and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
1. Auster, E., &
Chan, D. C. (2003). The library as a learning organization and
the climate for updating in a period of rapidly changing
technologies. Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 40,
Examines some of the factors affecting the participation of librarians in
professional development activities. Reference librarians working in large
urban public libraries in Ontario were surveyed. Data on participation in
formal and informal learning activities, together with information about
their perceptions of their libraries' environment with respect to updating
were obtained from 553 respondents.
Employee Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Learning Activities;
Librarian Attitudes; Library Personnel; Library Surveys; Organizational
Climate; Participation; Professional Development; Professional Personnel;
Public Libraries; Staff Development; Ontario.
2. Boulton-Lewis, G. M.,
Marton, F., Lewis, D. C., & Wilss, L. A. (2000). Learning in formal and
informal contexts: Conceptions and strategies of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander university students. Learning & Instruction, 10(5),
Studied the conceptions of formal learning held by 22 Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander students from 3 Australian universities, a group
with a high attrition rate in tertiary education. Results show that these
students view and approach university learning in much the same way as
other students, but the strategies these students used did not match the
conceptions of learning they held.
Conceptions & Strategies of Learning in Formal VS Informal
Contexts; Enhanced Instruction; Attrition Rate; Youth; Aboriginal; Torres
Strait Islander; Undergraduates.
3. Bradley, P., Oterholt, C.,
Nordheim, L., & Bjorndal, A. (2005). Medical students' and tutors'
experiences of directed and self-directed learning programs in
evidence-based medicine: A qualitative evaluation accompanying a
randomized controlled trial. Evaluation Review, 29(2), 149-177.
qualitative study aims to interpret the results of a randomized controlled
trial comparing two educational programs (directed learning and
self-directed learning) in evidence-based medicine (EBM) for medical
students at the University of Oslo from 2002 to 2003. There is currently
very little comparative educational research in this field. In the trial,
no statistically significant differences between the study groups were
shown for any outcomes considered (EBM knowledge, skills, and attitudes).
Further analysis suggests that main reason for the negative trial results
was that the majority of students learned equally effectively, whichever
program they received, although implementation of the educational programs
was not complete because of varying attendance. This study illustrates a
stepwise evaluation model that might be useful in evaluating other
socially complex interventions.
Medicine; Medical Students; Educational Research; Medical
Education; Tutors; Educational Methods; Program Effectiveness; Foreign
Countries; College Faculty; Student Attitudes.
4. Brougere, G. (2002). Games
and leisure as means of informal learning. Education et Societes, 2(10),
paper introduces & outlines the issues in question that this issue of
Education et Societes examines, namely informal learning in leisure &
entertainment activities. The multiple difficulties inherent in the
relation between games & education have led the author to consider the
problem differently by removing games from the limits of their "ghetto" to
place them within the rest of social activities as a whole producing
fortuitous educational results. However, identifying them cannot be done
without having an influence in turn on these same practices that are then
considered as being potentially educational through a process of
formalization that consists in developing the educational potential of
activities that are then less & less part of informal education. It
remains, nevertheless, that games & other leisure activities, by their
capacity to be taken at a second degree, present potentially educational
means that can take on many different forms depending on the nature of the
expertise undergone by the players involved.
Learning; Leisure; Games; Education.
5. Coffield, F. (Ed.). (2000).
The necessity of informal learning. Bristol: The Policy Press.
paper argues for a fundamental reassessment of the significance of
informal learning. Formal education and training represent only a small
part of all the learning done in schools, colleges, at work, at home and
in the community. Yet it is formal learning which is at the heart of the
government's unshakeable determination to drive up standards by means of
qualifications, national targets and league tables. A hierarchy of
different types of learning has emerged with “learning for earning”at the
top and informal learning at the bottom. This paper concludes, however,
that an unjustifiable reliance on certification may serve to alienate
informal learners. These 'learning entrepreneurs' argue that the formal
training they receive is often dispensable, whereas their own informal
learning is necessary and is very much part of who they are and how they
interact with the world. A love of informal learning which is not linked
to certification or to work appears to be a key characteristic of lifelong
Informal Learning; Training; Standards; Certification.
Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2004). Launching
self-directed learners. Educational Leadership, 62(1), 51.
