and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
4: Work and Learning
General Perspectives on Learning-Work
1. Aarkrog, V.
(2005). Learning in the workplace and the significance of
school-based education: A study of learning in a Danish
vocational education and training programme. International
Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(2), 137-147.
the last decades educational researchers and politicians have shown a
growing interest in the concept of learning in practice, i.e. learning in
the workplace. Learning in practice plays an important role in connection
with lifelong learning, as the workplace is an obvious setting for
realizing this aim. Theories about learning in practice often include a
critique of school-based learning by seriously questioning the idea that
learning in school can be transferred to action and by emphasizing the
context dependence of learning and acting. This article contributes to the
debate by pointing out some advantages of combining school-based and
workplace-based learning. The results of a study of learning in a
vocational education and training (VET) programme for sales assistants
show that both the theoretical training in the VET school and the
practical training in the workplace are necessary to develop competency.
Furthermore, the results indicate that a careful matching of specific
parts of the curriculum with the learning setting (the workplace or the
school) may improve the trainees' achievements. The matching is not only
useful in improving VET programmes but is also generally useful in
planning lifelong learning as work-related education.
Lifelong Learning; Vocational Education; Inplant Programs;
Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; Sales Occupations.
2. Adler, P. S. (2004). From
labour process to activity theory. In P. Sawchuk, N. Duarte & M.
Elhammoumi (Eds.), Critical perspectives on activity: explorations
across education, work and everyday life (pp. 160-192). New York:
Cambridge University Press.
process theory is an influential school of thought in the analysis of
work. Starting with Braverman (1976), labor process theory traditionally
has ignored the fundamental contradiction Marx saw between the progressive
socialization of the labor process and the persistence of capitalist
profitability constraints. Implicit in Marx's terms, socialization is the
development away from local isolation towards "universal interdependence,"
and it is a key trend both in the objective structure of industry and in
subjective self-construals. Activity theory offers a framework in which we
can conceptualize the various loci of the contradiction between
socialization and profitability. I employ this framework to analyze three
cases of work reorganization - Taylorism, lean production, and the
rationalization of software development. In all cases, the socialization
of the labor process has been simultaneously stimulated, retarded, and
distorted by profitability pressures.
Labour Process; Activity Theory.
3. Allman, P. (2001). Critical
education against global capitalism: Karl Marx and revolutionary critical
education. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
author uses Marx and his primary texts as the key to understanding
contemporary capitalism. Although the focus is on Marx's theoretical
explanation of capitalism, material is informed by Marx's revolutionary
theory of consciousness. She begins with a brief overview of the drawbacks
of globalization, then presents Marx's dialectical explanation of
capitalism, and examines the weaknesses of contemporary challenges to
capitalism. She contends that critical education is necessary for
revolutionary social transformation and suggests strategies for
implementing critical education toward the goal of the abolition of
Globalization; Marxism; Work and Learning.
4. Avis, J. (2004). Work-based
learning and social justice: 'Learning to labour' and the new
vocationalism in England. Journal of Education and Work, 17(2),
article explores work-based learning in the context of current changes
taking place in vocational education and training in England. It seeks to
locate these within an understanding of the economy and the way in which
work-based knowledge is construed. The article analyses these issues,
drawing upon a literature that examines the work-based experiences of
young people. This allows an engagement with notions of social justice,
providing an opportunity to address the rhetorical question, 'learning to
labour', posed in the title. It concludes by suggesting that if work-based
learning is to move beyond forms of occupational socialisation there is a
need to critique its underlying assumptions and seek out spaces for a
progressive practice underpinned by a commitment to social justice.
Vocational Education; England; Work Based Learning;
Vocational Training; Work and Learning.
5. Balagopalan, S. (2002).
Constructing indigenous childhoods: Colonialism, vocational education and
the working child. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 9(1),
Examines a Calcutta street child's experiences with vocational education
within a broader historical framework of colonial and post-colonial
discourses on formal education and the poor. Provides an ethnographic
narrative of the child's experiences, exploring how colonialism, by
establishing a modern education system and transforming children's work
into wage labor, constitutes a major disjunction in the lives of the poor.
Child Labor; Child Welfare; Colonialism; Disadvantaged
Youth; Ethnography; Foreign Countries; Poverty; Social Environment; Social
Influences; Vocational Education; India (Calcutta); Street Children.
6. Ball, S. (Ed.). (2004).
The Routledge Falmer reader in sociology of education. London; New
York: Routledge Falmer.
RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Sociology of Education brings together a
carefully selected collection of articles and book chapters to reflect
enduring trends in the field of Sociology of Education. Focusing on the
major issues confronting education today, this lively and informative
Reader provides broad coverage of the field and includes sections on
crucial topics such as: social class; globalization; gender; curriculum;
social inequality and social justice; students and classrooms. With an
emphasis on contemporary pieces that deal with issues relevant to the
immediate real world, this volume represents the research and views of
some of the most respected authors in the field today. Stephen Ball offers
a collection that is theoretically informed, internationally applicable,
and universally accessible. In a specially written introduction, Ball
provides a much-needed context to the current educational climate.
Students of sociology and sociology of education will find this Reader an
important route map to further reading and understanding.
Educational Sociology; Globalization; Work and Learning.
7. Bascia, N., Leithwood, K.,
Livingstone, D. W., Cumming, A., & Dantow, A. (Eds.). (2005).
International handbook of educational policy. London: Springer.
book is the only one of its kind. It has over fifty chapters written by
nearly ninety leading researchers from a number of countries and presents
contemporary and emergent trends in educational policy research. It
captures many of the current dominant educational policy foci, situating
current understandings historically, in terms of both how they are
conceptualized and in terms of past policy practice. The chapters are
empirically grounded, providing illustrations of the conceptual
implications contained within them as well as allowing for comparisons
across them. The self-reflexivity within chapters with respect to
jurisdictional particularities and contrasts allows readers to consider
not only a range of approaches to policy analysis but also the ways in
which policies and policy ideas play out in different times and places.
Sections cover the contemporary strategic emphasis on large-scale reform;
substantive emphases at several levels – on leadership and governance,
improving teacher quality and conceptualizing learning in various domains
around the notion of literacies and concluding, finally, with a
contrasting topic, workplace learning, which has had less policy attention
and thus allows readers to consider both the advantages and disadvantages
of learning and teaching under the bright gaze of policy.
Education and State; Philosophy of Education; Educational
Change; Work and Learning; School-to-work Transition; Work and Learning.
Bauer, J., Festner, D., Gruber, H., Harteis, C., & Heid, H. (2004).
The effects of epistemological beliefs on workplace
learning. The Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(5), 284-292.
Epistemological beliefs are fundamental assumptions about knowledge and
learning. Research in university contexts has shown that they affect the
ways and results of student learning. This article transfers the concept
of epistemological beliefs on workplace learning. The basic assumption is
that employees' epistemological beliefs affect whether they perceive their
workplace as learning environments. A study conducted in which the
interrelation of employees' epistemological beliefs with their appraisal
of the workplace as supportive for learning were investigated. The role of
professional hierarchical levels concerning work-related epistemological
beliefs was analyzed. No significant interrelation among epistemological
beliefs and workplace appraisal was found. Groups from different
professional hierarchical levels didn't differ in their workplace
appraisal. Consequences about the role of epistemological beliefs for
workplace learning are discussed for future research.
Workplace Learning; Epistemology; Beliefs; Learning.
9. Beckett, D., & Hager, P.
(2000). Making judgement as the basis for workplace learning: Towards an
epistemology of practice. International Journal of Lifelong Education,
Workplace learning has surfaced as a significant site of adults’ informal
experiential learning, with implications for the provision and shape of
formal education. However, a prohibitive number of variables encumber
research into such learning. The authors suggest bypassing the variables
by focusing on phenomenal accounts of how professionals (in this instance)
make judgement at work, are underpinned by an organic logic derivable from
Dewey. The article shows how to characterize a new epistemology of
practice through both empirical and conceptual innovation, and thus
advances the detail of this new informal workplace learning. Epistemology
deals in 5 characteristics central to lifelong learning anyway, namely:
the contingent (rather than exclusively formal, sustained, and systematic
studies); the practical (rather than exclusively the theoretical); the
process (rather than exclusively the assimilation of content); the
particular (rather than the exclusively universal and a priori as the
”context”); and the affective and the social domains (rather than
exclusively the cognitive domain). Fieldwork to date shows, through
interview findings, how these are prominent in professional workplace
judgments, and what prospects there are for further research on judgment
as a site of ”organic” learning for adults.
Workplace Learning; Epistemology; Informal Workplace
10. Beckett, D., & Hager, P.
(2002). Life, work and learning: Practice in postmodernity. New
book argues that adult learning from experiences in paid and unpaid work
contexts should be the basis for a new perception of what is truly
educative about life. Part I sets out what practice is like in postmodern
times. Chapter 1 introduces the argument that 'know how' is important in
lifelong learning. Chapter 2 shows organic learning is a manifestation of
what it is to be human at work and workplaces can develop structures that
advance "whole person" capabilities for purposeful action. Chapter 3
rounds out the concept of know-how by building on organic learning - in
particular showing that practical judgement is central to practice in
postmodernity. Chapter 4 shows that broader, more socially and culturally
sensitive approaches to practice are available in the realm of policy.
