and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Prior Learning Assessment and
1. Aarts, S.,
Blower, D., Burke, R., Conlin, E., Howell, B., Howorth, C. E.,
et al. (1999). A slice of the iceberg: Cross-Canada study
of prior learning assessment and recognition. Ottawa:
Human Resources Development Canada.
Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) is a sound academic practice
that contributes to adult learning by linking formal and informal
learning. However, it has not been widely accepted by Canadian educational
institutions. In 1996, a consortium of seven colleges and an independent
PLAR consultant began a study to create a comprehensive database of PLAR
learners and their characteristics, identify PLAR activities in
participating institutions, analyze the effects of PLAR on students and
the institutions, and compare the costs of credits achieved through PLAR
with those produced through traditional course delivery. Study results
found that: the average course grades of PLAR learners are as high or
higher than those of traditional students in the same programs; PLAR
strengthened adult learners' confidence and represented important
efficiencies for part-time adult learners by shortening their programs;
the low number of PLAR learners and programs signal that delivery of PLAR
has not been economical for some institutions; early benefits from PLAR
training within institutions diminished over time; and there is a need for
greater public awareness of PLAR. The report concludes with a series of
recommendations addressing institutions, public policy makers, adult
learners, and workplaces.
Educational Assessment; Educational Planning; Foreign
Countries; Government School Relationship; Higher Education;
Nontraditional Students; Program Implementation; Student Characteristics.
2. Andersson, P., & Fejes, A.
(2005). Recognition of prior learning as a technique for fabricating the
adult learner: A genealogical analysis on Swedish adult education policy.
Journal of Education Policy, 20(5), 595-613.
article focuses on the recognition of prior learning and the figure of
thought it represents in Swedish policy on adult education. It can be seen
as a technique for governing the adult learner and a way of fabricating
the subject. We are tracing this thought back in time to see how it has
changed and what it consists of. The material analysed consists of Swedish
official documents published between 1948 and 2004. We draw on two
concepts from the Foucauldian toolbox: genealogy and governmentality. The
result shows that this technique for governing and fabricating the adult
subject is not new. It has been present during all periods analysed.
However, there is a difference in how the ideas of competence and
knowledge are stressed. Today the focus is on the subject's specific
experience, which means competence. You are constructed as an adult with
experiences that are to be evaluated. During the 1960s and 1970s the focus
was rather on general experience. There was also discussion concerning the
subject's ability to study. During the 1950s this figure of thought
focused on ability was dominant. Those with the talent/ability to study
were to be accepted for adult education.
Prior Learning; Adult Education; Genealogy; Adult Students;
Lifelong Learning; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Sweden.
Z., & Dean,
M. R. (2006). Bridging education for foreign-trained professionals: The
international pharmacy graduate (IPQ) program in Canada. Teaching in
Higher Education, 11(1), 19-32.
Demand for well-qualified health care professionals (including
pharmacists) is projected to increase over the next 10 to 20 years. In
many jurisdictions, immigration will become an increasingly important
human resource to replace aging, retiring workers and drive ongoing
economic prosperity and growth. Higher education has been an underutilized
resource for foreign-trained professionals seeking re-qualification.
Bridging education provides a structured system for continuing
professional development of professionals, linked to existing curriculum,
assessments and standards in higher education. The International Pharmacy
Graduate Program in Ontario (Canada) has developed a model that has been
recognized by the provincial government as a "best-practice" for bridging
education. This model consists of four elements: prior learning assessment
and recognition; university-benchmarked skills enhancement education;
mentorship; and asynchronous learning opportunities. Success rates on
licensing examinations for those completing all components of the program
currently exceed 95%, indicating the value of bridging education.
Foreign Countries; Prior Learning; Higher Education;
Pharmacy; Licensing Examinations (Professions); Professional Development;
Graduate Study; Mentors; Benchmarking; Canada; Prior Learning Assessment.
4. Bateman, A., & Knight, B.
(2003). Giving credit: A review of RPL and credit transfer in the
vocational education and training sector, 1995-2001. Leabrook
(Australia): National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
Recognition of prior learning (RPL) and credit transfer policy in
Australia from 1995 to 2001 was examined through a review of Australian
research discourse and an analysis of national data for the period.
Selected findings were as follows: (1) RPL and credit transfer are most
relevant to vocational education and training (VET) clients seeking full
qualifications but are of negligible importance to students enrolled in
non-award and subject-only programs; (2) among the factors that affect RPL
and credit transfer rates, age appears to be the second in importance
after the Australian Qualifications Framework category of the program
undertaken; and (3) providers are offering RPL and credit transfer in
different amounts. The following recommendations were offered to
policymakers: (1) promote the term "assessment" to ensure that all
purposes of assessment, including RPL, are clearly placed within the
framework; (2) view RPL as a purpose of assessment with an important role
in the training cycle, especially as a precursor to training; (3)
investigate further analysis of the proposed benefits and barriers to RPL;
and (4) conduct qualitative research to determine whether the current
services offered by VET providers recognize the full extent of RPL and
credit transfer entitlements among VET students.
Credits; Definitions; Educational Certificates; Educational
Policy; Educational Trends; Evaluation Criteria; Foreign Countries;
Influences; Literature Reviews; Postsecondary Education; Prerequisites;
Prior Learning; Recognition (Achievement); Secondary Education; Student
Certification; Student Evaluation; Transfer Policy; Trend Analysis;
5. Berge, Z.
L., Muilenberg, L. Y., & Van Haneghan, J. (2002). Barriers to
distance education and training: Survey results. Quarterly Review of
Distance Education, 3(4), 409-418.
Discusses results of a survey that was conducted to understand and study
the barriers to distance training and education. Considered work place;
job function; type of delivery system used; individual expertise regarding
distance education; the stage of the respondent's organization; and the
subject area in which the respondent primarily worked.
Distance Education; Prior Learning; Surveys; Training
Methods; Work Environment.
6. Bjornavald, J. (2001).
Making learning visible: Identification, assessment and recognition of
nonformal learning. Vocational Training: European Journal(22),
Addresses issues in assessing and recognizing nonformal learning
(validity, reliability, and standards). Reviews institutional and policy
approaches in Europe at the country level and in initiatives by the
Certification; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods;
Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Nonformal Education; Recognition
7. Bjornavold, J. (2000).
Making learning visible: Identification, assessment and recognition of
non-formal learning in Europe. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP.
Policies and practices in the areas of identification, assessment, and
recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union (EU) were
reviewed. The review focused on national and EU-level experiences
regarding the following areas and issues: recognition of the contextual
nature of learning; identification of methodological requirements for
assessing and recognizing nonformal learning; and institutional and
political requirements. Special attention was paid to the following
experiences: (1) the German and Austrian dual system approach; (2) the
Mediterranean approach of viewing methodologies for assessment and
recognition of nonformal learning as tools for quality improvement; (3)
the diverse approaches of the Nordic countries; (4) the National
Vocational Qualifications approach in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and the
Netherlands; (5) the "opening up" of diplomas and certificates in France
and Belgium; and (6) EU-level initiatives. The review established that,
during the past few years, most EU member states have begun emphasizing
the crucial role of learning that occurs outside of and in addition to
formal education and training. This emphasis has led to an increasing
number of political and practical initiatives that have in turn gradually
shifted the issue from the stage of pure experimentation to that of early
Admission Criteria; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Advanced Placement; Certification; Change Strategies; Comparative
Analysis; Competence; Credits; Definitions; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Change; Educational Environment; Educational Policy;
Educational Quality; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Employment
Experience; Employment Qualifications; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation
Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Glossaries; Informal
Education; International Cooperation; International Educational Exchange;
Job Placement; Job Training; Learning Experience; Learning Processes;
Lifelong Learning; National Programs; Nonformal Education; Nontraditional
Education; Open Education; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education;
Prior Learning; Recognition (Achievement); School Business Relationship;
Student Evaluation; Student Experience; Student Placement; Systems
Approach; Transfer Policy; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Work
8. Blinkhorn, K. W. (1999).
Prior learning assessment: An investigation of nonsponsored learning for
college credits. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Ontario Institute for
Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, Toronto.