Self-directed learning enables students to guide themselves and monitor
their own progress towards specific goals. The positive approach towards
self-management in developing alternative strategies to achieve the goals
Independent Study; Active Learning; Learning Strategies;
Self Evaluation (Individuals).
7. Dohmen, G. (2002). PISA: An
impetus for more "natural" learning. Diskurs, 12(2), 39-44.
PISA studies & the recommendations of the German Forum Bildung refer to
the criterion of life skills as the ability to apply relevant information
& knowledge to carrying out everyday tasks & meeting the challenges of
modern life. This means more self-directed learning related to real life
situations & a new convergence toward informal learning. There is a new
trend toward more direct learning to enable people to cope with modern-day
living. The article also interprets it as a new movement toward more
"natural" & more humane learning, which is also more appropriate for
children & pupils.
Federal Republic of Germany; Children; Learning; Skills.
8. Hargrove, K. (2005). In the
classroom: What's a teacher to do? Gifted Child Today, 28(4),
article describes the experiences of a second grade teacher who teaches in
a heterogeneous bilingual classroom in a large district, and his
assignment in a graduate class to conduct action research. This teacher
was concerned about the academic performance and motivation of two gifted,
but underachieving Hispanic boys in his class. Both of the students had
been identified as gifted, based upon high scores on standardized and
non-verbal tests. Each demonstrated high cognitive ability both
mathematically and verbally. After nearly a full year in the second grade
class, both students had shown varying degrees of interest in learning and
self-discipline. There was an apparent discrepancy between their scores on
standardized tests and their actual performance on daily work in the
classroom. They quite often seemed to coast and attempt to get by with the
barest minimum of effort. Having looked at research that says "untreated"
underachievement becomes an entrenched behavior, one that is increasingly
difficult to correct, this teacher, determined not to let that happen to
these two students, developed a two part strategy for teaching these
gifted students involving giving these two boys two different types of
assignments. The first would be traditional, teacher-directed, theme-based
assignments as a normal course of study for the class. The second would be
a self-selected, self-directed independent research project. The
conclusion of this project was that not much changed during the 5-week
project on the standard classroom assignment; however, the self-directed
project, seemed to be a huge success. The students exhibited greater
persistence, drive, interest, creativity, and more dynamic creation of
product. This action research demonstrated the difference a teacher can
make - one who views students as individuals, who gives them personal
interest, and is involved.
Hispanic American Students; Males; Academically Gifted;
Bilingual Education; Action Research; Graduate Study; Grade; Academic
Achievement; Student Motivation; Independent Study; Student Projects.
9. Hengst, H. (2002). Moving
up from additional to main Item: The context of informal learning.
Diskurs, 12(2), 26-33.
paper traces the change in informal learning by describing significant
changes in child culture outside school, in order to alert the reader to
important implications of the fact that formal, institutionalized learning
has been deposed from its ruling position as the principal way of
acquiring knowledge & skills. It illustrates the thesis that a
media-based, global consumer culture constitutes the setting for
children's & adolescents' learning, not only outside school but
increasingly in school as well.
Adolescents; Children; Learning.
10. Hernandez-Encuentra, E., &
Sanchez-Carbonell, J. (2005). The Bologna process and lifelong education:
Problem-based learning. Higher Education in Europe, 30(1), 81-88.
article describes the application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
methodology in the context of a student congress, arguing that such new
approaches to learning are best suited to the goals of the Bologna
Process. The Congress in question enabled Spanish graduate students in
Psychology, many of them mid-career professionals, to increase their
learning motivation, delve deeper into the learning experience, and
further apply their learning and research. By taking an interdisciplinary
approach, all the teachers concerned were able to coordinate their
involvement. Feedback received from students and professors confirms that
the Congress promoted new strategies and skills including self-directed
Teaching Methods; Learning Experience; Learning Motivation;
Educational Change; Interdisciplinary Approach; Graduate Students; Problem
Based Learning; Lifelong Learning; Foreign Countries; Evaluation.
11. Julie Yazici, H. (2005). A
study of collaborative learning style and team learning performance.
Education + Training, 47(3), 216-229.