Part II theorizes practice anew, from an educational perspective, in light
of postmodernity. Chapter 5 is an introduction to theories of practice.
Chapter 6 begins to conceptualize practice as the successful performance
of work by showing the intimate connection of practice with informal
learning. Chapter 7 proposes an alternative to the standard paradigm of
learning - one inclusive of practice-based informal workplace learning.
Chapter 8 explains the authors' claim that they are strategic
postmodernists. Chapter 9 clarifies the emerging paradigm of learning
based on dissolution of dualisms and a "contiguous" model of vocational
preparation by showing how the notion of judgement is at its heart.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Cognitive Processes;
Developed Nations; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices;
Educational Theories; Evaluative Thinking; Experiential Learning; Foreign
Countries; Holistic Approach; Incidental Learning; Informal Education;
Lifelong Learning; Postmodernism; Theory Practice Relationship; Vocational
Education; Work Experience; Tacit Knowing; Australia.
11. Billett, S., & Somerville,
M. (2004). Transformations at work: Identity and learning. Studies in
Continuing Education, 26(2), 309-326.
paper examines how identity and learning are constituted and transformed
at work. Its central concern is how individuals engage agentically in and
learn through workplace practices, and in ways that transform work.
Drawing upon recent research into work and participation in workplaces,
the negotiated and contested relationship between workplace practices and
individuals' identity and intentionality, and learning is illuminated and
discussed. For instance, aged care workers and coal miners acquire work
injuries that are almost emblematic of their work identity. Only
particularly dramatic events (i.e. serious illness or workplace accidents)
wholly transform their identity and views about work practice - their
subjectivities. However, it is through the agentic actions of these
individuals that workplace practices can be transformed. Yet individuals'
agentic action is not necessarily directed to the abstracted and
de-contextualized economic and civic goals privileged in lifelong learning
policies. Instead, there is relational interdependency between the
individual and work that can act to sustain or transform both self and
their work. Individuals' agentic action is exercised within these
relations in ways directed by their subjectivities. So these relations and
that agentic action have policy and practice implications for the conduct
of work and learning through and for work.
Lifelong Learning; Self Concept; Work Environment.
12. Boud, D., & Solomon, N.
(Eds.). (2001). Work-based learning: A new higher education?
Florence: KY: Taylor & Francis.
three-part book contains 16 chapters exploring work-based learning from a
theoretical and case-study perspective in the United Kingdom. Part 1,
Framing Work-based Learning, contains the following four chapters: "New
Practices for New Times" (David Boud, Nicky Solomon, and Colin Symes);
"Repositioning Universities and Work" (David Boud and Nicky Solomon);
"Knowledge at Work: Issues of Learning" (David Boud); and "Creating a
Work-Based Curriculum" (David Boud). Ten case studies in the second part
of the book include: "From Once Upon a Time to Happily Ever After: The
Story of Work-Based Learning in the UK Higher Education Sector" (Norman
Evans); "Making It Work Institutionally" (Derek Portwood); "Ensuring a
Holistic Approach to Work-Based Learning: The Capability Envelope" (John
Stephenson); "Working with Partners To Promote Intellectual Capital"
(Jonathan Garnett, Alison Comerford, and Neville Webb); "The Possibilities
in a Traditional University" (Lynne Caley); "Implementing Work-Based
Learning for the First Time" (Jenny Onyx); "Smart Work: What Industry
Needs from Partnerships" (Nicholas Shipley); "A Challenge to Assessment
and Quality Assurance in Higher Education" (Richard Winter); "Setting the
Standards: Judging Levels of Achievement" (Frank Lyons and Mike Bement);
and "Earning Academic Credit for Part-Time Work" (Iain S. Marshall and
Lynn S. M. Cooper). The final part, Past, Present, and Future, includes
"Capital Degrees: Another Episode in the History of Work and Learning"
(Colin Symes); and "Future Directions for Work-based Learning:
Reconfiguring Higher Education" (David Boud and Nicky Solomon).
Academic Achievement; Academic Education; Change
Strategies; Corporate Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Practices; Educational Quality; Foreign Countries; Industrial Education;
Institutional Survival; Integrated Curriculum; Part Time Employment;
Postsecondary Education; School Business Relationship; Secondary
Education; Standard Setting; Student Evaluation; Vocational Education.
13. Brown, P., Green, A., &
Lauder, H. (2001). High skills: Globalization, competitiveness, and
skill formation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
volume draws on the findings of a major international comparative study of
national routes to a 'high skills' economy in Britain, Germany, Japan,
Singapore, South Korea, and the United States, and includes data from
interviews with over 250 key stakeholders. It offers a comparative
examination of 'high skill' policies - a topic of major public debate that
is destined to become of even greater importance in all the developed
economies in the early decades of the twenty-first century.
Employment Forecasting; Skilled Labour; Work and Learning.
14. Brown, B. L. (2003).
Career education models. Trends and issues alert. Washington: DC:
Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
evolution of the workplace has required changes in the guidance and
counseling practices of career education (CE). Basic elements of CE
strategies for enhancing students' career awareness, exploration, and
planning are still in place, but contemporary issues such as life-work
balance, involuntary career transitions, and mentoring have led to new
models that address trends in future careers. The traditional model of CE
was designed for workplaces in which vertical movement within a single
organization and career longevity were typical. It stressed a series of
developmental stages, basic and academic learning, employability skill
development, and lifelong learning. More current CE models are designed
for workplaces characterized by interorganizational mobility, flexible
work arrangements, teamwork, technology, and international relationships.
Newer models include the following: (1) the "new careering," which
advocates a theory of life as career; (2) the "integrated theory and
practice" model, which stresses integration between school-, employer-,
and residential-based models developed around lifelong learning needs; and
(3) the "Intelligent Career" model, which stresses the importance of
knowing how, why, and who when addressing ways to enhance career
preparation. The new models are "boundaryless" in that career development
can take place through lateral and horizontal, as well as vertical,
Annotated Bibliographies; Career Development; Career
Education; Career Guidance; Career Ladders; Career Planning; Developmental
Stages; Education Work Relationship; Employment Potential; Employment
Practices; Family-Work Relationship; Flexible Working Hours; Horizontal
Organization; Lifelong Learning; Occupational Mobility; Skill Development;
Teaching Models; Vertical Organization; Work Environment.
15. Bryans, P., & Smith, R.
(2000). Beyond training: Reconceptualising learning at work. Journal of
Workplace Learning, 12(6), 228-235.
Radical shifts are taking place in management theory; equivalent shifts
need to occur, we argue, in the theory of training and development. The
move towards a knowledge economy makes such a shift particularly urgent.
Notions of training tend to foreclose on outcomes; typically they are
short-term and assume transferability of skills. Notions of personal
development may be insufficiently focused on the workplace. We argue for a
conception of workplace learning that foregrounds the dialectical
relationship between persons and their organizations. Crucial in that
relationship are notions of openness, uncertainty, complexity,
relationships, reflection, reframing and restoration.
Training; Development; Workplace Learning; Knowledge
16. Buchmann, M. (2002).
Labour market entry and beyond: Some reflections on the changing structure
of work. Education + Training, 44(4-5), 217-223.
countries with well-established vocational training systems (i.e.,
Austria, Germany, and Switzerland), the changing structure of work is
likely to modify the interplay between labor supply and demand. Changes in
the relationship between school- and work-based learning, promotion of
lifelong learning, and integration of new skill profiles into vocational
education are needed.
Career Development; Change; Education Work Relationship;
Entry Workers; Foreign Countries; Labor Market; Labor Needs; Labor Supply;
Occupational Mobility; Vocational Education.
17. Cunningham, I., Dawes, G.,
& Bennett, B. (2004). The handbook of work based learning.
Handbook of Work Based Learning answers the question of whether learning
needs to be based in the realities of organizational life. This unique
handbook provides a definitive guide to the set of strategies, tactics and
methods for supporting work based learning. The three main parts of the
book, which focus in turn on strategies, tactics and methods, are written
for both the learner and the professional developer alike. Each part
includes a description of the process (strategy, tactic or method),
provides examples of what it looks like in action, explains the benefits
and the likely limitations and provides a set of operating hints for
applying the process.
Work and Learning; Work-based Learning; Organization;
18. Davis, B., & Sumara, D.
(2001). Learning communities: Understanding the workplace as a complex
system. New directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 92(Winter),
Complexity theory informs this discussion of how collective learning
practices can support personal learning. The learning system of a school
is examined to understand the relationships, disequilibrium, and
engagement of a learning community.
Complexity Theory; Learning Communities.
Bruijn, E., & Volman, M. (2000). Changes in
occupational structure and occupational practice: A challenge to
education. European Journal of Women's Studies, 7(4), 455-474.
