. However, unless further gains are made
in the educational attainment of minorities, their share of
college-educated entrants into the labor force will decrease. In addition,
the educational gap between Asians and non-Hispanic whites vis-a-vis
blacks and Hispanics will increase, especially in California. The results
suggest that closing this educational gap would pay for itself,
particularly in California. Nine appendixes provide detailed statistical
Educational Equalization; United States; Minorities;
Economic Aspects; Work and Learning.
96. Virgona, C., Waterhouse,
P., Sefton, R., & Sansuinetti, J. (2003). Making experience work:
Generic skills through the eyes of displaced workers. Adelaide: The
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).
role of generic skills in the lives, work, and employment of 127
dislocated workers in a broad cross-section of job categories in five
areas of Australia were examined through individual interviews, focus
groups, and a survey questionnaire. Selected findings are as follows: (1)
generic skills are developed in all areas of human endeavor, including in
the family, education, community, and employment environments; (2) demand
for high levels of generic skills and technical skills and different kinds
of generic skills (for example, entrepreneurship and enthusiasm for
change) are becoming more highly valued, whereas "traditional" generic
skills (such as teamwork) are being devalued; (3) although many study
participants considered themselves reasonably well prepared for the
demands of the current employment market, others believed that their
skills had been superseded and that their values and aspirations no longer
matched the requirements of work in the new economy. The study findings
challenged current vocational education and training practice by
demonstrating that generic skills are basically developed through
experiential learning, and they reflected the need for structures and
services that support lifelong learning within and beyond the world of
Adult Students; Dislocated Workers; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Attitudes; Employee Attitudes; Employer Employee
Relationship; Employment Potential; Employment Qualifications;
Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Job Skills; Postsecondary
Education; Questionnaires; Relevance (Education); Retraining; Secondary
Education; Skill Development; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Work
97. Watson, L. (2001). Who
pays for lifelong learning? Paper presented at the Research to
Reality: Putting VET Research To Work. Proceedings of the Australian
Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA)
Conference. 4th, Adelaide, South Australia, March 28-30, 2001.
Structural change in the economy has seen the emergence of human resource
skills as an important intangible input to the value-adding process. The
fastest growing sectors of the economy employ workers with high levels of
skill. This has led to the development of a lifelong learning policy
agenda that argues lifelong learning is the key to economic prosperity in
the future. The lifelong learning policy agenda assumes that because
education is important to worker productivity, industries and employees
will be willing to finance the cost of workers' participation in education
and training. The lifelong learning policy agenda emphasizes the need to
motivate people and their employers to invest more in education and
training. But there is a significant difference between the amount of
training undertaken by high- and low-skilled workers and a disparity in
the extent to which these groups of individuals attract employer support.
People in highly skilled jobs are more likely to participate in continuing
education and training than people in low-skilled occupations. People in
low-skilled occupations are less likely to receive employer support for
their participation in continuing education and training. The policy goal
of "lifelong learning for all" is unlikely to be achieved unless
governments actively support education and training participation among
people with lower levels of skill.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Continuing Education;
Corporate Support; Developed Nations; Educational Finance; Educational
Policy; Educational Status Comparison; Employer Attitudes; Federal Aid;
Foreign Countries; Government Role; Job Skills; Labor Force Development;
Lifelong Learning; Participation; Resource Allocation; Skilled Workers;
State Aid; Student Motivation; Unskilled Workers.
98. Westwood, A. (2002). Is
new work good work? London: The Work Foundation.
new work is good work. Quality is ultimately defined by the individual.
However, these perceptions are inevitably colored by the circumstances in
which people find themselves, by the time, place, and wide range of
motivations for having to do a particular job in the first place. One
person's quality may be another's purgatory and vice versa. Four important
changes in Great Britain's labor market are a major decline in the number
of people in manual employment; a rise in skilled employment of people
performing managerial, professional, and technical jobs; a rise in mixed
but essentially low formal skilled employment performed by "personal and
protective" workers; and the continued increase of women in the labor
force. The point may be not that newer work is bad or worse because it has
replaced older, more traditional industrial and manual jobs but that women
do these emerging jobs. Retail has been one of the most maligned types of
work, but popular perceptions have been misplaced. ASDA/Walmart has been
voted the best place to work in Britain. Some reasons are its approach to
its employees or colleagues and the vast range of benefits on offer to
them. Retailers like ASDA have been at the forefront of business in
restoring job opportunities to parts of Britain that need them the most.
Britain needs more good jobs because Britain need to perform better as an
entire labor market.
Adult Literacy; Compensation (Remuneration); Demand
Occupations; Economic Impact; Employee Attitudes; Employees; Employment
Opportunities; Employment Patterns; Foreign Countries; Job Satisfaction;
Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Conditions; Labor Market; Poverty Areas;
Public Opinion; Quality of Working Life; Retailing; Unskilled Occupations;
99. Wieling, M., & Borghans,
L. (2001). Discrepancies between supply and demand and adjustment
processes in the labour market. Labour, 15(1), 33-56.