Self-directed work teams are seen as an important mechanism for dealing
with today's complex and rapidly changing business environment. Team
learning is an attempt to prepare students to real-world experiences. But,
not all teamwork is effective. This paper aims to examine the influence of
learning style preferences on team learning performance. The
Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Scales (GRSLSS) is used to assess
the learning style preferences of business students enrolled in an
operations management class. Students were found to be collaborative
learners. Students' collaborative orientation complements participation
and helps students to compete, which in turn increases team performance.
In addition, influence of learning style varies with educational
experience, gender and major. Graduate students showed to be collaborative
and independent learners. As such, while personal model and formal
authority teaching styles fit best undergraduates learning preferences, at
the graduate level, instructor role changes to facilitator and delegator.
Provides evidence that learning style preferences are valuable for
engaging learners in various collaborative activities and for designing
successful diverse teams.
Teaching Methods; Learning Activities; Teaching Styles;
Graduate Students; Educational Experience; Cognitive Style; Measures
(Individuals); Teamwork; Teacher Role.
12. Livingstone, D. W. (2000).
Researching expanded notions of learning and work and underemployment:
Findings of the first Canadian survey of informal learning practices.
International Review of Education, 46(6), 491-514.
Analyzes the results of the first countrywide survey of the informal
learning practices of adults in Canada, conducted in 1998. The survey
found respondents to be devoting unprecedented amounts of time to learning
activities, including an average of 15 hours per week in informal learning
projects. Implications for policy and program initiatives are included.
Adult Education; Conference Papers; Continuing Education;
Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; National
Surveys; Nontraditional Education; Underemployment; Unemployment; Canada.
13. Livingstone, D. (2001).
Adults' informal learning: Definitions, findings, gaps and future research.
NALL Working Paper No. 21. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and
Work, OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
paper on adult informal learning is divided into four sections. Section 1
examines different conceptions of informal learning and the issues and
limitations associated with alternative definitions of informal learning.
Section 2 is a review of empirical research on the estimated extent, role,
and outcomes of informal learning and posited linkages between informal
and formal methods of learning. It reports that, according to the New
Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) 2000 national survey, over 95
percent of Canadian adults are involved in some form of informal learning
activities that they identify as significant. Section 3 critically
assesses current research approaches to studying informal learning and
identifies policy-relevant knowledge gaps concerning the general level and
nature of informal learning, distribution of informal learning across the
adult population, impact of informal learning on individual and firm
performance, and relationship of informal learning to formal skills
development. Section 4 recommends optimal approaches to future research on
informal learning practices with a particular focus on survey research in
Canada and finds it imperative to establish benchmarks of the general
incidence, basic contents and modes, and any differential patterns of
intentional informal learning and training, and to continue to track
trends in relation to other dimensions of adult learning.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Education Work
Relationship; Educational Research; Experiential Learning; Informal
Education; Intentional Learning; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys;
Outcomes of Education; Research Methodology; Research Needs.
14. Livingstone, D. W.,
Raykov, M., & Stowe, S. (2001). Interest in and factors related to
participation in adult education and informal learning: The AETS 1991,
1993 and 1997 surveys and the 1998 NALL survey. Ottawa: Applied Research
Branch, Human Resources Development Canada.
report offers an analysis of factors related to adult learning in Canada
based on the results of the 1991, 1993 and 1997 Adult Education and
Training Surveys (AETS), covering program and course participation, as
well as the first national survey of informal learning, conducted in 1998
by the research network for New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL).
The paper distinguished three basic dimensions of adult learning: the
initial cycle of formal schooling, further participation in organized
courses and programs, and informal learning that people do on their own
outside educational institutions. The data show that, while Canada
achieved increasingly high levels of post-secondary schooling, the
country's moderate levels of adult course participation declined during
the 1990s. The incidence of self-reported informal learning is estimated
to have reached an average of about 15 hours a week in 1998. Informal
learning is more extensive than formal schooling and is not closely
related to either level of formal schooling or participation in adult
On the basis of
an extensive literature review, major factors related to course
participation are identified, including general social background,
behavioural and attitudinal factors. A preliminary list of factors related
to informal learning is also included. An analysis of the AETS surveys
confirms the significance of age and economic status effects on course
participation and suggests that perceived material barriers to course
participation increased during the 1990s. Among those who were interested
in taking courses, lower income groups found lack of money to be the
greatest barrier, while higher income groups found lack of time to be the
greatest barrier. Further multivariate analyses of background factors and
perceived barriers find that income level had a stronger effect on
participation rates among interested adults than either age or schooling,
and that perceived barriers appear to have much weaker effects than either
income or schooling levels. The NALL survey results support these
Based on these
analyses, recommendations are made for steps to overcome some of the
detected barriers to adult education participation. The report ends with
suggestions for informal learning measures and more inclusive measures of
situational and attitudinal factors in future administrations of the AETS.