Responses to developments in the labor market, occupational structure, &
occupational practice, many aspects of vocational education & training are
subjects of discussion & in transition among Organization for Economic
Cooperation & Development (OECD) countries. Some occupations are
integrating while others are differentiating. New methods of production &
organization mean new types of employee competencies are necessary:
problem-solving & social-communicative skills are becoming more important.
This article focuses on the importance & the possibilities of shaping
these developments. The significance of changing qualification
requirements is discussed for the technical, service, care, and
economic-administrative sectors. Innovations in vocational education and
training are reviewed: (1) recognizing prior learning, & (2) developing
flexible, modular educational pathways. Examples from the Netherlands are
Employment Changes; Labor Market; Occupational Structure;
Job Training; Vocational Education; Education Work Relationship;
20. Elmholdt, C. (2004).
Knowledge management and the practice of knowledge sharing and learning at
work: A case study. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2),
article offers a critique of knowledge management. The critique is
empirically based on the case study of a Danish software production
company's (A-Soft) knowledge management strategy of implementing an
information technology (IT) tool known as 'Knowledge Centre' (KC). The
article argues: (1) the discourses on knowledge and learning informing KC
and everyday practice are incompatible. KC conceptualizes knowledge as a
resource that can be stored and retrieved from databases, and learning as
an individual acquisition. The company's existing practice of knowledge
sharing and learning seems better conceived from a situated and embodied
perspective, seeing knowledge as an enactment inseparable from action, and
learning as social participation. (2) The management's preoccupation with
implementing technological solutions for codifying, archiving, and
creating global access to information is conflicting with the
practitioners' focus on seeking context-rich information through collegial
networks. Moreover, it is suggested that cultivation of a culture where
viable communities of practice and collegial networks can flourish may be
more important than technological advancement. (3) The strategy of
exercising knowledge management through control and ownership invokes a
discourse that threatens to subjectify the employees as replaceable
resources in a lifelong learning imperative.
Technological Advancement; Educational Technology;
Information Technology; Knowledge Level; Criticism; Computer Software
Evaluation; Case Studies.
21. Engestrom, Y. (2004). New
forms of learning in co-configuration work. Journal of Workplace
Learning, 16(1/2), 11-21.
Focuses on the theories and study of organizational and workplace
learning. Outlines the landscape of learning in co-configuration settings,
a new type of work that includes interdependency between multiple
producers forming a strategic alliance, supplier network, or other such
pattern of partnership which collaboratively puts together and maintains a
complex package, integrating material products and services. Notes that
learning in co-configuration settings is typically distributed over long,
discontinuous periods of time. It is accomplished in and between multiple
loosely interconnected activity systems and organizations operating in
divided local and global terrains and representing different traditions,
domains of expertise, and social languages. Learning is crucially
dependent on the contribution of the clients or users. Asserts that
co-configuration presents a twofold learning challenge to work
organizations and outlines interventionist and longitudinal approaches
Workplace Learning; Organizational Theory; Configuration
22. Evans, K., Hodkinson, P.,
& Unwin, L. (2002). Working to learn: Transforming learning in the
workplace. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
book looks at the changing nature of work and the effect this has on the
skill and knowledge requirements of individuals, its implications for the
workplace and employment, and ways in which these changing requirements
can be met. This book brings together the implications of workplace
changes for educators, managers and society, especially in an age where
jobs and work - and the success of organizations - are increasingly
dependent on developing skills and knowledge.
Organizational Learning; Communication In Organizations;
Employees; Training; Case Studies.
23. Fenwick, T. (2003).
Innovation: Examining workplace learning in new enterprises. Journal of
Workplace Learning, 15(3), 123-132.
Innovation is argued here to be a significant and complex dimension of
learning in work, involving a mix of rational, intuitive, emotional and
social processes embedded in activities of a particular community of
practice. Dimensions of innovative learning are suggested to include level
(individual, group, organization), rhythm (episodic or continuous), and
magnitude of creative change (adaptive or generative) involved in the
learning process. Drawing from a study of women who leave organizational
employment to develop an enterprise of self-employment, this article
explores these dimensions of innovative learning. Two questions guide the
analysis: what conditions foster innovative learning; and what are the
forms and processes of the innovative learning process? Findings suggest
that innovative processes involve multiple strategies and demand
conditions of freedom, patience, support, and recognition.
Innovation; Organizational Learning; Small Firms; Women;
24. Field, J. (2000).
Governing the ungovernable: Why lifelong learning policies promise so much
yet deliver so little. Educational Management & Administration, 28(3),
Lifelong learning is often viewed as "human resource development in drag,"
since debates are largely driven by economic preoccupations. Governments
generally restrict their interventions to vocational, non-innovative
training measures. England's faltering policy must be revamped to address
needs for informal and information-age learning.
Adult Learning; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Policy; Foreign Countries; Government Role; Human Capital; Lifelong
Learning; Postsecondary Education; Private Sector; Program Effectiveness;
Public Sector; Training.
25. Foley, G. (1999). A
political economy of workplace change and learning. Studies in the
Education of Adults, 31(2), 181-196.
paper argues that political economy and labour process theory are
essential to a proper understanding of workplace change and learning. In
our time there is a struggle for comparative advantage as enterprises and
nations compete to see which can most effectively exploit new technologies
and human capital. This is the latest manifestation of the logic of
capitalism, which creates an unwinnable competition among producers and in
turn generates periodic crises, massive inequalities within and between
nations and what appear to be radical changes in the organisation of
production. But the way work is organised in capitalism does not
fundamentally change - it still rests on the attempts of capital to
control the work process and extract the labour surplus. Worker resistance
is endemic in this intrinsically exploitative labour process, and this
resistance has a learning dimension. If they are going to act effectively
on them adult educators need to understand the capitalist political
economy and labour process and the resistance and learning they generate.
Workplace Change; Worker Resistance; Labour Process.
26. Frost, N., & Taylor, R.
(2001). Patterns of change in the university: The impact of 'Lifelong
Learning' and the 'World of Work'. Studies in the Education of Adults,
Lifelong Learning is agreed to be a key concept in the new “knowledge
society”. This paper discusses the nature of the changed environment of
higher education and the influence of adult education theory and practice
upon lifelong learning. Currently, commitment to lifelong learning, as far
as higher education is concerned, is largely rhetorical. The paper
discusses the fundamental changes in higher education that will be needed
if this rhetoric is to be turned into reality. Both government policy and
the wider social and political context make the relationship between the
university and the “world of work” increasingly important. Work-related
learning, as an aspect of lifelong learning, is thus a significant
development in higher education and the paper discusses its positive and
negative aspects, viewed from the perspective of radical, social purpose
Lifelong Learning; University; Changes in Work; New Work
27. Fuller, A., & Unwin, L.
(1999). Credentialism, national targets, and the learning society:
Perspectives on educational attainment in the UK steel industry.
Journal of Educational Policy, 14(6), 605-617.
of National Learning Targets by the UK is to be achieved by 2002. Revised
from a previous set of National Targets for Education and Training (NTETs),
the latest ones embrace 11-21-year-olds, adults and employers and promote
a credentialist approach to both economic & social development. According
to the National Advisory Council for Education and Training (NACETT), a
primary purpose is to make the country more competitive internationally
and to promote social cohesion. Drawing on a study of how one occupational
sector, the steel industry, measures up to the national targets for the
adult workforce. Results of the study question the appropriateness of
using qualifications-target as a proxy for adult capability in the
workplace industrial viability. Argued is that the credential approach
detracts from the real challenges faced in becoming a learning society in
Adolescents; Adult Education; Credentials; Economic
Development; Education Work Relationship; Industry; Job Skills; Lifelong
Learning; National Standards; Post Secondary Education; Secondary
Education; Social Development; Young Adults.
28. Fuller, A., & Unwin, L.
(2005). Older and wiser? Workplace learning from the perspective of
experienced employees. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(1),
paper explores the (changing) role of older, experienced employees in the
workplace in terms of their own needs and opportunities for learning and
in the context of changing organizational expectations. It draws on Lave
and Wenger's (1991) theory of situated learning and the notion of
'learning as participation' as starting points for examining the types of
learning opportunities experienced by older workers. The discussion
relates the nature of such opportunities to the changing workplace
contexts in which employees are located. The article presents illustrative
data from a recent research project that focused on how older experienced
workers learn at work in two contrasting organizations. A brief review of
literature is provided, which discusses the changing nature of work and
the implications for learning. The paper then describes and contrasts the
sites from which the data presented in this paper were collected, and the
data collection methods that have been utilised. An analysis of the
research data is presented and the authors discuss what the evidence
reveals about the types of learning opportunities older employees are
experiencing and how they make sense of them. The analysis suggests that
from the perspective of experienced employees, factors such as
organizational culture and history, the way jobs are designed and work is
organized, and the way people are managed and their performance is judged,
help explain the lived realities of workplace learning and provide
messages for enhancing workforce development. The paper argues that
contrasting forms of work organization and approaches to managing
employees are likely to generate different learning environments and
opportunities for workplace learning. It concludes by calling for more
empirical research to explore the relationship between work organization
and learning and to increase understanding of the implications for what
and how different groups of employees learn at work.