Learning Assessment (PLA) allows students to obtain credits toward their
formal education for nonsponsored learning (i.e., material they have
learned through non-traditional settings such as work experience or the
home). Within the PLA framework, community colleges have implemented the
portfolio development process as a way to assess prior learning - students
organize and present nonsponsored learning in a document that satisfies
the requirements of a college course. This exploratory case study examines
how learners at Ontario Community Colleges (Canada) make meaning of their
prior learning. In this study, data from interviews, a sample of
portfolios, and classroom observations were initially analyzed according
to five conceptual interpretations: (1) perception of learning; (2)
learning style; (3) metacognitive abilities; (4) cognitive development;
and (5) learners' needs. The study sample consisted of four students who
were taking a community college portfolio development course, two students
who had taken the portfolio development course and had successfully
challenged a number of college credits, and three students who were
eligible for the PLA process but did not take this option. The findings
indicated that all of the students made meaning from their prior learning
and applied it to their college studies.
Alternative Assessment; Community Colleges; Employment
Experience; Evaluation Methods; Nontraditional Education; Portfolios
(Background Materials); Prior Learning; Student Experience; Two Year
9. Borden-Ballard, E. M., &
Sinclair, G. W. (2001). Mentorship & the development of rural leadership.
In J. C. Montgomery & A. D. Kitchenham (Eds.), Issues affecting rural
communities (II). Proceedings of the International Conference on Rural
Communities & Identities in the Global Millennium. Nanaimo, May 1-5, 2000)
(pp. 354-364). Nanaimo, BC: Malaspina University-College.
Drawing on the experience of a 21-year mentoring relationship between two
rural school administrators, this paper describes 11 components of an
effective working mentorship. These elements are: establishing the
relationship, the communications process, setting goals, determining
skills, time commitment, broadening the protégé's horizons, additional
benefits to the protégé, types and extent of interventions, leadership
versus teamwork, linkages and connections, and benefits to the
organization. This experience reflects current trends in the business
community in which job-embedded learning, which includes mentoring, is
considered to be a new paradigm for staff development. There is a need to
develop more formal recognition of mentoring as a tool or avenue within a
rural administrator's professional development program. Mentoring presents
educators with an alternative to workshop-based professional development
and other more traditional inservice learning programs and is more
relevant to the situation of rural administrators and educators. The real
challenge, however, is to find the way by which this entire activity can
be incorporated into the academic accreditation process in a manner
similar to that utilized by proponents of prior learning assessment.
Administrator Education; Administrators; Experiential
Learning; Higher Education; Informal Education; Leadership Training;
Lifelong Learning; Management Development; Mentors; Professional
Development; Rural Schools.
10. Bowman, K., Clayton, B.,
Bateman, A., Knight, B., Thomson, P., Hargreaves, J., et al. (2003).
Recognition of prior learning in the vocational education and training
sector. Melbourne: Australian National Training Authority.
Researchers examined the factors driving and impeding effective
implementation of recognition of prior learning (RPL) in Australia's
vocational education and training sector. The study relied on the
following data collection activities: a literature review; an
environmental scan of current policies and procedures; statistical
analysis of national data; 128 structured interviews with individuals from
28 registered training organizations; focus groups; and a national forum.
The existence of the Australian Quality Training Framework and ongoing
interest in meeting access and equity obligations and client demands
emerged as key drivers of RPL. RPL appeared less useful to young people
than to older individuals. Uptake of RPL among equity groups was
relatively low. No single barrier was identified as significantly
affecting implementation of RPL. Some students chose not to apply for it,
even when eligible, because they preferred the training itself and the
experience of interacting with other students. The processes for RPL were
identified as one factor that might affect RPL implementation in some
contexts. Other factors included awareness and understanding of RPL and
perceptions of its relevance. Nine specific strategies to facilitate more
effective implementation of RPL were recommended for consideration by the
National Training Qualifications Council.
Access to Education; Educational Policy; Educational
Research; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Informal Education;
Nonformal Education; Nontraditional Education; Participation;
Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Recognition (Achievement);
Secondary Education; Student Attitudes; Student Certification; Student
Characteristics; Student Experience; Transfer Policy; Vocational
Education; Work Experience.
11. Brown, J. O. (2001). The
portfolio: A reflective bridge connecting the learner, higher education,
and the workplace. Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 49(2),
Interviews with eight adult students who completed portfolios illustrate
how the process increased their awareness of professional accomplishments,
enabled self-discovery and empowerment, helped them recognize the
influence of mentors, and fostered deeper reflection. Results show how
portfolios can promote holistic learning by connecting learning, the
workplace, and the academy.
Adult Learning; Education Work Relationship; Higher
Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Reflective
12. Brown, J. O., McCrink, C.,
& Maybee, R. (2003, 21 Apr). What employers want: How portfolio
development fosters leadership and critical thinking in the workplace.
Paper presented at the "Accountability for Educational Quality: Shared
Responsibility" the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association (AERA), April 21-25, 20, Chicago, IL.
study researched the impact of the portfolio development process as an
instructional strategy that promotes increased critical thinking,
organization, communication, and self-reflection abilities. The inquiry
began with a case study of eight adult learners representative of the
student population of a nontraditional undergraduate program with a
portfolio component. Of 1,227 students, 348 responded to a 24-question
survey using a 4-part Likert-type scale to assess students' portfolio
experiences. Findings indicated, after developing a portfolio, adult
students expressed a change in their understanding of their abilities and
of themselves; gained learning competencies in enhancement of
communication and organizational skills, a deeper reflective process, and
greater understanding of how they accomplished what they did in their
personal and professional lives; and better understood the role of work in
their lives. Students valued the constructs of leadership/personal
learning and of work-related learning, their respective survey items, and
the learning obtained from engaging in the portfolio process. Findings
indicated the portfolio's potential as an instructional tool to identify
prior learning and engender increased competencies in many areas,
including skills in organization, writing, critical thinking, and
Adult Learning; Adult Students; Communication Skills;
Critical Thinking; Education Work Relationship; Educational Research;
Employer Attitudes; Leadership; Learning Strategies; Nontraditional
Education; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials);
Prior Learning; Self Evaluation (Individuals); Skill Development; Teaching
Methods; Undergraduate Study.
13. Cantwell, R. H., & Scevak,
J. J. (2004). Engaging university learning: The experiences of students
entering university via recognition of prior industrial experience.
Higher Education Research and Development, 23(2), 131-145.
this study, the academic experiences of 33 male students from an
industrial background were investigated as they completed a two-year
education degree. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality
of student adjustment to an academic environment following extensive
industrial training and experience. Students completed a series of
questionnaires relating to learning as well as a series of open-ended
questions relating to academic and social adjustment. Data indicated that
while students had developed a positive learning profile, a continued
belief in the structural simplicity of knowledge appeared to have a
significant diminishing effect on the quality of adjustment and on the
quality of learning outcomes. Open-ended responses revealed patterns of
academic adjustment consistent with the restricted understanding of the
nature of university learning. Implications of these data for both
recognition of prior learning (RPL) entry and ongoing support are
Prior Learning; Educational Environment; Adjustment (to
Environment); Industrial Training; Student Adjustment; Questionnaires;
Student Attitudes; Metacognition; Males; Associate Degrees.
14. Castle, J., & Attwood, G.
(2001). Recognition of prior learning (RPL) for access or credit?