Adult Education; Interest; Participation; Barriers;
Informal Learning; Formal Schooling; Further Education; Surveys.
15. Livingstone, D. W. (2006).
Informal learning: Conceptual distinctions and preliminary findings. In Z.
Bekerman, N. Burbules & D. Silberman (Eds.), Learning in hidden places:
The informal education reader. New York: Peter Lang.
paper examines different conceptions of informal learning, summarizes
empirical research on the extent of informal learning in advanced
industrial societies including the most inclusive recent national survey
of informal learning, and critically assesses the limitations of most of
the empirical research to date. The paper concludes with suggestions for
future research on informal learning practices with a particular focus on
Informal Learning; Informal Education; Self-directed
Learning; Studies of Informal Learning; Learning and Work.
16. Luciani, T. (2001).
Second NALL bibliography on informal and non-formal learning. NALL
Working Paper No. 48. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work,
OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
bibliography with 1,273 entries is an updated supplement to the
preliminary 1997 bibliography on informal adult learning. It is a useful
resource guide for those interested in publications (e.g. academic papers,
government reports, grassroots publications) aimed at furthering
understanding of how learning and teaching takes place in different
settings (specifically, informal and non-formal environments). The guide
also lists resources that address how the different ways that learning and
teaching exist in various learning environments can be valued and
supported. Introductory materials include bibliography sources and search
terms. Entries are grouped into these seven categories: (1) general
(overviews, definitions and conceptual distinctions, theories of learning,
conceptual factors/histories, research methods and standpoint of
researchers); (2) surveys/ethnographies; (3) learning power and action in
resisting communities; transitions between learning and work (youth,
higher education, seniors, learning and work mismatches); (4) learning in
the workplace (general; corporations, management, professionals; workers;
other work sites); (5) union-based learning; (6) informal learning and
technology; and (7) prior learning assessment and recognition.
Active Learning; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Associative Learning; Aural Learning; Bibliographies; Computer Uses in
Education; Cooperative Learning; Discovery Learning; Discrimination
Learning; Education Work Relationship; Educational Research; Ethnography;
Experiential Learning; Incidental Learning; Independent Study; Indigenous
Populations; Industrial Education; Informal Education; Intentional
Learning; Labor Education; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Mastery
Learning; Multisensory Learning; Nonformal Education; Nonverbal Learning;
Observational Learning; Prior Learning; Resistance (Psychology); Rote
Learning; Second Language Learning; Sequential Learning; Serial Learning;
Symbolic Learning; Verbal Learning; Visual Learning.
17. Malcolm, J., Hodkinson,
P., & Colley, H. (2003). The interrelationships between informal and
formal learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(7-8), 313-318.
article summarises some of the analysis and findings of a project
commissioned to investigate the meanings and uses of the terms formal,
informal and non-formal learning. Many texts use these terms without any
clear definition, or use conflicting definitions and boundaries. The
article therefore proposes an alternative way of analysing learning
situations in terms of attributes of formality and informality. Applying
this analysis to a range of learning contexts, one of which is described,
suggests that there are significant elements of formal learning in
informal situations, and elements of informality in formal situations; the
two are inter-related. The nature of this inter-relationship, the ways it
is written about and its impact on learners and others, are tightly
related to the organisational, social, cultural, economic, historical and
political contexts in which the learning takes place. The article briefly
indicates some of the implications of our analysis for theorising
learning, and for policy and practice.
Formal Learning; Informal Learning; Non-Formal Learning;
18. Marsick, V. J., Volpe, F.
M., Brooks, A., Cseh, M., Lovin, B. K., Vernon, S., et al. (2000, 8 Mar).