Employees; Organizational Culture; Education Work
Relationship; Surveys; Interviews; Employee Attitudes; Adult Learning.
29. Garrick, J., & Rhodes, C.
(Eds.). (2000). Research and knowledge at work: Perspectives, case-studies
and innovative strategies. New York: Routledge.
book, which contains 15 chapters by various authors, aims to conceptualize
new ways that knowledge is being "legitimized" through various formal and
informal workplace-based research practices. It examines the new
legitimations critically, and analyzes possible directions for future
developments in work-based research and "knowledge" formation. Following
the first chapter, "Legitimizing Knowledge at Work" by the editors, John
Garrick and Carl Rhodes, the book includes the following essays: (Part 1,
Knowledge, Learning, and the Practice of Work) "Working Knowledge" (Ronald
Barnett); "Research on Work, Research at Work: Postmodern Perspectives"
(Richard Edwards and Robin Usher); "The Crisis of Scientific Research"
(Christine Ewan and Dennis Calvert); (Part 2, Whose Knowledge?
Collaboration and Research in and around Work) "Globalizing the
Intelligent Organization" (Stewart Clegg); "Knowledge and Control in the
Japanese Workplace" (Keiko Morita); "Organizational Knowledge,
Professional Practice, and the Professional Doctorate at Work" (Alison
Lee, Bill Green, and Marie Brennan); "Research and Engagement with Trade
Unions: Bridging the Solitudes" (Carla Lipsig-Mumme); "The Negotiated
Management of Meanings: Research for Policy" (John McIntyre and Rosie
Wickert); "Research Partnerships at Work: New Identities for New Times" (Hermine
Scheeres and Nicky Solomon); (Part 3, Changing Practices of Research at
Work) "The Construction of 'Working Knowledge' and (Mis)interpretive
Research" (John Garrick); "'Doing' Knowledge at Work: Dialogue, Monologue,
and Power in Organizational Learning" (Carl Rhodes); "An Adventure in
'Postmodern' Action Research: Performativity, Professionalism, and Power"
(Jill Sanguinetti); "Virtual Research in Performative Times" (Robin Usher
and Richard Edwards); (Part 4, Conclusions) "Inside the Knowledge Works;
Reviewing the Terrain" (Carl Rhodes and John Garrick). Each chapter
contains reference lists.
Employees; Technological Innovations; Economic Aspects;
Organizational Learning; Work and Learning.
30. Gherardi, S. (2005).
Organizational knowledge: The texture of workplace learning. Oxford:
book makes an important contribution to our understanding of
practice-based organizational learning and knowing. The book involves the
author's detailed study of safety practices in different corporate
settings and his description of how learning, knowing and organizing are
practised. Centred on the concepts of "knowing in practice" and the
"texture" of organizational knowledge, this book gives a rich account of
how organizations learn and how corporate practices and policies evolve.
Workplace Learning; Private Sector.
31. Guile, D. (2003). From
'credentialism' to the 'practice of learning': Reconceptualising learning
for the knowledge economy. Policy Futures in Education, 1(1),
article argues that there is a paradox at the heart of United Kingdom and
European Union policies for learning: the knowledge economy debate rests
on a traditional interpretation of the concept of learning (i.e. the
acquisition of existing knowledge and skill), yet the challenge of the
knowledge economy is to produce new knowledge and skill. Over coming
current credentialist approaches involves rethinking what is meant by
'learning'. Drawing on activity theory, the article introduces the concept
of 'reflexive learning' to illustrate how to reformulate public education
policies to prepare learners for working and living in a knowledge
Knowledge Economy; Credentials; Reflexive Learning.
32. Hager, P. (2001).
Workplace judgement and conceptions of learning. Journal of Workplace
Learning, 13(7/8), 352-359.
Judgment is a pivotal notion for understanding learning. But how we view
judgment is crucially shaped by our favoured conception of learning. The
favoured conception of learning is shown to distort judgement, while an
emerging conception of learning does justice both to judgement and
learning from work.
Workplace Learning; Learning Styles.
33. Hager, P. (2004).
Conceptions of learning and understanding learning at work. Studies in
Continuing Education, 26(1), 3-17.
Recent research on learning in work situations has focused on concepts
such as “productive learning” and “pedagogy of vocational learning”. In
investigating what makes learning productive and what pedagogies enhance
this, there is a tendency to take the notion of learning as unproblematic.
This paper argues that much writing on workplace learning is strongly
shaped by people's understandings of learning in formal educational
situations. Such assumptions distort attempts to understand learning at
work. The main focus of this paper is to problematize the concept of
'learning' and to identify the implications of this for attempts to
understand learning at work and the conditions that enhance it. An
alternative conception of learning that promises to do more justice to the
richness of learning at work is presented and discussed.
Vocational Education; Education Work Relationship;
Productive Thinking; Learning Processes; Work Environment; Lifelong
Learning; Transfer of Training.
34. Halfpap, K. (2001).
Towards learning for the future: Some practical experiences. Vocational
Training, 23, 53-59.
this paper, three German programs illustrate the enlarged purposes of
vocational education, including the need to be trained for multiple
occupations and unpaid work and to manage lifelong learning. The projects
show that steps toward the future of vocational education require linkage
between work and learning, teacher training, creation of supportive
conditions, and new roles for teachers and learners.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Foreign
Countries; Futures of Society; Role of Education; Secondary Education;
Training; Vocational Education Germany.
35. Hyslop-Margison, E. J.
(2002). Liberalizing career education: An Aristotelian approach.
Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 48(4), 350-363.
Instrumental aims in vocational education pose a genuine threat to
democratic citizenship by undermining student critique of prevailing
social circumstances. By employing a broadened Aristotelian framework,
career education can combine work-related subject matter with critical
learning objectives, but that would require significant reform in content,
objectives, and presentation.
Critical Pedagogy; Democratic Values; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Objectives; Educational Philosophy; General
Education; Globalization; Lifelong Learning; School Business Relationship;
Secondary Education; Vocational Education; Aristotle.
36. Hyson, D. M. (2002).
Understanding adaptation to work in adulthood: A contextual developmental
approach. Advances in Life Course Research, 7, 93-110.
Psychological & behavioral components of the work ethic and its
relationship to adult adaptation to work are investigated using an
approach that combines the ecodevelopmental perspective of J. Szapocznik &
J. D. Coatsworth (1999) & the developmental-contextual view proposed by R.
Vondracek, R. M. Lerner, & J. E. Schulenberg (1986). Questionnaire and
interview data were obtained from a subsample of 76 males and 70 females,
age 23, from a 25-year longitudinal study of at-risk children & their
parents in MN. Results support three hypotheses regarding the importance
of initiative, high school academic achievement, socioeconomic background,
access to educational & training opportunities, & middle-childhood
variables for work ethic & a successful school-to-work transition.
Findings also demonstrate the importance of using an integrative model to
examine socialization to work in adulthood.
Protestant Ethic; Work Values; Childhood Factors;
Psychological Factors; Education Work Relationship; Young Adults;
Socioeconomic Status; Academic Achievement; Socialization; Minnesota;
Social Psychology; Personality & Social Roles; Complex Organization; Jobs;
Work Organization; Workplaces; Unions; Work and Learning.
37. Illeris, K. (2006).
Lifelong learning and the low-skilled. International Journal of
Lifelong Education, 25(1), 15-28.
article is a combined result of a three years research project on
low-skilled learners' experiences as participants of various kinds of
adult training and education in Denmark, and the findings of a three years
research consortium on workplace learning, summing up and generalizing our
various findings as to how low-skilled adults function in relation to
participation in training and education activities, how they feel about
it, what is important to them, and consequently what works in practice in
relation to this very important but often neglected group of adult
Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Adult Students; Adult
Learning; Vocational Education; Education Work Relationship; On-the-Job
38. Jakupec, V., & Garrick, J.
(Eds.). (2000). Flexible learning, human resource, and organisational
development: Putting theory to work. New York: Routledge.
book addresses contemporary contexts of flexible learning and its
practices and provides insights about directions that education and
training providers may be required to follow to implement flexible
learning in a variety of settings. Key issues and debates include the
following: social and economic dimensions of flexible learning and
delivery; the implications of globalization and internationalization for
higher education; flexible learning, knowledge, and power; institutional
strategies for implementing flexible learning and delivery; and practicing
flexible learning through media and new technologies.