Problematic issues in a university adult education department in South
Africa. Studies in the Education of Adults, 33(1), 60-72.
debate over whether recognition of prior learning (RPL) should focus on
access or credit involves four issues: (1) challenges posed by the higher
education environment; (2) the narrow instrumental view of curricula
associated with RPL for credit; (3) the limitations of portfolios; and (4)
relationship and status of different forms of knowledge.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Credits; Foreign
Countries; Higher Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior
15. Childs, M., Ingham, V., &
Wagner, R. (2002). Recognition of prior learning on the web - A case of
Australian universities. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 42(1),
Recognition of prior learning (RPL) information on 38 Australian
universities' websites was analyzed, with the following results: (1)
research on universities' use of technology for student-institution
interaction was lacking; (2) terms and definitions used for RPL were
inconsistent, hard to find, or required a high level of knowledge; and (3)
usefulness varied widely.
Communication Problems; Credits; Foreign Countries; Higher
Education; Information Seeking; Prior Learning; Universities.
16. Clover, D. E., & Hall, B.
L. (2000). In search of social movement learning: The growing jobs for
living project. NALL Working Paper No. 18. Toronto: Centre for the
Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) project is a Canada-wide 5-year
research initiative during which more than 70 academic and community
members are working collaboratively within a framework of informal
learning to address the following issues: informal computer-based
learning, recognition of prior learning, informal learning in a variety of
social locations, learning within marginalized or disadvantaged cultures,
and learning about school-to-work transitions. The NALL project's primary
objective is to identify major social barriers to integrating informal
learning with formal/nonformal learning and certification and to support
new program initiatives to overcome such barriers. The NALL project's
focus is on the informal and nonformal learning practices of people
involved with the Growing Jobs for Living Project (GJOBS) in the Quinte
bioregion, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario in Canada. These
learning practices are related to the principles and practices of
environmental adult education, feminist adult education, and
transformative learning. The global and ideational contexts of some of the
major socio-environmental changes and problems that have affected the
Quinte bioregion and been a catalyst for GJOBS were examined. The methods
used to study the informal learning practices of GJOBS participants were
reviewed. The major outcomes of the study were discussed from the
standpoint of their relationship to the broader field of adult education.
Access to Education; Adult Learning; Certification;
Computer Uses in Education; Definitions; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Environment; Educational Trends; Environmental Education;
Informal Education; Integrated Curriculum; Interpersonal Attraction;
Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Minority Groups; National Surveys;
Nonformal Education; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Prior
Learning; Research Methodology; Social Change; Transformative Learning;
Transitional Programs; Women’s Education; Marginalized Groups
17. Coats, M. (1999). Lifelong
learning policy and practice: The impact of accreditation on education and
training provision for adult women in the UK. In Alheit. P. et. al. (eds.)
(Ed.), Lifelong learning inside and outside schools. Contributions to
the Second European Conference on Lifelong Learning, Bremen, 25-27
February 1999, Collected Papers (pp. 14). Bremen: Universität Bremen.
the United Kingdom, these two perspectives on lifelong learning sit
uneasily together: emphasis on adults in employment and a focus on
diversity and widening participation in adult education. A recent emphasis
on accreditation with implications for funding has affected diversity and
participation objectives because involving assessment, certification, or
accreditation tends to discourage participation. The major question for
adult educators is how accreditation can be used appropriately to
recognize achievement while still promoting learning for the most
disadvantaged and disenfranchised portion of the population. Higher and
further education institutions, local authority adult education
departments, voluntary organizations, and training programs for women were
surveyed to determine how accreditation affects provision designed
specifically for women. Findings indicated a need to reconsider threshold
or entry provision for women in groups that have previously been under- or
un-represented in adult education and training. A longitudinal case study
of how required accreditation was implemented by a women's training scheme
in a rural mining area found that some valued outcomes such as personal
development and growth were difficult to quantify and assess. Despite
being recognized as an example of good practice in developing the
potential of women and providing quality training, the local authority
decided the program was not cost effective and training opportunities for
other disadvantaged groups had to be given priority, an outcome indicative
of the tensions of implementing lifelong learning.
Access to Education; Accreditation (Institutions); Adult
Education; Developed Nations; Disadvantaged; Displaced Homemakers;
Educational Certificates; Educational Finance; Employment Qualifications;
Empowerment; Evaluation Problems; Females; Foreign Countries; Individual
Development; Job Skills; Lifelong Learning; National Standards; Needs
Assessment; Outcomes of Education; Public Policy; Reentry Students;
Reentry Workers; Rural Areas; Special Needs Students; Student
Certification; Student Financial Aid; Training; Transformative Learning;
18. Colardyn, D. (2001).
Legitimacy of measuring. Assessment and certification of lifelong
learning. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 6(2), 97-103.
Assessment of informal and nonformal learning requires resolution of three
questions: how to define competencies, how to measure them, and how to
ensure the legitimacy of the measure. Assessment and certification
procedures must be well defined and robust, with quality assurance methods
accepted by all stakeholders.
Educational Assessment; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation
Methods; Informal Education; Nonformal Education; Prior Learning.
19. Commander, N. E., & Valeri-Gold,
M. (2001). The learning portfolio: A valuable tool for increasing
metacognitive awareness. Learning Assistance Review, 6(2), 5-18.
Discusses how instructors working with at-risk students have effectively
used a learning portfolio to increase metacognitive awareness. Describes
the learning portfolio as a method that facilitates student participation
via a self-assessment of what they have learned about learning. Appended
are directions for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating a learning
College Outcomes Assessment; Educationally Disadvantaged;
Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; High Risk Students; Higher
Education; Journal Writing; Outcomes of Education; Portfolios (Background
Materials); Student Journals.
B. R., & Stanley, M. J. (2002). The social work portfolio:
Planning, assessing and documenting lifelong learning in a dynamic
profession. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
book is designed to help social work students prepare a social work
portfolio to be used as a learning guide, and following graduation, as a
tool to maintain their social work licenses or other pertinent
professional credentials. There are independent and collaborative group
learning exercises as well as portfolio preparation exercises throughout
the book. Chapter 1 introduces the social work portfolio and explores its
relationship to learning. Contemporary social work practice is presented
in the context of lifelong learning. Chapter 2 explores learning styles
and psychological types, including multiple intelligences and emotional
intelligence. Chapter 3 presents self-assessment tools to determine social
work learning needs by exploring level of knowledge and expertise in
content areas most relevant for contemporary social workers. Chapter 4
includes assessment tools for prior learning, general career planning
guidelines, and methods to identify an ideal social work position. Resume
and supplementary document preparation are discussed. Chapter 5 discusses
specific learning goals and objectives and preparation of an individual
learning plan. Chapter 6 presents guidelines for compilation and
assessment of a portfolio with an emphasis on learning activities during
an academic program of study. Suggestions are made for adaptation and use
of the portfolio throughout a professional career. Appendices include: a
lifelong learning questionnaire; common phases of a professional social
work career; index of learning styles; self-assessment of social work
knowledge survey; social work interests instrument; sample cover letter;
list of action verbs for use in developing learning plans; and a social
work portfolio documents checklist.
Adult Development; Career Development; Career Information
Systems; Career Ladders; Career Planning; Check Lists; Cognitive Style;
Competency Based Education; Cooperative Learning; Credentials; Education
Work Relationship; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Informal
Assessment; Interest Inventories; Job Skills; Knowledge Level; Learning
Activities; Learning Strategies; Lifelong Learning; Multiple
Intelligences; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning;
Professional Development; Professional Education; Psychological
Characteristics; Questionnaires; Rating Scales; Resumes (Personal); Self
Evaluation (Individuals); Social Work; Social Workers; Student Educational
Objectives; Surveys; Theory Practice Relationship; Transfer of Training.
21. Dealtry, R. (2003). Issues
relating to learning accreditation in corporate university management.
Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(2), 80-86.
Considers the role of learning accreditation in relation to demand for
quality assurance in organizational learning. Develops a four-dimensional
management perspective that outlines four pathways of learning: learning
needs in relation to aspirations, academic learning, learning to qualify
for professional practice, and learning to sustain career and
Career Development; Corporate Education; Credits;
Educational Objectives; Higher Education; Personnel Management; Prior
Learning; Student Certification; Quality Assurance.
22. Dochy, F.,
Moerkerke, G., & Segers, M. (1999). The effect of prior knowledge
on learning in educational practice: Studies using prior knowledge state
assessment. Evaluation and Research in Education, 13(3), 114-131.
Studied the use of prior knowledge state assessment for enhancing learning
through a series of experiments involving college students (n=112,
n=1,159, n=1,081). Results show that beginning students are especially
willing to use prior knowledge state assessment and appear to benefit more
from its use.
College Students; Evaluation Methods; Higher Education;
Knowledge Level; Prior Learning; Self Evaluation (Individuals).
23. Donaldson, J. E., &
Graham, S. W. (2002). Accelerated degree programs: Design and policy
implications. Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 50(2), 2-13.
Suggested principles for designing accelerated degree programs for adults
are provided the following components of a model of adult learning: prior
experience/personal biographies psychosocial and value orientation, the
connecting classroom (relating life experiences and academic learning),
adult cognition, the life-world environment, and college outcomes.
Acceleration (Education); Adult Students; Cognitive
Processes; Degrees (Academic); Higher Education; Outcomes of Education;
Prior Learning; Program Design.
24. Donoghue, J., Pelletier,
D., Adams, A., & Duffield, C. (2002). Recognition of prior learning as
university entry criteria is successful in postgraduate nursing students.
Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39(1), 54-62.
Reports a comparison of academic achievements in graduate nursing programs
between those with undergraduate qualifications and those admitted using a
recognition of prior learning (RPL) initiative. Results indicate that the
academic achievement of the hospital-trained nurses was similar to those
admitted with a formal qualification.
Academic Achievement; Comparative Analysis; Education;
Graduate Study; Higher Education; Nurses; Nursing; Nursing Education;
Professional Education; Qualifications.
25. Evans, N. E. (2000).
Experiential learning around the world: Employability and the global
economy. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.
comprehensive study explores the chronological and geographical expansion
of the assessment of adult and experiential learning - known as AP(E)L -
around the world. The authors describe and compare initiatives in their
own countries and their effectiveness at the levels of government,
educational institutions, and employment. They highlight AP(E)L's
essential role in the adaptation of higher education to the competitive
global market. The 11 chapters are "AP(E)L: Why? Where? How? Setting the
International Scene" (Norman Evans); "Recognizing Learning Outside of
Schools in the United States of America" (Morris T. Keeton); "The
Evolution of AP(E)L in England" (Norman Evans); "Canada: The Story of
Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition" (Deborah Blower); "France: The
Story of La Validation des Acquis (Recognition of Experiential Learning"
(Michel Feutrie); "Scotland: The Story of the Assessment of Prior
Experiential Learning" (Norman Sharp, Fiona Reeve, Ruth Whittaker); "The
Republic of Ireland: The Story of the Assessment of Prior Experiential
Learning" (Denis McGrath); "The Recognition of Prior Learning in
Australia: An Ambivalent Relationship with the Academy, Competency-Based
Education, and the Market" (Rick Flowers, Geof Hawke); "Recognition of
Prior Learning: The Promise and the Reality for New Zealanders" (Phil Ker,
Mary Melrose, Maureen Reid); "Learning Assessment in South Africa" (Yunus
Ballim, Rahmat Omar, Alan Ralphs); and "2000 Plus?" (Norman Evans).
Adult Learning; Developed Nations; Developing Nations;
Employment Potential; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Global
Approach; Informal Assessment; International Educational Exchange;
Postsecondary Education; Program Effectiveness; Student Evaluation.
26. Feltham, N. F., & Downs,
C. T. (2002). Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved
performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language
biology students within the context of a marine theme. International
Journal of Science Education, 24(2), 157-184.
Reports on the assessment of student background knowledge along a
continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Examines
improved student performance in each of the respective assessments on the
extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful
learning relative to English as Second Language (ESL) proficiency.
Indicates that students did not perceive language to be a problem in
Academic Achievement; Biology; Foreign Countries; Higher
Education; Marine Education; Prior Learning; Science Education; Second
27. Fjortoft, N. F., &
Zgarrick, D. P. (2001). Survey of prior learning assessment practices in
pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 65(1),
Surveyed nontraditional Pharm.D (NTPD) program directors to determine use
of prior learning assessment (PLA). Eighty-four percent of respondents
reported using PLA for one or more purposes, including the admissions
process and awarding of advanced standing for didactic and experiential
courses. Transcript review, faculty-developed exams, and portfolios are
the most commonly used methods of PLA in NTPD programs.
Admission Criteria; College Credits; Nontraditional
Education; Pharmaceutical Education; Prior Learning; School Surveys.
W., Briton, D., & Spencer, B. (2000). Canadian labour education and
PLAR at the turn of the century. Canadian Journal for the Study of
Adult Education, 14(1), 75-88.
Analyzes Canadian labor education courses and materials in terms of types
of training, participants, instructors' objectives, and criteria for
success. Concludes that labor education is preparing union members to
participate in union and community affairs through the acquisition of
Adult Education; Educational Research; Foreign Countries;
Labor Education; Prior Learning; Unions.
29. Gereluk, W. (2001).
Labour education in Canada today: A PLAR report. NALL Working Paper
No. 47. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
report provides information on the content and nature of labor education
in Canada. Section A outlines the study's purposes to explain why labor
education should be considered for prior learning assessment and
recognition purposes. Section B describes the theoretical framework and
methodology and explains the attempt to canvass a reasonably
representative sample of labor education provided by and for trade unions.
Section C highlights the aims and objectives of labor education, with
particular reference to differing objectives of the host trade unions.
Section D describes steward training and relates details of this education
to functions and expectations unions typically assign to these worksite
representatives. Section E completes the descriptions with an overview of
content of labor education programs provided by and for Canada's unions.
Section F identifies other events and learning activities provided by and
for Canada's unions. Section G provides a sample of approaches taken by
unions in selecting labor education participants. Section H describes
procedures for choosing trainers who deliver labor education and their
roles. Section I discusses delivery methods trade unions use for their
labor education courses and activities and the rationale for these
practices. Section J examines aspects of the labor education program of
the Communications, Energy, and Paperworkers' Union of Canada. Section K
provides conclusions and observations.
Admission Criteria; Adult Education; Educational
Objectives; Educational Research; Industrial Training; Labor Education;
Prior Learning; Program Content; Trainers; Unions; Member Union
Relationship; Shop Stewards.
30. Gibbs, P. T., & Morris, A.
F. (2001). The accreditation of work experience: Whose interests are being
served? Learning Organization, 8(2), 82-88.
Employing organizations are the main beneficiaries of accreditation of
work-based learning. Universities involved in providing it need to
safeguard the interests of learners and society from exploitation.
Work-based learning needs to be viewed beyond the narrow skills and
competencies approach, recognizing and valuing practical judgment in job
Accreditation (Institutions); Employer Employee
Relationship; Higher Education; Prior Learning; Work Experience.
31. Gibbs, P., & Angelides, P.
(2004). Accreditation of knowledge as being-in-the-world. Journal of
Education and Work, 17(3), 333-346.
article considers the nature of experiential learning and its relationship
with other forms of learning that gain their authority through assessment.