Meeting the informal learning challenges of the free agent learner:
Drawing insights from research-based lessons learned. Paper presented
at the Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Conference, Louisiana.
concept of the free agent learner, which has roots in self-directed and
informal learning theory, has recently emerged as a factor important to
attracting, developing, and keeping knowledge workers. The literature on
free agent learning holds important lessons for today's free agent
learners, human resource developers, and work organizations. Self-directed
learning occurs on a just-in-time basis in response to strongly felt
challenges situated within highly relevant contexts. At least
theoretically, free agent learners are highly self-directed in their
learning. Organizations employing knowledge workers have generally changed
the nature of the psychological contract between free agent learners and
the organization; however, they have not always adjusted systems, rewards,
and cultures to support proactive, free agent learners. Organizations that
want to keep free agent learners motivated and engaged must take the
following steps: make time and space for learning; provide mechanisms for
continual scanning of the environment; stimulate heightened awareness
around learning; build programs around goals and turning points; provide
opportunities for reflection in action; and work around problems
engendered by climates that are often riddled with a lack of trust and
high rewards for individual achievement at the expense of others with whom
employees should be collaborating.
Adjustment (to Environment); Adult Learning; Career
Development; Education Work Relationship; Educational Educational
Research; Employer Employee Relationship; Employment Practices; Foreign
Countries; Independent Study; Informal Education; Labor Force Development;
Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Literature
Reviews; Organizational Change; Organizational Climate; Organizational
Development; Partnerships in Education; Small Businesses; Systems
Approach; Teamwork; Theory Practice Relationship; Work Environment;
Critical Reflection; Europe; Knowledge Management; Learning Organizations;
19. McGivney, V. (1999).
Informal learning in the community: A trigger for change and development.
London: Department for Education and Employment.
Routes of progression from formal to informal learning in community
settings in Great Britain were examined in a study that included three
research strands: literature review; consultation with relevant agencies
and individuals; and visits to nine informal learning environments and
organizations providing informal learning in the community. The study
documented that informal learning takes place in dedicated learning
environments and noneducational settings. The location of learning often
proved more important than its actual focus. Informal learning generated
by local people themselves often led to wider community involvement and
activism, whereas learning arranged by education providers most often led
to high rates of educational progression. Informal learning often started
people on a continuing learning path by helping them become confident and
successful learners. Factors facilitating and impeding educational
progression were identified. It was concluded that, although educational
progression is an important outcome of informal learning, first-step
learning should also be valued for itself. It was further concluded that
the system of funding education must consider the fact that adult learning
pathways are not always in a single direction. Appended is a table
providing examples of progression routes from Open College
Network-accredited programs within England's Open College Network Centre.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Case Studies; Community
Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Benefits; Educational
Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Trends; Enrollment Influences;
Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Literature
Reviews; National Surveys; Needs Assessment; Open Education;
Participation; Policy Formation; Trend Analysis.
20. Miflin, B. (2004). Adult
learning, self-directed learning and problem-based learning:
Deconstructing the connections. Teaching in Higher Education, 9(1),
paper reports a critique of the literature of problem-based learning (PBL)
in medical education. The objective of the review was to examine the
various meanings that medical teachers attribute to concepts of adult
learning and self-directed learning within the context of PBL. The
critique found that there are assumptions about the meanings of adult
learning and self-directed learning that are accepted uncritically as
appropriate to PBL. The nature and the origins of teachers' conceptions of
these ideas are explored in an attempt to clarify the meanings of the
concepts and the relationships amongst them. An alternative meaning for
self-directed learning in PBL curricula is proposed.
Teaching Methods; Medical Education; Problem Based
Learning; Independent Study; Adult Learning; Teacher Attitudes; Foreign
Countries; Cognitive Style.
21. Pearce, C. (2001).
Homeless women, street smarts, and their survival. PAACE Journal of
Adult Learning, 10, 19-30.
qualitative study of four homeless women depicted their self-perceptions,
instability of relationships, decision-making processes, and
resourcefulness. Their informal learning included situational and
intentional learning applied to survival.
Females; Homeless People; Informal Education; Women's
22. Regan, J. A. (2003).
Motivating students towards self-directed learning. Nurse Education
Today, 23(8), 593-599.
from focus groups of 12 nursing students and 8 tutors and survey responses
from 97 students and 18 tutors were analyzed. Results revealed a wide
range of factors motivated students to be self-directed. All students
believed good lectures were highly motivating. Students desired clear
guidance and feedback.