Open Learning; Continuing Education; Occupational Training;
Employee Training; Information Technology; Communication Technology; Work
39. Jorgensen, C. H. (2004).
Connecting work and education: Should learning be useful, correct or
meaningful? The Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(8), 455-465.
aim of this paper is to examine the interplay between learning in school
and learning in the workplace - and its problems. Historically, education
and work have become separated and each developed its own rationale - a
school rationale and a production rationale, both of which may form the
foundation for interplay. Concurrently with this, the learners apply a
subjective rationale based on their personal expectations and interests in
education and work in the course of their lives. Using the three players,
school, workplace and employee as a starting-point, three different
rationales on which to base interplay can be deduced. Since viable
interplay may not be established based on one rationale alone, one needs
an institutional framework to mediate between them. This article proposes
that a modernized version of the Dual System of vocational education may
be best to provide such a framework.
Education; Learning; Comparative Tests; Organizations; Work
40. Karakowsky, l., & McBey,
K. (1999). The lessons of work: Toward an understanding of the
implications of the workplace for adult learning and development.
Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(6), 192-201.
Little research attention had addressed the notion of the organization as
a facilitator or inhibitor of adult learning or personal growth and
development. This paper attempts to identify individual-level and
organizational-level factors that can influence the potential for learning
and development in the workplace. Along with the presentation of a
theoretical framework, a number of researcher propositions are generated
with the aim of encouraging management scholars and practitioners to more
fully consider the impact of the workplace on adult learning and
Adult Education; Workplace Learning; Employee Development.
41. Kerka, S. (2001). The
balancing act of adult life. Retrieved January, 2007, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage
advances, the changing nature of work, workplaces, and working
relationships, international economic competition, the changing
demographics of workers, families, and communities, and longer life spans
have made life more complex for adults in the 21st century. Learning to
cope with all these changing responsibilities is something referred to as
"the hidden curriculum of adult life." Adult education approaches can be
used to help individuals negotiate the curriculum of life challenges. In
the 1990s, programs that targeted the work-life balance aimed at helping
people cope by developing skills in communication, interpersonal
effectiveness, and life management or family-career management. These
programs, however, assume that there is an ideal work-life balance and
that our attempts to live up to it are deficient. But who gets to define
what work-life balance is? More recent approaches to adult education
suggest that instead of merely informing people, adult education should be
transformational. One such framework is Equipped for the Future (EFF). It
was developed to help adults integrate their learning in four categories:
communication skills, decision- interpersonal skills, learning.
Adjustment (to Environment); Adult Basic Education; Adult Development;
Adult Learning; Communication Skills; Competence; Daily Living Skills;
Decision Making Skills; Educational Needs; Family-Work Relationship;
Hidden Curriculum; Interpersonal Competence; Learning Processes; Learning
Theories; Life Satisfaction; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education;
42. Kilpatrick, S. (1999).
Learning on the job: How do farm business managers get the skills and
knowledge to manage their businesses? CRLRA discussion paper series.
Launceston: University of Tasmania.
Industry leaders and agricultural educators (‘experts’) believe that
farmers should be participating in training about management and
marketing, while few farmers plan to attend formal training in these
areas. This paper examines the differing perceptions of experts and
farmers in relation to farmers’ management and marketing learning needs
and the attitudes of farmers toward farm business management training.
farmers were proactive in identifying and meeting learning needs in
management and marketing and were also the group most likely to have used
training in learning for change, and to plan to train to meet learning
needs in the future.
farmers used multiple learning sources when learning about management,
marketing and management-related issues. Most used informal sources,
mainly experts, supplemented by observation and experience, other farmers,
and print and electronic media. Training was very rarely the only source
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Agribusiness; Agricultural
Education; Agricultural Occupations; Business Administration; Business
Skills; Comparative Analysis; Conventional Instruction; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Needs; Educational Opportunities; Educational
Research; Experiential Learning; Farm Management; Foreign Countries;
Informal Education; Information Sources; Learning Processes; Literature
Reviews; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education; On-the-Job Training
Recordkeeping; Rural Areas; Rural Education; Sex Differences; Skill
Development; Women's Education.
43. Kilpatrick, S., & Crowley,
S. (1999). Learning and training: Enhancing small business success.
Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
this study, owners or managers of 181 Australian businesses employing
fewer than 20 people in the construction, manufacturing, property and
business services, and retail industries in 3 metropolitan and 3
nonmetropolitan locations were interviewed by telephone to identify how
they used training to enhance their small business's success. Of those
surveyed, one-third had had someone attend a relevant course in the past
12 months, 30% had learned from a consultant or mentor, and more than 60%
had attended a business-related meeting or seminar. Small businesses with
partners or employees with postschool qualifications were more likely to
engaging in ongoing learning activities. The low rate of participation in
training, especially by owners, and their preference for informal learning
methods are consistent with a picture of small business owners who are
supervisors of more formalized training and unaware that training policy
could be relevant. The study demonstrated a relationship between success
and learning on the job and resulted in 11 recommendations concerning
developing a learning culture, learning and training design, and future
policy directions relating to the provision of learning/training
opportunities for small business.
Change Strategies; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Attainment; Educational Attitudes; Educational Change; Educational Needs;
Educational Policy; Educational Quality; Foreign Countries; Job Training;
National Surveys; Needs Assessment; Organizational Climate; Outcomes of
Education; Participation; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education;
Public Policy; Questionnaires; Small Businesses; Success; Tables (Data);
Training Methods; Training Objectives; Vocational Education.
44. Kivinen, O., &
Silvennoinen, H. (2002). Changing relations between education and work: On
the mechanisms and outcomes of educational system. International
Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 44-54.
Examines the educational system in Nordic countries as it regulates
passage of age cohorts from home through school to the labor market.
States that formal education is failing to close the skills gap. Advocates
delinking vocational training from formal schooling and reorganizing
working life in terms of production of practical know-how through
Education Work Relationship; Educational Status Comparison;
Foreign Countries; Government Role; Human Capital; Job Skills; Labor
Market; Outcomes of Education.
Kuhn, M., & Sultana, R. G. (Eds.). (2006).
Homo sapiens Europaeus? Creating the European learning citizen. New
York: Peter Lang.
many ways, education reflects society by mirroring changing and emergent
goals and values as well as by contributing to both the reproduction and
production of particular life forms. In the context of the formative
project (Europe), education is asked to play an increasingly central role,
one that is responsive to particular images of the European Union and to
its aspirations and goals. The widespread conviction is that education and
training will re-invigorate ailing economies, and that, in the context of
globalization, national and regional competitiveness will only triumph if
there is a qualitative continued improvement in human capital. This book
critically examines such claims, considering the ways in which learning is
being constructed across Europe and the implications this has for notions
of democratic citizenship and education.
Europe; Globalization; Human Capital; Learning.
Littler, C. R., & Innes, P. (2003).
Downsizing and deknowledging the firm. Work, Employment and Society, 17(1),
OECD organization economies have undergone a decade of downsizing,
restructuring and transition. For example, workforce reductions were a
dominant feature of firm behaviour in Australia throughout the 1990s.
These wide-ranging organizational transitions are expected to continue.
What do the new organizational forms and new job structures mean in
relation to skill trends? Examined are the changing paradigms for
understanding long-term skill change and assessing relevancy by
empirically examining the relationship between downsizing,
deskilling/upskilling and contingent labour use in larger firms. The
analysis is based on a comprehensive, longitudinal data set of 4153
companies. One key finding is that downsizing was used as a vehicle for a
different form of `deskilling' across the 1990s. Alongside the “knowledge
organization”, there are processes of deknowledging the firm.
Downsizing (Management); Knowledge Management; Labor
Relations; Organization Theory.
47. Livingstone, D. W. (1999).
Lifelong learning and underemployment in the knowledge society: A North
American perspective. Comparative Education, 35(2), 163-186.
Contrary to general assumptions about the need for lifelong learning, U.S.
and Canadian adults' learning efforts exceed workplace requirements.
Reasons for underemployment include the talent-use gap, structural
unemployment, involuntary reduced employment, credential gap, performance
gap, and subjective underemployment. What is needed to redress this
underemployment are substantial economic reforms and not more emphasis on
Adult Education; Continuing Education; Corporate Education;
Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Demand;
Employment Qualifications; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Lifelong
Learning; Postsecondary Education; Underemployment; Canada; United States.
48. Livingstone, D. W. (2000).
Exploring the icebergs of adult learning: Findings of the first
Canadian survey of informal learning practices. NALL Working Paper No.
10. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
paper provides empirical estimates of the extent and distribution of
self-reported learning activities in the current Canadian adult
population, based on a recent country-wide survey, and briefly addresses
some implications of these adult learning patterns. The basic finding from
the survey is that most Canadian adults are spending a great deal and
increasing amount of time in learning activities, most of this in informal
learning on their own. The major implications are that Canada is already
and increasingly a knowledge society in any reasonable sense of the term
and that Canadian adults’ mostly informal learning practices should more
explicitly be taken into account in shaping educational, economic and
other social policies; adult educators should take this detectable
informal learning into greater account to develop more responsive further
There is a great
deal of talk these days about living in the "information age", the
"knowledge society" or the "learning society." The study described in this
article indicates that adults in Canada now spend an average of 15 hours
per week on informal learning. In light of this finding, if the crews of
our big education and training ships do not increasingly look out for the
massive, detectable icebergs of informal learning, many of their programs
may sink into Titanic irrelevancy. However, before the survey findings are
presented, informal learning should be distinguished from other basic
sites of adult learning and the difficulties involved in studying informal
learning should be identified.