It argues that experiential learning is grounded in, and stands upon, the
notion of phronesis and is the goal of an educated populace. This
argument, should it prevail, would see wisdom as the goal of education
which is revealed in becoming wise through being-in-the-world. To consider
a person a phronomis is not to credentialise her by separating her
self-knowledge from her in some externality but to recognise her as being
knowledgeable and wise rather than having knowledge. This distinction is
evident in skills for work where success is not just in knowing how but is
in doing. We suggest in this article that higher education ought not
enframe students through assessment practices but liberate them in a mode
of learning that reflects Heidegger's notion of 'letting learn'. Given the
validity of this argument the central role of the recognition of prior
leaning for higher education is developed as the most appropriate mode of
revelation of this wisdom. Heidegger is used throughout as a guide.
Higher Education; Experiential Learning; Prior Learning;
Knowledge Level; Student Evaluation; Evaluation Methods; Education Work
32. Glendenning, F. (2000).
Teaching and learning in later life: Theoretical implications. Studies in
educational gerontology. Brookfield: Ashgate.
book contains nine papers on the development of education for older adults
in the United Kingdom and Canada against the background of an aging
population and the challenge of lengthening life expectancy. "Foreword"
(David James) presents an overview of the book's contents and underscores
the importance of motivation to learning in later life. "The Education for
Older Adults 'Movement': An Overview" traces developments in self-help
education for older adults, including university-of-the-third-age and
continuing education programs. The following are among the topics
discussed in "Some Critical Implications": lifelong learning; critical
theory; the functionalist paradigm; the context of old age; liberation and
empowerment; hegemony; andragogy; and critical educational gerontology.
"Critical and Educational Gerontology: Relationships and Future
Developments" (Chris Phillipson) considers critical gerontology in
relation to the crisis of old age, the issue of identity, the self in old
age, and emancipation. "Changing Attitudes to Ageing" examines age-related
stereotypes and strategies for changing attitudes toward aging. "Education
for Older People: The Moral Dimension" (Robert Elmore) argues that access
to educational gerontology should become a public policy priority.
"Critical Educational Gerontology and the Imperative to Empower" (Sandra
Cusack) operationalizes the concept of empowerment in the areas of
leadership training and mental fitness and identifies techniques to
empower older learners. "Educational and Social Gerontology: Necessary
Relationships" explores the relationship between education gerontology and
social gerontology. "The Debate Continues: Integrating Educational
Gerontology with Lifelong Learning" (Alexandra Withnall) considers issues
in the debate surrounding the philosophical and emerging theoretical
approaches to educating people who are beyond working age. "Teaching and
Learning in Later Life: Considerations for the Future" makes a case for
further development of the theoretical basis of educational provision for
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; Aging
(Individuals); Andragogy; Attitude Change; Continuing Education;
Educational Gerontology; Educational Needs; Educational Objectives;
Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Empowerment; Foreign Countries;
Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Older Adults;
Personal Autonomy; Population Trends; Postsecondary Education; Public
Policy; Role of Education; Rural Education; Self Determination; Social
Change; Stereotypes; Student Needs; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend
Analysis; Urban Education.
33. Goldberg, M. P., & Corson,
D. (1999). Immigrant and aboriginal first languages as prior learning
qualifications for formal employment in the business, government and
education sectors. NALL Working Paper No. 22. Toronto: Centre for the
Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
extent to which Canadian employers recognize the informally acquired first
languages of immigrants and aboriginal persons as prior learning
qualifications for formal employment in the business, government, and
education sectors was examined through a survey of organizations across
Ontario. Personalized questionnaires were mailed to a sample of 140
Ontario organizations, as follows: 32 businesses (half randomly selected
and half purposively selected); 71 colleges, universities, and school
boards; and 37 municipal, provincial, and federal government agencies and
psychiatric hospitals. Of the 140 questionnaires mailed out, 79 (56.4%)
were returned. Although 88.6% of the organizations indicated that they
would benefit from employing staff fluent in languages in addition to
English or French, only 30.4% were actually actively recruiting such
multilingual employees. Private organizations were more likely to recruit
multilingual individuals and educational institutions were least likely to
do so (52.9% and 25.7%, respectively). The methods used to evaluate
potential bilingual employees' language proficiency were as follows:
interviews (25.8%); employer references (18.6%); and formal qualifications
and personal references (13.4%). Educational institutions used formal
qualifications to assess language fluency much more often than other types
of organizations did (20%, 10%, and 7.6% for academic institutions,
private organizations, and public organizations, respectively).
Bilingualism; Boards of Education; Canada Natives;
Colleges; Employer Attitudes; Employment Practices; Employment
Qualifications; Evaluation Methods; Federal Government; Foreign Countries;
Immigrants; Indigenous Populations; Language Attitudes; Language
Minorities; Language Proficiency; Literature Reviews; Native Speakers;
Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Private Sector; Psychiatric
Hospitals; Public Sector; Recruitment; Secondary Education; State
34. Greenwood, M. E., Hayes,
A. E., Turner, C. E., & Vorhaus, J. E. (2001). Recognising and
validating outcomes of non-accredited learning: A practical approach.
Retrieved July, 2006, from
group of adult educators in England conducted seven case studies to
identify strategies for recognizing adult students' learning progress in
nonaccredited programs. The case studies identified the following elements
of good practice in the process of recording and validating achievement:
(1) initial identification of learning objectives; (2) initial assessment
of learners; (3) negotiation of learning objectives with learners; (4)
learning self-assessment; (5) ongoing formative assessment; (6)
progression advice and guidance; (7) a record of achievement; (8)
moderation of assessment; and (9) celebration of achievement. A framework
for good practice was identified, along with key issues and areas for
further research and development.
Academic Achievement; Adult Education; Adult Educators;
Case Studies; Definitions; Educational Objectives; Evaluation Criteria;
Evaluation Methods; Foreign Countries; Formative Evaluation; Guidelines;
Models; Nonformal Education; Postsecondary Education; Program Evaluation;
Program Validation; Questionnaires; Recognition (Achievement);
Recordkeeping; Records (Forms); Self Evaluation (Individuals); Student
Attitudes; Student Certification; Student Evaluation; Teacher Researchers;
Best Practices; England; Nonaccredited Colleges.
35. Guggenheim, E. F. E.
(2002). AGORA V: Identification, evaluation and recognition of
non-formal learning. (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999) CEDEFOP
panorama series. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the
document contains papers from a meeting on identification, evaluation, and
recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following
papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of
Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure
Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and Social Cohesion" (Eric Fries
Guggenheim); "Social Partners' Round Table - Is There Any Consensus on the
Validation of Non-Formal Learning and If So, What?" (Eugenio Rosa, Mike
Coles, Donald Kerr); "Work-Related Projects on New Methods of Skill
Definition and Accreditation: Moves Towards a Personal Skills Medium in
the USA and in Europe" (Barbara Jones, Kari Hadjivassiliou); "The
Recognition and Validation of Informal Learning in France" (Anne-Marie
Charraud); "Finnish Competence-Based Qualifications - Organization,
Assessment, and Legitimacy" (Petri Haltia); "Accreditation of Non Formal
Learning in the Netherlands" (Marian Nieskens, Ruud Klarus); "Examination
of the Requirements for Successful Validation of Vocational Learning - The
Issue of Legitimacy" (Jens Bjornavold); "A Few Features of the Situation
in France - The Views of CFDT (Confederation Francaise Democratique du
Travail) on the Measurement of Informally Acquired Competences" (Jose
Danilo); and "Social Partners' Round-Table Discussion: the Validation of
Prior Learning: What Can We Build Together?" (Juan Maria Memendez-Valdes,
Hjordis Dalsgaard, Nikolaus Bley).