Changes in demand & supply in segments of the labor market will affect the
labor market position of workers with an educational background in a
related field of study. In one economic tradition such discrepancies
between supply & demand are thought to lead to unemployment in the case of
excess supply & to unfilled vacancies or skill shortages in the case of
excess demand. The other neoclassical-oriented tradition expects wage
adjustments to take fully account of these labor market imbalances,
leading to higher wages for studies with excess demand & lower wages in
case of excess supply. In practice the labor market might, on the one
hand, be more flexible than suggested by the first approach, but on the
other hand adjustment might be incomplete & not only wages but also other
aspects of the employment relationship might be affected by a friction
between supply & demand. This study examines the relationship between
discrepancies between labor demand & supply on the one hand &
manifestations of these tensions in the labor market experience of
school-leavers on the other hand. To investigate this relationship, a
random coefficient model has been used that allows for different
adjustment processes for the various educational types, but still makes
full use of all the information available. The analyses provide insights
about the importance of different adjustment processes & their
complementarity & substitutability. We show that on average, supply
surpluses lead to pressure to accept jobs at a level lower than the
school-leavers educational level, jobs with relatively low wages, & jobs
with part-time contracts. A direct link between supply surpluses &
unemployment is only found for a few specific fields of study.
Unemployment seems to occur mostly when school leavers do not take
temporary jobs or jobs below their educational level in case of excess
Supply and Demand; Employment Opportunities; Labor Market;
Education Work Relationship; Occupational Qualifications; Wages;
Unemployment; Underemployment; Labor Supply.
100. Willams, S., & Hesketh,
A. (2004). The mismanagement of talent: Employability and jobs in the
knowledge economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
book examines what makes a “knowledge worker” employable and argues that
the demand for ”knowledge workers” is not nearly so great as is often
claimed by governments. The authors also examine government policies aimed
at encouraging employability, particularly UK higher education policies
and argue that employability policies must take account of the positional
conflicts of candidates.
Knowledge Workers; UK; United States.
101. Wolbers, M. (2003). Job
mismatches and their labour market effect among school-leavers in Europe.
European Sociological Review, 19, 249-266.
this article, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with
regard to the field of education among school-leavers in Europe. We also
examine the effects of job mismatches on the labour-market position of
school-leavers. Special attention is paid to cross-national differences in
this respect. The data used are from the EU LFS 2000 ad hoc module on
school-to-work transitions. The empirical results show that a number of
individual, structural and job characteristics affect the likelihood of
having a job mismatch. Moreover, in countries in which the education
system is vocationally oriented, the incidence of job mismatches among
school-leavers is higher than in countries in which the education system
is mainly general. With respect to the labour-market effects of job
mismatches, it is found that school-leavers with a non-matching job
achieve a lower occupational status, more frequently look for another job,
and more often participate in continuing vocational training than those
with a matching one. These labour-market effects of job mismatches are
smaller in countries in which the vocational orientation of the education
system is stronger.
Education Work Relationship; European Union; Dropouts;
Occupational Status; Crosscultural Differences; Vocational Education; Job
Training; Educational Programs.
102. Wonacott, M. E. (2002).
The impact of work-based learning on students. ERIC Digest.
Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Recent educational approaches that have career and technical education (CTE)
components have integrated work-based learning (WBL) with traditional
academics. Among positive effects of the association between WBL and
secondary students' educational outcomes are: (1) increased attendance,
(2) decreased dropout rates, (3) increased number of academic courses; and
(4) higher grade point averages. The longer-term effect in students'
postsecondary experiences has been too little investigated. Additional
positive effects of WBL are seen in students' attitudes toward such
programs and in some employment statistics. Researchers are cautious about
isolating the effects of WBL, but acknowledge that it may play a crucial
indirect role in improving outcomes for at-risk students.
Academic Achievement; Academic Education; Career Academies;
Career Education; College Students; Curriculum Design; Effective Schools
Research; Employment Level; Employment Potential; Experiential Learning;
Grades (Scholastic); High Risk Students; High School Students; Integrated
Curriculum; Job Skills; Learning Motivation; Literature Reviews;
Longitudinal Studies; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education;
Program Effectiveness; Qualitative Research; Secondary Education;
Socioeconomic Status; Student Attitudes; Student Employment; Student
Motivation; Student Needs; Tech Prep; Vocational Education; Work
O.-H., & Mantyla, H. (2003). Conflicting time perspectives in
academic work. Time & Society, 12(1), 55-78.
article explores the diversity of time perspectives in academic work. The
background of the study stems from recent changes in university management
and funding, which impose new demands for academic work, including its
temporal order. Drawing on focused interviews with 52 academics, we
discern four core time perspectives according to which academics
experience their work: scheduled time, timeless time, contracted time and
personal time. Scheduled time refers to the accelerating pace of work,
timeless time to transcending time through immersion in work, contracted
time to short-term employment with limited future prospects and finally,
personal time to one’s temporality and the role of work in it. In
addition, we discuss the relationships between the different time
perspectives, focusing on dilemmas and tensions between them.
Academic Work; Autonomy; Dilemmas; Higher Education; Time.
J. J., & Alexander, M. W. (2002). Information technology skills
recommended for business students by Fortune 500 executives. Delta Pi
Epsilon Journal, 44(3), 175-189.
Responses from 51 Fortune 500 training and development executives
identified 28 information technology skills strongly recommended for
business graduates. A similar 1995 survey identified only 11 skills. The
largest increase occurred in Internet/Web telecommunications and
discipline-specific information systems.
Corporations; Employer Attitudes; Employment
Qualifications; Information Systems; Information Technology; Job Skills;