Informal Learning; Self-directed Learning; Adults;
Continuing Education; Educational Research; Independent Study; Informal
Education; Job Skills; Learning Activities; Lifelong Learning; National
Surveys; Participation; Postsecondary Education; Vocational Education;
Volunteer Training; Volunteers; Barriers to Participation; Canada.
49. Livingstone, D. W., &
Sawchuk, P. (2000). Beyond cultural capital theory: Hidden dimensions of
working class learning. Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural
Studies, 22(2), 203-221.
paper argues that working class people are at least as active as adult
learners beyond schooling as those in the affluent classes, and that the
collective capacity for creative cultural production and critical learning
is alive and well in the organized core of the working class in advanced
capitalist societies. After identifying the limitations of current
theories of class cultures, especially as they relate to education and
learning, the paper suggests an alternative theoretical perspective
grounded in the activity theory of social learning. Its critique of
cultural capital theory and proposed alternative perspective is based on
participatory action research with several groups of organized Canadian
workers and is illustrated here with evidence from ethnographic studies,
as well as related social surveys.
Working Class; Adult Education; Cultural Production;
Critical Learning; Capitalist Systems; Industrialized Economics; Learning;
Underemployment; Ethnographic Studies; Social Surveys.
50. Livingstone, D. W. (2001).
Basic patterns of work and learning in Canada: Findings of the 1998 NALL
Survey of Informal Learning and Related Statistics Canada Surveys. NALL
Working Paper No. 33. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work,
OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
study provides extensive statistics and documentation of Canadian adults'
work and learning activities. It includes statistics for household labor
and community volunteer activities and paid employment. Learning
activities comprised both formal course work and informal learning and
on-the-job training. Data sources included the 1998 National Survey of
Learning and Work by the Research Network on New Approaches to Lifelong
Learning (NALL), estimates of unpaid household and community work; the
Adult Education and Training Survey, the 1996 census. The National Survey
of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating, and the General Social Survey.
Findings revealed that: (1) most Canadians are already extensively engaged
in learning and that the needs for higher-level job skills has been
greatly exaggerated; (2) Canadian adults are now spending about as much
time in unpaid household and community work as they are in paid
employment; (3) only a gradual upgrading of job skill requirements, and
knowledge workers still comprise a small minority of the labor force; (4)
many Canadians find themselves underemployed; and (5) society and
government should address major paid work reforms in order to prevent
underemployment from becoming one of the major social problems of the 21st
Adults; Change; Developed Nations; Economic Development;
Economic Factors; Education Work Relationship; Educational Needs;
Educational Philosophy; Educational Policy; Employment; Employment
Projections; Employment Qualifications; Foreign Countries; Futures of
Society; Government Role; Housework; Informal Education; Job Skills;
Knowledge Level; Labor Needs; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys;
On-the-Job Training Participation; Postsecondary Education; Tables (Data);
51. Livingstone, D. (2002).
Mapping the iceberg. NALL Working Paper No. 54. Toronto: Centre for
the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
survey of 1,500 Canadian adults examined the range of adults' learning
activities. These activities included informal learning related to
employment, community volunteer work, household work, and other general
interest. Findings revealed that those in the labor force, or those
expecting to be in soon, engaged in informal learning related to current
or prospective future employment. These included the following: informal
learning projects to keep up with new job or career knowledge, informal
employment-related computer learning, and learning new tasks,
problem-solving and communication skills, occupational safety and health,
and new technologies. Community volunteer workers participated in related
informal learning on interpersonal, communication, and organizational or
managerial skills, and social issues. Household workers participated in
informal learning related to home renovations and gardening, home cooking,
and home maintenance. Most participated in informal learning associated
with their general interests, such as health and well being, environmental
issues, finances, hobby skills, social skills, public issues, computers,
and sports and recreation. Participation in all forms of schooling
increased dramatically over the past two generations, and the educational
attainment of the active labor force increased accordingly. Major barriers
to course participation included inconvenient times or places, no time,
family responsibilities and cost.
Access to Education; Adults; Continuing Education;
Educational Background; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Home
Economics; Independent Study; Informal Education; Job Skills; Learning
Activities; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys; Participation;
Postsecondary Education; Recreational Activities; Student Educational
Objectives; Vocational Education; Volunteer Training; Volunteers.
52. Livingstone, D. W. (2002).
Working and learning in the information age: A profile of Canadians.
Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
this study, Canadians' employment and working patterns were examined by
analyzing the 1998 survey called New Approaches to Lifelong Learning and
other recent surveys by Statistics Canada. "Work" was defined as
comprising household labor, community volunteer activities, and paid
employment, and "learning" was defined as comprising informal learning
activities, initial formal schooling, and adult education courses and
programs. The data indicated that Canadian adults generally spent as much
time in unpaid household and community work as in paid employment.
Canadians were extensively involved in learning throughout their lives.
According to their self-reports, Canadian adults devoted an average of 15
hours each week to informal learning activities related to their paid
employment, household duties, volunteer community work, and other general
interests. Those in the labor force averaged 6 hours each week in
job-related informal learning pursuits. A generally positive association
between the amount of time people spend in paid employment, household
labor, and community work and the time spent in work-related informal
learning was found. Employment-related informal learning was more
extensive than course-based training across nearly all employment statuses
and occupational groups. At least 20% of the employed labor force saw
itself as having skill levels exceeding those required by their jobs.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Data Analysis;
Definitions; Economic Change; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Change; Employment Level; Employment Patterns; Enrollment Trends; Foreign
Countries; Housework; Informal Education; Job Skills; Learning Activities;
Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; National Surveys; Participant
Characteristics; Participation; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education;
Public Policy; Time Factors (Learning); Time Management; Trend Analysis;
Underemployment; Unemployment; Volunteers; Adult Education and Training
Survey (Canada); Canada; Information Age; Information Economy; Work Based
53. Livingstone, D. W., &
Sawchuk, P. H. (2004). Hidden knowledge: Organized labour in the
information age. Aurora, ON: Garamond Press.
issue of workers' role in the increasingly "knowledge-based" economy and
the need to create a "lifelong learning culture" in every workplace has
been the focus of official studies in industrialized countries around the
world over the past ten to fifteen years. These studies, as Livingstone
and Sawchuk write, "impl[y] that most workers suffer from a deficit of
necessary skills and knowledge which must be rectified by greater
education and training efforts." This book details a sophisticated study
that explicitly challenges these assumptions. Working with Canadian
unions, the authors conducted in-depth ethnographic interviews with
workers in five different industries: auto, chemical, college, small-parts
sector (automobile components), and garments. The sites vary not only by
industrial sector, but also by wage level, training, managerial practices,
employment situation, and union strength.
Learning; Unions; Underemployment; Knowledge; Working
Class; Information Age; Information Society.
Manning, S., Ed; , Griffiths, T., Ed; , & Oliveira, T., Ed.
(2002, September 11-14). Current research in European
vocational education and human resource development. Paper presented
at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER), Lisbon,
document contains the papers from a conference on current research in
vocational education and training (VET) and human resource development in
Adult Learning; Adult Students; Apprenticeships; Case
Studies; Competence; Competency Based Education; Cultural Pluralism;
Curriculum Development; Delivery Systems; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Change; Educational Environment; Educational Planning;
Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Research;
Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Employed Women; Employment
Problems; Employment Qualifications; Entrepreneurship; Experiential
Learning; Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Innovation; International
Cooperation; International Programs; Job Training; Labor Force
Development; Learning Motivation; Learning Processes; Learning Theories;
Mentors; Models; Organizational Climate; Postsecondary Education;
Professional Development; Public Policy; Research Methodology; Sex
Differences; Student Certification; Theory Practice Relationship;
Universities; Vocational Education; Vocational Education Teachers.
55. National Centre for
Vocational Education Research. (2003). What makes for good workplace
learning? At a glance. Leabrook: National Centre for Vocational
Workplace learning, both formal and informal, is taking on an increasingly
important role in the education and training of the workforce. Based on an
analysis of recent research on workplace learning in Australia, in an
'ideal' workplace learning situation enterprises would have in place the
elements outlined in the following key findings: (1) workplace learning is
aimed at increasing innovative capacity in enterprises; (2) organizational
culture supports and values training and learning; (3) training and
learning are a part of doing business and are included as an integral part
of the strategic planning cycle; (4) training and learning in all forms
are valued and used according to the appropriate circumstances; (5)
training is customized to individuals and to increase work capability; and
(6) networks, partnerships, and supply chains are used to facilitate
training. Workplace learning arrangements are important for employers in
developing innovative capacity in enterprises. The main issues are
developing a culture of learning; linking training to business strategy;
valuing all forms of training; customizing training to increase skill
levels; and importance of networks and partnerships.