Academic Standards; Adult Learning; Comparative Analysis;
Competence; Definitions; Educational Objectives; Educational Trends;
Employment Qualifications; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods;
Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Identification;
Job Skills; Lifelong Learning; Measurement Techniques; Meetings; Needs
Assessment; Nonformal Education; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning;
Recognition (Achievement); Reliability; Secondary Education; Social
Integration; Social Mobility; Standard Setting; Student Certification;
Student Evaluation; Trend Analysis; Validity; Vocational Education.
36. Harris, J. (1999). Ways of
seeing the recognition of prior learning (RPL): What contribution can such
practices make to social inclusion? Studies in the Education of Adults,
Describes four models of recognition of prior learning (PL): (1)
procrustean - PL is made to match predetermined standards; (2) learning
and development - PL approximates implicit academic standards; (3) radical
- subjective knowledge is recognized as an alternative to dominant forms;
and (4) Trojan-horse - PL is seen as socially constructed and valued in
and of itself.
Academic Standards; Credits; Experiential Learning; Foreign
Countries; Prior Learning.
37. Heitmann, G. (2001).
European structures of qualification levels: Reports on recent
developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and in the United
Kingdom (England and Wales). Volume 3. Luxembourg: Office for Official
Publications of the European Communities.
Recent trends and developments related to the structures of qualification
levels in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom
were examined in a quasi-experimental study that was part of a more
comprehensive study on the same topic. The study focused on standards,
qualifications, and classifications at the tertiary level of the German
educational system and the categorization of qualifications at the
tertiary level in England, France, the Netherlands, and Spain. The study
documented that the discussion of how to ensure the transparency of
qualifications and their adequate categorization in all-embracing
classification systems at the national and transnational levels is
increasing throughout the European Union. Different countries are taking
different routes to improving the transparency and comparability of
qualifications in higher education. At the tertiary level, German
considerations and concepts show an increasing trend toward outcome-based
standards. The same also applies to England, France, and the Netherlands.
In Spain, the national classification system is currently in the
introductory phase, with efforts currently concentrated on vocational
qualifications at the secondary level.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Articulation (Education);
Certification; Classification; Comparative Analysis; Comparative
Education; Credentials; Definitions; Educational Planning; Educational
Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Trends; Evaluation Methods;
Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Literature
Reviews; Models; National Standards; National Surveys; Nonformal
Education; Occupational Mobility; Policy Formation; Postsecondary
Education; Prior Learning; Qualifications; Standard Setting; State of the
Art Reviews; Synthesis; Systems Approach; Transfer Policy; Trend Analysis;
Vocational Education; Work Experience.
38. Huggins, J., & Murphy, R.
(1999). Reflecting on experience and building on hard earned knowledge - A
practical application of action learning. Australian Journal of Adult
and Community Education, 39(1), 28-34.
Action-learning techniques and acknowledgment of prior experience are
components of integrated workshops for Australian agriculture producers in
a program known as Futureprofit. Evaluations show the program effectively
improves producers' planning, communication, and decision making through
adherence to adult learning principles.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Agricultural Production;
Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Prior Learning; Workshops.
39. Hughes, M., & Turner, P.
(Eds.). (2002). Mapping research into the delivery of work-based
learning. London: Learning & Skills Development Agency.
report provides a summary of findings from research into work-related
education and training undertaken over the last five years by
organizations then called the Further Education Development Agency (FEDA)
and Quality and Performance Improvement Dissemination (QPID) Unit of the
Department for Education and Employment. Cross-references to relevant
material are included in the individual topic-related sections. After an
introduction, Section 2 lists overarching messages and provides a summary
of key findings and their implications for post-16 learning. Sections 3-13
report findings for specific aspects of post-16 learning. Each section
includes keywords; summary of key messages from FEDA /QPID research; and
further details of the key FEDA/QPID research findings. The 11 aspects of
post-16 learning considered are the learner and learning experience;
learning facilitators (teacher /trainer/assessor/mentor); teaching and
learning methods; the content of learning programs; assessment and
qualifications; quality and inspection; barriers to participation; equal
opportunities; learners, learning, and the labor market; policy /program
development; and operational management. Appendixes include annotated
bibliographies of 78 topic-related FEDA and 60 topic-related QPID
materials; a 230-item bibliography of further QPID information; and a
glossary. The annotated bibliography entries include audience, purpose,
and which topic(s) are addressed.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Annotated
Bibliographies; Basic Skills; Career Education; Developed Nations;
Educational Certificates; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Equal
Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Industrial Training;
Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Market; Out of School Youth; Prior
Learning; Staff Development; Student Certification; Vocational Education;
Barriers to Participation; United Kingdom.
40. Liaroutzos, O., Sulzer,
E., Besucco, N., & Lozier, F. (2001). The accreditation of qualifications
in France: What role for joint inter-occupational supervision? Training
& Employment, 45(October-December), 1-4.
French worker certification system is focusing on efforts to design a
scheme for the accreditation of work-based learning. If implemented, the
scheme would be directed by a business-government-worker partnership,
recognized and accepted by different occupations, and accessible to all
employees regardless of the way their qualifications were acquired.
Applicable to a labor market characterized by discontinuous work
experiences and precarious employment conditions, such a mechanism would
permit worker mobility between jobs and complement the traditional
certification regime. Important issues in this effort include: (1)
developing standards according to common rules to allow comparison between
occupations; (2) establishing student evaluation using multiple forms,
such as combining one or more of interview, test, observation and
simulation; and (3) structuring qualifications to demonstrate mastery of
an occupation or elements of multiple occupations to help create
individual career paths.
Accrediting Agencies; Adult Education; Competence;
Competency Based Education; Coordination; Developed Nations; Economic
Impact; Educational Planning; Employment Level; Employment Opportunities;
Employment Patterns; Employment Potential; Employment Qualifications;
Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Job Analysis; Job Skills; Job
Training; Labor Market; Labor Needs; Labor Relations; Labor Supply;
Minimum Competencies; National Standards; Nontraditional Education;
Occupational Information; Occupational Mobility; On-the-Job Training
Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning;
Promotion (Occupational); Protocol Analysis; Public Policy; School
Business Relationship; Skill Analysis; Social Planning; Standard Setting;
Student Certification; Student Evaluation; Transfer of Training;
Vocational Education; Vocational Evaluation; Work Experience.
41. Lior, K., Martin, D.
A., & Morais, A. (2001). Tacit skills, informal knowledge and
reflective practice. NALL Working Paper No. 24. Toronto: Centre for
the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
Community sites provide a range of pictures of “adult learning” in this
research report. By interviews and by work with a Skills and Knowledge
Profile, we note patterns of gender, culture, employment status, and
strength of social organization when identifying learning needs and
recording learning experiences.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Literacy; Adult
Programs; Community Education; Community Organizations; Females; Informal
Education; Learning Strategies; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education;
Prior Learning; Reflective Teaching; Unions; Work Based Learning.
42. Martens, R., & Hermans, H.
(2000). Internet based formative prior knowledge assessment. Studies in
Educational Evaluation, 26(3), 245-258.
Developed seven Internet-delivered tests of prior knowledge for distance
education students in the Netherlands interested in gaining information
about future studies. Analysis of 151 responses received through the Web
site showed student appreciation of the instruments and the assessment
College Students; Computer Assisted Testing; Distance
Education; Evaluation Methods; Foreign Countries; Higher Education;
Internet; Prior Learning; Student Attitudes; Test Construction;
43. Meyers, D., & Blom, K.
(2001). Training package implementation: Innovative and flexible
approaches. Canberra: Centre Undertaking Research in Vocational
implementation of training packages (TPs) in Australian workplaces was
examined through case studies of the use of TPs in nontraditional trade
areas by six innovative registered training organizations (RTOs) across
Australia. The study focused on the extent to which new and flexible
approaches to learning, training delivery, and assessment have been used
in implementation of TPs. The study RTOs delivered training and assessment
in a broad range of TPs, including TPs from the following occupational
areas: entertainment; community services; outdoor recreation; and
horticulture. The six RTOs included an enterprise-based RTO, a
community-based RTO, and four public RTOs (including one technical and
further education institute and two institutes of technology). All six
RTOs used innovative and flexible approaches to delivery and assessment of
TPs. Learners' needs were the central focus for framing processes.
