and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
1. Anderson, D.,
Lucas, K. B., & Ginns, I. S. (2003). Theoretical perspectives
on learning in an informal setting. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 40(2), 177-199.
Reports the findings of an interpretive case study of the knowledge
transformations of three Year 7 students who had participated in a class
visit to a science museum and associated post-visit activities. Discusses
theoretical and practical implications of these findings for teachers and
staff of museums and similar institutions.
Case Studies; Concept Mapping; Informal Education; Middle
Schools; Museums; Science Education; Transformative Learning.
2. Antone, E. M. (2000).
Empowering Aboriginal voice in Aboriginal education. Canadian Journal
of Native Education, 24(2), 92-101.
Euro-Western schooling imposed on Canada Natives was meant to destroy
their culture and caused great alienation. This qualitative study of
Onyota'a:ka (Oneida) Indians indicates that bilingual, bicultural
education is needed to restore a strong Native identity. Education must
validate traditional knowledge, values, and skills for Onyota'a:ka people
to survive as a unique nation.
Acculturation; American Indian Education; Canada Natives;
Colonialism; Cultural Maintenance; Culturally Relevant Education;
Educational Needs; Foreign Countries; Language Maintenance; Lifelong
Learning; Nonformal Education; Personal Narratives; Role of Education;
Self Concept; Canada; Oneida (Tribe).
3. Barton, K. C. (2001).
"You'd be wanting to know about the past": Social contexts of children's
historical understanding in Northern Ireland and the USA. Comparative
Education, 37(1), 89-106.
Interviews with 154 elementary school students in Northern Ireland and the
United States found that students in both countries were very interested
in history and learned about history from family and the media, as well as
school. However, the two groups of students had different views on the
importance of history and reasons for studying it.
Children; Educational Attitudes; Elementary Education;
Elementary School Students; Foreign Countries; History Instruction;
Informal Education; Relevance (Education); Role of Education; Social
Attitudes; Student Attitudes; Student Interests; National Identity;
Northern Ireland; United States.
4. Bennetts, C. (2001).
Lifelong learners: In their own words. International Journal of
Lifelong Education, 20(4), 272-288.
Interviews with 24 people depicted the formation of meaningful learning
relationships in their lives and an interpretation of mentoring as a
learning alliance. Most mentoring took place outside formal settings and
was characterized by equality and emotional ties. Mentoring should be
considered as valuable as formal teaching for the promotion of reflection
and sustainable learning.
Foreign Countries; Individual Development; Informal
Education; Interpersonal Relationship; Learning Processes; Lifelong
Learning; Mentors; England.
5. Boss, S. (2002). The
barefoot hours: Out-of-school programs offer to make the most of kids'
free time, turning potentially risky afternoons into golden hours of
opportunity. Northwest Education, 7(4), 2-7.
Research suggests that after-school programs reduce juvenile crime and
risky behavior; increase confidence, academic performance, and social
skills; and build positive adult-child and home-school relationships. The
need for supervised after-school activities, especially in poor
neighborhoods; the characteristics of successful programs; and the need to
balance academic activities and kids' time are discussed.
Adult Child Relationship; After School Programs;
Delinquency Prevention; Disadvantaged Youth; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Emotional Development; Enrichment Activities; Extended School
Day; Informal Education; Program Descriptions; School Recreational
Programs; Social Development.
6. Brooke, H., & Solomon, J.
(2001). Passive visitors or independent explorers: Responses of pupils
with severe learning difficulties at an interactive science centre.
International Journal of Science Education, 23(9), 941-953.
Reports on studies of students with severe learning difficulties and shows
that they could, under appropriate conditions, display impressive
concentration and curiosity, and often appeared to achieve valuable
learning. Describes some of the dilemmas that may arise in developing
these kinds of activities for special education.
Elementary Education; Informal Education; Learning
Disabilities; Learning Problems; Science Activities; Science Instruction;
7. Bye, J. (2000). Making
pathways: Young people and their informal vocational learning.
Australia; New South Wales: Australian National Training Authority,
Current research into youth transitions in Australia documents an
increasingly individualized process in which significant numbers of youths
are deemed at risk of not making a successful transition from school to
work. Many theorists are questioning the applicability of the linear model
of transition to current conditions. Other theorists are questioning
whether the model was ever applicable to all students (especially "nonmainstream"
students). The literature also documents the perceived failure of policy
in ensuring successful transitions through recognized "pathways" of
vocational learning and experience. It may be argued that, by broadening
their focus to include the informal vocational experiences young people
initiate and the type of learning that occurs in such instances,
educational researchers may provide useful insights into how young people
experience the transition process and how they seek to position themselves
in the youth labor market. Research on this area is being conducted as
part of the Research Centre for Vocational Education and Training's
national key center program supported by the Australian National Training
Authority. It is hoped that this research will shed new light on the
increasingly complex transition process experienced by noncollege-bound
young people and help policymakers devise more effective policies to
assist this transition.
Education Work Relationship; Educational Opportunities;
Educational Policy; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; High Risk
Students; Informal Education; Labor Market; Learning Processes; Learning
Theories; Literature Reviews; Models; National Programs; Noncollege Bound
Students; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Research
Methodology; Research Needs; Research Utilization; Secondary Education;
Theory Practice Relationship; Vocational Education; Youth Employment;
Australia; Career Paths.