Adult Education; Developed Nations; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Indicators; Experiential Learning; Foreign
Countries; Informal Education; Inplant Programs; Labor Force Development;
Lifelong Learning; Networks; Nonschool Educational Programs; On-the-Job
Training Organizational Climate; Organizational Culture; Partnerships in
Education; Strategic Planning; Values; Vocational Education; Workplace
Literacy; Work and Learning.
56. Pillay, H., Boulton-Lewis,
G., Wilss, L., & Rhodes, S. (2003). Older and younger workers' conceptions
of work and learning at work: A challenge to emerging work practices.
Journal of Education & Work, 16(4), 427-444.
Thirty-nine participants aged over 40 and 16 participants aged under 40
from a medical organization and a transport organization, were interviewed
to obtain data regarding their conceptions of work and learning at work
amid changing workplace practices. A phenomenographic approach was adopted
to analyse the data. Frequency distributions of conceptions and a
comparative analysis between the two age groups were also carried out. In
addition, an analysis of the implications of these conceptions was
conducted to understand workers’ behaviours in light of current changes in
work practices and to assess the potential implications for knowledge
creation and use. The results indicated that there were four and five
hierarchical conceptions for work and learning at work respectively and
that these were spread across Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)
levels and workplaces. There were also differences between the two age
groups and their distribution across the conceptions.
Employee Attitudes; Learning; Personnel; Working
Portelli, J., & Solomon, R. P. (Eds.).
(2001). The erosion of democracy in education. Calgary: Detselig.
book brings forth issues in education and public policy that are most
pertinent to Canada in the wake of rapid globalization. As well, this book
continues the debate on the erosion of democracy in education in a
Education; Work and Learning; Social Aspects; Educational
58. Raelin, J. A. (2000). Work
based learning: The new frontier of management development. Upper Saddle
River: Prentice Hall.
Promoting a return to what he describes as an earlier model than the
classroom, the author explores how managers and corporate educators can
facilitate learning in the work environment. The author also looks at
theoretical considerations and suggests practical steps.
Executive Training; Employee Training; Organizational
Learning; Work and Learning.
59. Rainbird, H. (2000).
Training in the workplace: Critical perspectives on learning at work. New
York: St. Martin's Press.
book is part of the “Management, work and organisations” series, which is
designed for post-graduate students and human resource professionals. This
volume provides some background on the topics for those who are unfamiliar
with them; the tone of the chapters is critical and analytic.
Employee Training; Workplace Learning; Unions; Adult
Learning; Work and Learning.
60. Raseev, S. (2002). Trends
in the new configuration of the labor force in Europe. Revista Romana
de Sociologie, 13(5-6), 515-522.
Trends in the European labor market are discussed, with attention to
European Union labor policies and problems, such as demographic decline &
disparities in professional qualifications - the most significant problem
is in emerging technology fields, like information technology and
communications. Argued is that much investment is needed, and that the
American MBA track is worth emulating, as the need for training of new
elites is pronounced (e.g., estimated that in 2010, only 17% of Germans
will have a university or polytechnic degree). Also discussed are issues
in occupational modeling, such as cognitive pyramids, the 24-hour society,
changing workflow & work life patterns and their future impact on Europe &
Romania. In conclusion, Europe as a whole needs a coherent strategy for
labor policy & training.
Labor Market; Labor Force; Labor Policy; Romania; European
Union; Job Training.
61. Robertson, S., & Dale, R.
(2002). Local states of emergency: The contradictions of neo-liberal
governance in education in New Zealand. British Journal of Sociology of
Education, 23(3), 463-482.
authors argue that neoliberal governance regimes are deeply contradictory
and that these contradictions are increasingly evident in the education
sector. Drawing on a case study of the consequences of restructuring in
education in New Zealand, arguably a paradigm case of neoliberal
governance, the authors suggest the state is faced with a dilemma about
how best to manage these tensions and contradictions within the framework
of the political rationality itself. One strategy is to isolate these
problems in order to manage and contain the risks associated with them.
The authors identify five variants we argue can broadly be viewed as local
states of emergency.
Governance; Neoliberalism; New Zealand; Education; Policy;
Reforms; Work and Learning.
62. Sanchez, F. (2003). Skills
for a knowledge-based economy. Leadership, 33(2), 30-33.
paper describes what schools must do to prepare students for jobs in the
knowledge-based economy of the 21st century.
Educational Objectives; Elementary/ Secondary Education;
63. Sawchuk, P., Duarte, N., &
Elhammoumi, M. (Eds.). (2006). Critical perspectives on activity.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
last two decades have seen an explosion of interest throughout the world
in theories of mind, culture, and activity. This unique collection of
essays is the first to explicitly reach back to the tradition’s original
critical impulse within which the writings of Karl Marx played such a
central role. Each author pushes this impulse further to address leading
contemporary questions. It includes a diverse array of international
scholars working from the fields of education, psychology, philosophy,
sociology, anthropology, communications, industrial relations, and
business studies. Broken into three main sections - education, work, and
everyday life - each chapter builds from an analysis of practice and
learning as social cultural participation and historical change in
relation to the concept of activity, contradiction, and struggle. This
book offers insight into an important complexity of overlapping practices
and institutions to shed light on broader debates over such matters as the
“knowledge economy“ and “lifelong learning“.
Marx; Education and Work; Knowledge Economy; Lifelong
64. Singh, M. E. (1999).
Adult learning and the future of work. Hamburg: UNESCO, Institute for
book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and
the Transformation of Work" (Paul Bélanger); "Future of Work and Adult
Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of
Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational
Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View" (Hilde Borgir,
Renate Peltzer); "Trends of Active Populations: Context and Scope" (J.A.
Bofill); "Ethical Implications of Contemporary Trends in Work and Adult
Vocational Learning" (Richard G. Bagnall); "Work, Technology and Lifelong
Education: Training the Trainers" (Rafael E. Ferreyra); "Technical and
Vocational Education, Lifelong Learning and the Future of Work in
Zimbabwe" (Charles M. Nherera); "New Competence - A Reform in Norway" (Hilde
Borgir); "Traditional Non-formal Vocational Education: The Indian
Experience" (C.J. Daswani); "The Potential, Actual and Social Demand for
Adult Learning in Argentina: The Situation of Educational Risk and
Cumulative Advantage" (Maria Teresa Sirvent); "Social and Cultural
Contexts of Vocational Learning in the Informal Sector: Implications for
Vocational Education and Training Systems" (Madhu Singh); "Competencies
for Innovative Entrepreneurship" (Gunter Faltin); and "UNIFEM [United
Nations Development Fund for Women] Programme in Entrepreneurship
Development for Women: An Experience from Lebanon" (Randa el Husseini).
Concluding the book is the document "Proposals for Discussion on the
Future of Work and Adult Learning," which was contributed to the Second
International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education by the
15-member informal working group on the future of work and adult learning.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Competence; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Change; Educational Environment; Educational
Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Technology;
Educational Trends; Entrepreneurship; Ethics; Foreign Countries; Futures
of Society; Global Approach; Informal Education; Job Training; Lifelong
Learning; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education; Policy Formation;
Population Trends; Strategic Planning; Systems Approach; Teacher
Attitudes; Trend Analysis; Unions; Vocational Education; Women's
Education; Work Environment.
65. Solomon, N. (2001).
Workplace learning as a cultural technology. New Directions for Adult
and Continuing Education, 92(Winter), 41-53.
article explores some of the challenges and complexities presented by the
new discourses on work and workplace learning, particularly those that
serve as foreground to questions of culture.
Discourse; Workplace Learning; Work; Culture.
66. Symes, C. E. (2000).
Working knowledge: Productive learning at work. Proceedings of the
International Conference, Sydney, Australia. December 10-13, 2000.
conference proceedings contain 65 presentations and 3 colloquiums from a
conference that dealt with knowledge at work and knowledge that works and
with how education can be successfully integrated into work and work into
Adult Education; Apprenticeships; Certification; Computer
Mediated Communication; Cooperative Education; Developing Nations;
Education Work Relationship; Educational Development; Educational
Research; Employment; Employment Experience; Epistemology; Ethnography;
Experiential Learning; Faculty Development; Family Literacy; Foreign
Countries; Handicrafts; Higher Education; Industrial Training; Informal
Education; Inplant Programs; Job Training; Literacy Education;
Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Teleconferencing; Vocational
Education; Work Environment; Work Ethic; Workplace Literacy.
Riele, K., & Crump, S. (2003). Ongoing
inequality in a 'knowledge economy': Perceptions and actions.
International Studies in Sociology of Education, 13(1), 55-75.
concept of the “knowledge economy“ is increasingly used to underpin
education policy in developed countries. In Australia, it has been applied
to post-compulsory education policy, with efforts to increase retention in
senior secondary education and reform of vocational education in the
senior years. The article draws on two research projects with senior
secondary schools. Many students (and their teachers and parents)
perceived qualifications not so much as providing the knowledge considered
necessary by government policy for the contemporary economy, but rather as
a '“screen“ used by employers to sort and select. Knowledge of opportunity
structures and access to resources, while not only defined by social
class, operated to create differential access to available choices in the
educational market place. Despite ongoing inequality, the article argues
that the hope many students expressed in relation to education can be
fulfilled in practice.