Previous experience with competency-based training and assessment was said
to facilitate uptake of TPs. Most providers used multiple pathways to
qualifications, including a mix of on-the-job and off-the-job training and
assessment strategies. Recognition of current competency and recognition
of prior learning were being used extensively. Collaboration and close
liaison with industry was allowing providers to access valuable enterprise
resources for training. Many nontraditional-type trainers and learners
were involved with TPs.
Agricultural Occupations; Case Studies; Community Services;
Competence; Competency Based Education; Definitions; Delivery Systems;
Education Work Relationship; Evaluation Methods; Flexible Progression;
Foreign Countries; Horticulture; Hospitality Occupations; Innovation; Job
Training; Learning Modules; Nontraditional Occupations; On-the-Job
Training Performance Factors; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning;
Recognition (Achievement); School Business Relationship; Student
Evaluation; Success; Technical Institutes; Trade and Industrial Education;
Trainers; Training Methods.
44. Morais, A., Lior, K., &
Martin, D. A. (2001). Revolution of experiences: Evolution of the
skills and knowledge profile. NALL Working Paper No. 34. Toronto:
Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
Skills and Knowledge Profile (SKP) is a tool developed in Canada to
document learning styles and strategies of adult learners. The instrument
was developed as a systematic approach to capturing the learning styles of
unemployed and employed adults across sectors. It is made up of these six
sections: (1) Learning Access and Personal Information; (2) Personal
Informal Learning; (3) Job-Related Informal Learning; (4) Non-Formal
Courses and Workshops; (5) Future Learning Plans; and (6) Your Comments on
the Profile. The SKP was created through action-based research using
learners in a unionized factory, community-based women's employment
program, and community-based literacy program. Volunteers at all three
sites committed their time and efforts to filling out the SKP and then
provided feedback on the clarity, usefulness, and ease of using the tool.
Feedback has been incorporated into the SKP in a continuous process. The
evaluation can be used by individuals to sort out their skills and to
focus their efforts on a career path. The SKP is not only a tool, but also
a reflection of a positive trend in adult education by which adult
learners build on and share their own wealth of knowledge and skills.
Adult Basic Education; Adult Learning; Educational
Assessment; Educational Attitudes; Educational Experience; Educational
Needs; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Informal Education;
Measurement; Needs Assessment; Prior Learning; Student Experience; Work
45. Osman, R. (2004). Access,
equity and justice: Three perspectives on recognition of prior learning (RPL)
in higher education. Perspectives in Education, 22(4), 139-146.
article outlines three theoretical perspectives that have emerged in the
literature on RPL and that are useful in understanding the complexities
around prior learning, the human capital perspective, the liberal humanist
perspective and the social constructivist perspective. Although each
approach has its own blind spots and its own critics, it is argued that
conversations between and within these perspectives are valuable for
educators who in the final analysis are the ones who have to design and
implement RPL practices that are educationally defensible and socially
Prior Learning; Human Capital; Constructivism (Learning);
Higher Education; Equal Education; Justice; Access to Education.
46. Peruniak, G., & Welch, D.
(2000). The twinning of potential: Toward an integration of prior learning
assessment with career development. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 34(3),
Argues that prior learning assessment is an integral part of the field of
career development. Highlights some common features in the work of
practitioners of prior leaning assessment and career development.
Emphasizes that the commonalties of purpose should not be sacrificed to
battles of professional identity. Discusses a program that has
successfully integrated prior learning assessment and career development.
Career Development; Foreign Countries; Literature Reviews.
47. Peters, H. (2005).
Contested discourses: Assessing the outcomes of learning from experience
for the award of credit in higher education. Assessment and Evaluation
in Higher Education, 30(3), 273-285.
mature students enter higher education they bring with them a wealth of
knowledge and experience gained in their lives outside of education. A
majority of higher education institutions in the UK and elsewhere around
the world have now set up systems for recognizing and accrediting such
learning. However the processes of assessing learning from experience tend
to conform to other higher education assessment processes, originally
devised for the assessment of learning gained through study in an
educational context. This poses a dilemma for the students presenting
their learning for assessment, those advising or guiding them and those
assessing the learning. How can learning gained in a life/work setting be
quantified and evaluated in academic terms? What happens in this process?
This paper takes a discourse analysis approach to examine the process from
both student and assessor perspectives, and proposes some strategies for
bridging the gap in discourse between the outside world and academia.
Discourse Analysis; Higher Education; Learning Experience;
Student Evaluation; Foreign Countries; Adult Students; Evaluation Methods;
Prior Learning; College Credits; United Kingdom.
48. Romaniuk, K., & Snart, F.
(2000). Enhancing employability: The role of prior learning assessment and
portfolios. Career Development International, 5(6), 318-322.
Discusses how the use of prior learning assessment, especially with
portfolios, can enable workers to take greater responsibility for their
career development and shift emphasis from employment to employability.
Career Development; Employment Potential; Job Skills;
Portfolio Assessment; Prior Learning; Staff Development.
49. Sawchuk, P. (2001). The
final report of the "learning capacities in the community and workplace
project": Unioned industrial workplace site (Ontario). NALL Working Paper
No. 45. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT.
Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
Ontario Industrial Workers' research site offered a basic analysis of
issues relevant to the Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR)
research and the labor education community. Project goals revolved around
the need to examine development and applications of a new PLAR instrument,
the Skills and Knowledge Profile (SKP), which is uniquely suited to
examine the types of strategies, practices, and capacities that working
class participants typically use. Primarily qualitative data from
interviews were analyzed. SKP exhibited "situated" dimensions which, from
a worker's standpoint, largely determined the perceived effectiveness of
the instrument. Social organization of skills, knowledge, and learning
processes were seen as a significant issue in the context of working class
learning strategies, workers' practices, and progressive application of
PLAR instruments such as SKP. In discussions of PLAR, SKP, and labor
unions, notions of class consciousness were intertwined with informal
learning relations. Intersection of class consciousness and development of
critical views on the power relations among forms and conceptions of skill
and knowledge led to the notion of a Workers' Knowledge Bank. In in-depth
discussions, workers indicated the practical use/value was embedded within
the process of administration itself and SKP provoked new understandings
of one's own skills.
Adult Education; Developed Nations; Foreign Countries;
Industrial Training; Informal Education; Labor Education; Learning
Strategies; Participatory Research; Prior Learning; Self Evaluation
(Individuals); Social Cognition; Test Construction; Unions; Working Class;
50. Serafino, K., & Cicchelli,
T. (2003). Cognitive theories, prior knowledge, and anchored instruction
on mathematical problem solving and transfer. Education and Urban
Society, 36(1), 79-93.
Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models -
structured problem solving and guided generation (GG) - on mathematical
problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with
high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for
prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous tasks,
significant between-group differences on favoring the GG model, and
significant interaction between low priors and GG treatment on transfer.
Constructivism (Learning); Disadvantaged Youth; Elementary/
Secondary Education; Epistemology; Mathematics Education; Prior Learning;
Problem Based Learning; Problem Solving; Urban Schools.
51. Sewell, P. M. (2000).
Mature students in part-time higher education - Perceptions of skills.
Innovations in Education and Training International, 37(4), 304-313.
Explores the interface between skills used outside college and those
perceived as relevant to studies in college, based on a survey of mature
part-time undergraduate students. Respondents also rated personal
abilities and characteristics of mature students and offered suggestions
for integrating their skills and experience into the study programs.