Educational Strategies; Higher Education; Nursing
Education; Student Attitudes; Student Motivation; Teacher Attitudes.
23. Rhee, K. S. (2003).
Self-directed learning: To be aware or not to be aware. Journal of
Management Education, 27(5), 568-589.
Critical incident interviews and questionnaire were used to measure
behavior change in 25 business students who engaged in repeated
reflections on self-directed change and 20 controls. Both groups improved
managerial skills. Those in the reflection group were more aware of their
own change but overestimated the extent of it.
Behavior Change; Business Administration Education;
Estimation (Mathematics); Higher Education; Self Evaluation (Individuals).
24. Robins, J. (2005). Beyond
the bird unit. Teacher Librarian, 33(2), 8.
and Loertscher warn that it is possible to use high-quality information
resources and still create ineffective learning experience for K-12
students. To illustrate, they discuss the "bird unit," the type of
research activity where students search for information in order to fill
in worksheets that they transform into essays and presentations. By
itself, this type of exercise does not go far in promoting information
literacy. National standards for information literacy appear in
information power: building partnerships for learning. These standards
purport to promote the skills of the lifelong learner as related to
information use, self-directed learning, and social responsibility. This
paper contains a brief overview of constructivist teaching strategies
followed by a description of this collaborative inquiry where teachers and
teacher-librarians pooled their experience and knowledge. This paper also
concludes by suggesting a process for using constructivist methods to
enrich any lesson plan.
Constructivism (Learning); Teaching Methods; Problem Based
Learning; Librarian Teacher Cooperation; Information Literacy; Elementary/
25. Stipek, D., & Byler, P.
(2004). The early childhood classroom observation measure. Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(3), 375-397.
study assesses a new measure of early childhood classroom practice in 127
kindergarten- and first-grade classrooms. The measure was designed to be
appropriate for classrooms serving children from the age of 4-7 years. It
assesses the nature and quality of instruction as well as the social
climate and management of the classroom. Two separate scales assess the
degree to which constructivist, child-centered and the degree to which
didactic, teacher-centered instructional practices are implemented.
Findings indicate that the measure produced reliable scores and
meaningful, predictable associations were found between scores on the
observation measure, on the one hand, and teachers' self-reported
practices, teaching goals, relationships with children, and perceptions of
children's ability to be self-directed learners, on the other.
Teaching Methods; Social Environment; Observation;
Constructivism (Learning); Children; Gender Differences; Teacher
26. Winning, T., Skinner, V.,
Townsend, G., Drummond, B., & Kieser, J. (2004). Developing problem-based
learning packages internationally: An evaluation of outcomes.
Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 41(2), 125-144.
to mounting pressure on higher education resources, interested staff in
Australasian dental schools formed a collaborative network to support the
effective implementation of problem-based learning (PBL).
Cross-institutional teams sourced patient cases and developed and
evaluated PBL packages intended to be adaptable for use across curricula
and year levels. Packages were designed to support PBL aims, i.e. to
provide a motivating learning environment, to foster integrated learning,
to encourage a systematic approach to patient management and to develop
self-directed learning skills. This paper describes the collaborative
process and reports on a cross-institutional study (using surveys and
focus groups) to investigate students' experiences of the PBL packages.
The findings show that students in different year levels and institutions
perceived that the packages provided a context compatible with PBL aims,
i.e. one that was motivating and supported integrated, independent
learning. This collaborative approach to developing and evaluating PBL
packages was valuable in effectively utilizing resources and expertise
across Australasian dental schools.
Patients; Resources; Learning; Focus Groups; Dentistry;
Dental Schools; Problem Based Learning.
Yeung, E., Au-Yeung, S., Chiu, T., Mok, N., & Lai, P. (2003).
Problem design in problem-based learning: Evaluating
students' learning and self-directed learning practice. Innovations in
Education and Teaching International, 40(3), 237-244.
Discusses problem-based learning and describes a study at Hong Kong
Polytechnic University that compared learning issues generated by students
with the objectives set by teaching staff, and explored students'
self-directed learning practice and the ability to search for information
in meeting the learning objectives.
Comparative Analysis; Educational Objectives; Evaluation
Methods; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Independent Study;
Information Seeking; Instructional Design; Problem Based Learning; Student