Information Society; Educational Policy; Educational
Reform; Secondary Education; Vocational Education; Opportunity Structures;
Educational Inequality; Social Reproduction; Student Attitudes; Australia.
68. Thery, M., Roussel, P., &
Zygmunt, C. (2002). A European approach to lifelong learning: Goals and
realities. Training & Employment, 44(October-December), 1-4.
Comparison of company practices regarding continuing training of employees
shows great diversity among the 15 European Union member states. In 11
countries, over 70 percent of companies are "training involved" (TICs).
South European countries have a low percentage of TICs; the proportion of
TICs in north European countries is over 80 percent. The proportion of
companies offering training sessions is greater than that of those
offering less formal training. As to formal training sessions, four groups
of countries are distinguished in terms of employees' rates of access,
average length of sessions, company size, percentage of companies
conducting such sessions, company financial participation, and cost of
training per trainee. The percentage of employees participating in a
training session varies by proportion of TICs in the country. Comparing
training session length with proportion of TICs, in countries with little
training, average length of sessions is rather long, which is to the
detriment of access; in TICs, rate of access is high but training is of
short duration. With regard to other forms of training, three groups of
countries emerge. In Denmark and Finland, self-training, lectures, and
workshops play an important role. Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands
mainly use inservice training. Ireland, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg,
and Sweden show greater recourse to job rotation. The conclusion is that a
European approach to lifelong learning remains to be created.
Access to Education; Comparative Analysis; Comparative
Education; Continuing Education; Corporate Education; Developed Nations;
Employees; Employer Employee Relationship; Foreign Countries; Industrial
Training; Informal Education; Inplant Programs; Lifelong Learning;
Participation; Personnel Management; Personnel Policy; Program Length;
69. Tomusk, V. (2002). The
rise of the transnational capitalist class and World Bank 'aid' for higher
education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 12(3),
article looks at globalization as a process of replacement of the global
political order of nation states with the global economic order of
transnational corporations. It is argued that this process carries
far-reaching consequences, in which a growing number of spheres, including
education, are subjected to the interests of the global economic order.
Under the disguise of global economic development activities, the new
world system strives toward maximizing the short-term profits of the
transnational capitalist class. Following Sklair's global systems theory,
this article looks at the World Bank as a transnational organization.
Based on recent World Bank higher education reform loan projects in
Eastern Europe, it is argued that the primary outcome of the World Bank
loan projects is the redistribution of the resources of the so-called
"recipient countries" to the transnational capitalist class.
Globalization; International Economic Organizations; Higher
Education; Educational Reform; Eastern Europe; Foreign Aid; Educational
Policy; World System Theory.
70. Toronto Training Board.
(2002). Training in Toronto's "new economy". Community Perspectives
Series. Toronto: Toronto Training Board.
community Perspectives Series originates from the March 2001 forum and
contains statements made by four participants about the new economy in
Toronto. Defined by the moderator, the new economy was "an economy that
emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of
goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is viewed as a
factor in determining economic productivity."Access diminished: A report
on women's training and employment services in Ontario" (Karen Lior)
describes how legislation and funding decreases that have resulted in a
fragmentation of services and the business community's lack of commitment
to play an active role in training have resulted in decreased
opportunities for women and their families. "The Temporary Economy" (Deena
Ladd) suggests that the promotion of flexibility as a positive outcome of
the economy can in fact result in a lack of stability that means
low-paying, temporary jobs for many workers. "Preparing Ourselves for the
New Economy" (Karen Lawson) suggests that women must become
technologically savvy in order to take advantage of opportunities in the
new economy. "The Young and the Enterprising" (Sandra Tam) presents some
of the issues facing young workers in the new economy and describes
school-to-work transitions that can help youth who are at-risk.
Access to Education; Adult Education; At Risk Persons;
Economically Disadvantaged; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Finance; Employed Women; Flexible Working Hours; Foreign Countries;
Employed Women; Flexible Working Hours; Job Training; School Business
Relationship; Technological Literacy; Temporary Employment; Transitional
Programs; Vocational Education; Women Education; Working Poor; Youth
71. Tuijnman, A. (2003).
Measuring lifelong learning for the new economy. Compare, 33(4),
Describes the challenges that research and statistical systems are faced
with in the education sector. Argues these consequences are the result of
decisions made for economically advanced countries to adopt a lifelong
learning framework and strategy in response to the move toward the new
Adult Education; Capital; Community Resources; Comparative
Education; Developed Nations; Global Approach; Human Resources;
Information Needs; Input Output Analysis; Labor Market; Lifelong Learning;
International Adult Literacy Survey; International Standard;
Classification of Education.
72. Unwin, L., & Fuller, A.
(2003). Expanding learning in the workplace: Making more of individual and
organizational potential. A NIACE Policy discussion paper. Leicester,
England: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.
Expanding workplace learning in the United Kingdom by making better use of
individual and organizational potential were examined. Focusing on the
following issues: ways of fostering, improving, and increasing learning in
the workplace; ways of enhancing access to & participation in workplace
learning; ways of making workplace learning opportunities accessible to
people who are currently outside paid employment; and ways of helping
workplaces play a more central role in the UK's plans for greater learning
participation. Workplace learning was made an expansive approach to
workplace learning was outlined. The issue of creating the institutional
capacity for supporting the approach was discussed. Among the twelve
recommendations offered to policymakers are: (1) establish greater
coherence between the responsibilities of the organizations currently
charged with improving workplace learning; (2) restrict public funding for
workplace learning to organizations that are prepared to commit to moving
toward becoming expansive learning environments; (3) place equal focus on
adults and young people; (4) establish learning champions within & outside
the workplace; (5) provide incentives to organizations to increase
training for managers to enable then to foster and maintain expansive
learning environments; and (6) set the standard by the public sector &
reward exemplary private sector organizations.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Students;
Corporate Education; Definitions; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Environment; Educational Opportunities; Educational Policy; Employment
Practices; Foreign Countries; Labor Force Development; Learning
Motivation; Nonschool Educational Programs; Organizational Climate; Policy
Formation; Postsecondary Education; School Business Relationship; Student
Recruitment; Vocational Education.
73. Venter, K. (2004). One
country, two systems, multiple skill demands: The dilemmas facing the
education system in the People's Republic of China. Journal of
Education and Work, 17(3), 283-300.
article argues that China's education system is facing unprecedented
pressures to provide appropriately skilled individuals to meet the demands
of the rapidly growing economy. In China this is a uniquely complex
situation owing to the coexistence of a diminishing command and control
economy and a growing market economy. Within this context we find that
there are at least three sets of employers placing different demands on
the education system. These demands come from three groups of
organisations operating under different forms of ownership who prioritise
skills differently based on different ideological and historical
approaches to organisation, management and learning. Consequently they
relate differently to the education system, placing varying demands on the
system and using the education and training system to serve rather
different functions in their skill supply strategies.
Foreign Countries; Free Enterprise System; Education Work
Relationship; Adult Education; Economic Change; Adults; Formal Education;
74. Winch, C. (2000).
Education, work and social capital: Towards a new conception of vocational
education. New York: Routledge.
book examines the relationship among education, work, and social capital
at the beginning of the 21st century. The following are among the topics
discussed in the book's 15 chapters: (1) necessity, work, effort, and
leisure; (2) the economic and work-related aims of education, including
liberal, vocational, and civic education; (3) the conceptualization of
economic life and the consumptionist tradition inherited from Adam Smith
and also found in the work of Marx; (4) the conceptualization of economic
life and the political economy as discussed by List; (5) moral education
and work (with special emphasis on paid employment and the continuing of
education through the social demands and relationships arising in the
workplace); (6) vocational education and vocational training (the
misconception of vocational education as training, differences between
training and conditioning, the importance of assessment in vocational
education); (7) learning in the workplace; (8) two rival conceptions of
vocational education; (9) education and labor markets; (10) education,
well-being, and economic growth (vocational education as a process of
formation); (11) the social value of work; (12) education and the
"end-of-work" thesis; (13) education and work in a social capital
perspective; and (14) policy issues related to schooling, qualifications,
and the transition to work.
Adult Education; Citizenship Education; Continuing
Education; Economic Change; Economic Development; Economic Impact;
Education Work Relationship; Educational Objectives; Educational
Philosophy; Educational Policy; Employment; Employment Qualifications;
General Education; Human Capital; Job Training; Labor Force Development;
Labor Market; Leisure Time; Lifelong Learning; Moral Values; Political
Issues; Popular Education; Productivity; Public Policy; School Business
Relationship; Secondary Education; Skilled Occupations; Social Capital;
Social Values; Trend Analysis; Values Education; Vocational Education;
Well-Being; Work Attitudes; Work Environment; Work Ethic.