Ability; Adult Students; Experience; Higher Education;
Individual Characteristics; Part Time Students; Prior Learning; Skill
Analysis; Student Characteristics; Student Surveys; Undergraduate
Starr-Glass, D., & Schwartzbaum, A. (2003). A liminal space:
Challenges and opportunities in accreditation of prior learning in Judaic
studies. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(2),
Regarding the accreditation of prior learning of Judaic studies, reviews
the difficulties of criterion selection, current accreditation techniques,
and those elements of the ultra-Orthodox structure of learning that are
salient and problematic in accreditations. Drawing metaphorically on the
works of Arnold van Gennep and Victor Turner, encourages a more
theoretical, humble, and sensitive exploration of the liminal space that
lies beyond structures.
Evaluation Criteria; Higher Education; Judaism; Prior
Learning; Religion Studies.
53. Tait, T. (2003). Credit
systems for learning and skills: Current developments. LSDA reports.
United Kingdom; England: Learning and Skills Council, Coventry (England).
January 2003, a national working group was established to review past and
current credit developments in England and recommend ways of taking
learning credit developments forward in the future. The Learning Skill and
Development Agency's case for credit was said to rest on the objectives of
recognizing achievement and motivating learners and making the National
Qualifications Framework more transparent and flexible. Possible uses of
credit by further education, employers, policymakers, national programs,
higher education, online learning providers, and the community and
voluntary sector were identified. The credit framework developed within
further education over the past decade was explained in detail. The
following common features of credit systems across the United Kingdom were
identified: (1) a multilevel framework with level descriptors from entry
level to higher education/professional qualifications; (2) credit based on
achievement of units of assessment and learning outcomes; (3) rejection of
a "one size fits all" approach; (4) use of notational learning time to
establish the credit value of units and qualifications; and (5)
recognition that the framework enables but does not by itself establish
credit accumulation, credit transfer, and other credit-based systems. The
working group called for a common approach to credit operating across the
United Kingdom and encompassing post-16 and higher education, including
Articulation (Education); College Credits; Colleges;
Cooperative Planning; Education Work Relationship; Educational
Certificates; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational
Trends; Employment Qualifications; Glossaries; National Surveys; Policy
Formation; Postsecondary Education; Recognition (Achievement); Student
Certification; Systems Approach; Transfer Policy; Units of Study;
54. Taylor, J. A. (2000).
Adult degree completion programs: A report to the board of trustees from
the task force on adult degree completion programs and the award of credit
for prior learning at the baccalaureate level. Chicago, IL: North Central
Association of Colleges and Schools.
1998, the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools established a
fifteen-member Task Force to study the practices and procedures employed
in adult degree completion programs. An adult degree completion program is
identified as one that is designed especially to meet the needs of the
working adult who, having acquired sixty or more college credit hours
during previous enrollments, is returning to school after an extended
period of absence to obtain a baccalaureate degree. The survey designed by
the Task Force was completed by 78 institutions in the country. The survey
report identified: (1) lessons learned regarding strengths and weaknesses
of the programs; (2) exemplary principles of good practice; (3) the impact
of the programs on the broader educational activities of institutional
providers and the higher education community in general; and (4)
strategies appropriate for an accrediting commission to use in ensuring
quality in adult degree completion programs and practices without
restricting access. Some of the exemplary practices reported in the study
include the following: (1) faculty members are committed to serving adult
learners, have appropriate credentials and participate in policy-making
and professional development activities; (2) the institution offers
adequate administrative support, financial and institutional resources to
ensure the effectiveness of the programs; and (3) the institution provides
access to a range of student services including admissions, financial aid,
academic advising, delivery of course materials, and counseling and
Adult Education; Adult Programs; Bachelors Degrees; College
Credits; Continuing Education; Degrees (Academic); External Degree
Programs; Higher Education; Nontraditional Students; Prior Learning;
Retraining; Special Degree Programs.
55. Thomas, A., Collins, M., &
Plett, L. (2002). Dimensions of the experience of prior learning
assessment & recognition. NALL Working Paper No. 52. Toronto: Centre
for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
study extended studies on use of prior learning assessment and recognition
(PLAR) by concentrating on learners/students outside of the college system
and exploring student experience with all dimensions of the use of PLAR.
Fourteen university students were interviewed. Findings indicated
respondents had re-entered formal education by novel means based on an
individual assessment of what they knew, and had learned, outside the
system of formal education, rather than solely on what they had learned
within it; most encountered PLAR by accident; PLAR became the primary
basis on which they continued in their educational quest, a welcome add-on
that eased and enriched their educational experience, or a minor addition;
they used all available PLAR devices, though a larger proportion used
portfolios than in earlier research, and all respondents were
self-directed students in addition to self-directed learners.
Adult Students; Advanced Placement; College Credits;
Developed Nations; Educational Experience; Experiential Learning; Foreign
Countries; Independent Study; Informal Education; Nontraditional
Education; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials);
Prior Learning; Recognition (Achievement); Student Educational Objectives;
Student Motivation; Universities.
56. Tillema, H. H. (2003).
Integrating developmental assessment with student-directed instruction: A
case in vocational education in the Netherlands. Journal of Vocational
Education & Training, 55(1), 113-125.
Educational Development and Assessment System in a Dutch university's
vocational education program involves student-directed, self-regulated
evaluation methods and integrates assessment with instruction. Evaluation
focuses on competencies and portfolio assessments.
Educational Development; Foreign Countries; Learner
Controlled Instruction; Portfolio Assessment; Prior Learning; Vocational
57. van Rooy, T. (2002).
Recognition of prior learning (RPL): From principle to practice in higher
education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 16(2), 75-82.
to contextualize recognition of prior learning (RPL) as a principle and to
show the implications of recent developments in education for implementing
RPL in higher education in South Africa.
College Credits; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Prior
Learning; Program Implementation.
58. Vanstone, S. C. (1999).
Publications and resources on prior learning assessment and recognition
(PLAR). Compiled for the research network for new approaches to lifelong
learning. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
bibliography provides a thorough and representative sample of the
different types of available Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition
(PLAR) publications and resources. These publications and resources are
grouped under nine categories: (1) PLAR Policy (Canada, Europe, Africa,
Australia, United States of America, New Zealand, Asia and the Pacific,
Comparative Studies); (2) Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education
(General; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Schools; Distance Learning;
Second Language, Basic Education, and Literacy Programs; Methods of
Assessment; Survey of PLAR Users; Assessor and Facilitator Training;
Financing, Promotion, and Marketing); (3) PLAR and Work; (4) PLAR and the
Military; (5) PLAR and Questions of Diversity; (6) Theories and Analysis
of PLAR; (7) PLAR Literature for Learners; (8) PLAR Bibliographies; and
(9) Publications en Francais. The total number of entries is 791; this
number includes those instances when the same publication or resource
appears under more than one category. Some entries are in French. Each
entry consists of some or all of the following components: author(s) or
organization; publication date; title; either place of publication and
publisher or periodical title and pagination; and an annotation.
Access to Education; Adult Basic Education; Adult
Education; Bibliographies; Distance Education; Educational Policy; Ethnic
Groups; Experiential Learning; Females; Foreign Countries; French;
Informal Education; Literacy Education; Marketing; Military Training;
Portfolio Assessment; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Program
Implementation; Public Relations; Second Language Instruction; Secondary
Education; Student Evaluation.
59. Wailey, T., & Simpson, R.
(2000). Juggling between learning and work. AP(E)L in the UK. Lifelong
Learning in Europe, 5(2), 83-89.
framework for learning development in higher education stresses three
types of skills - threshold, key, and transferable - and a variety of
forms for assessing prior (experiential) learning [AP(E)L]. The function
of assessment is both to credit prior learning and diagnose individual
Education Work Relationship; Evaluation Methods;
Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Prior
Learning; Self Evaluation (Individuals); Student Evaluation.