8. Cohen, E. H. (2004).
Components and symbols of ethnic identity; A case study in informal
education and identity formation in diaspora. Applied Psychology: An
International Review, 53(1), 87-112.
ethnic identity of members of ethnic groups who live in a number of
different countries is influenced by the surrounding cultures. This paper
develops a tool which can help researchers understand the ways in which
individuals perceive their own ethnic identity. The components and symbols
that determine ethnic identification are analysed. By applying
multidimensional analysis techniques to a set of empirical data, we were
able to uncover a structure of identity along two axes: the
cognitive/affective and the specific/universal. This structure enables us
to make comparisons between national sub-populations in terms of their
various emphases and perceptions of ethnic identity. We examine here the
case of staff members in Jewish informal educational settings: 2,119 staff
members from seven countries were surveyed on the self-definitions and
symbols that express their relationship with their ethnic and religious
heritage. This basic typology could be used in studies of other ethnic
groups whose members have emigrated to a number of host countries.
Perception of Ethnic Identity; Components; Symbols;
Cognitive-Affective; Specific-Universal; Typology; Diaspora; Staff
Members; Argentina; Brazil; Canada; France; South Africa; UK; Uruguay.
Cox-Petersen, A. M., Marsh, D. D., Kisiel, J., & Melber, L. M. (2003).
Investigation of guided school tours, student learning, and science
reform recommendations at a museum of natural history. Journal of
Research in Science Teaching, 40(2), 200-218.
Investigates how natural history content is conveyed to students and what
students gain from this model of touring a museum. Discusses how the
content and pedagogy within the guided tour complemented recommendations
from formal science standards documents and informal learning literature.
Educational Change; Elementary/ Secondary Education;
Historic Sites; Informal Education; Museums; Outdoor Activities; Science
10. Dugas, E. (2002). Physical
education and informal education at school. Education et Societes, 2(10),
author carried out a research program in the domain of physical education
to test the role played by the teacher during his interventions in a
varied number of physical recreational situations (traditional games,
sports, & obstacle courses), & he questioned whether pupils can obtain any
significant learning without the teacher actively intervening with his
teaching skills. In other words, can pupils manage to achieve progress in
a physical activity in an informal learning setting based on an
experimental approach? This study tested & analyzed two different kinds of
teaching: recreational (informal learning) & comprehensive (formal
learning). The results revealed that when there was no particular
educational approach by the teacher, the children, nevertheless,
progressed. Of course, formal learning favors learning too, & does so to a
greater effect. However, the facts support an interpretation that
indicates that the precise & structured intervention of a teacher putting
his educational skills to work is very useful for his pupils, but not
indispensable to their progress in recreational physical activities.
Physical Education; Teaching Methods; Learning; Students.
11. Dunst, C.
J., Bruder, M. B., Trivette, C. M., Hamby, D., Raab, M., & McLean, M.
(2001). Characteristics and consequences of everyday natural
learning opportunities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(2),
Relationships among different person and environment characteristics of
everyday natural learning opportunities and changes in child learning,
behavior and performance were examined in a study with 63 parents and
their infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with disabilities or delays.
Findings showed that learning opportunities that were interesting,
engaging, competence producing, and mastery-oriented were associated with
optimal child behavioral change.
Disabilities; Educational Environment; Experiential
Learning; Family Environment; Infants; Informal Education; Learning
Activities; Parent-Child Relationship; Parents as Teachers; Preschool
Children; Toddlers; Natural Learning.
12. Glauert, E. (2005). Making
sense of science in the reception class. International Journal of Early
Years Education, 13(3), 215-233.
the context of growing awareness of young children's capabilities, and
debates about the nature of their reasoning in science, this study set out
to explore the ways in which reception children make sense of classroom
experiences in science. A particular challenge of the study was to develop
appropriate and productive approaches to investigating young children's
developing thinking. The first phase of research, reported in this paper,
concentrated on the topic of electricity. A series of case studies was
undertaken to examine children's learning in a classroom context.
Classroom sessions were video recorded and transcribed to examine the
development of children's practical competence in circuit making, and
interviews were carried out to elicit children's views about electric
circuits. Analysis of the classroom sessions revealed children's growing
competence in circuit making through their self-directed efforts. The
interviews prompted predictions and explanations that were not offered
spontaneously. Responses indicated a range of models of the circuit and
forms of explanation for what was happening in the circuit. The
relationship between children's practical competence, predictions and
explanations was not straightforward. Analysis revealed marked differences
in models of the circuit and forms of explanation in children with the
same levels of practical competence. This has important implications for
the ways in which children's views are assessed.
Preschool Children; Science Education; Case Studies;
Interviews; Data Collection; Nursery Schools.
N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (Eds.). (2005). Funds of
knowledge: Theorizing practices in households and classrooms.
Portland: Lawrence Earlbaum.
concept of "funds of knowledge" is based on a simple premise: people are
competent and have knowledge, and their life experiences have given them
that knowledge. The claim in this volume is that first-hand research
experiences with families allow one to document this competence and
knowledge, and that such engagement provides many possibilities for
positive pedagogical actions. Drawing from both Vygotskian and neo-sociocultural
perspectives in designing a methodology that views the everyday practices
of language and action as constructing knowledge, the funds of knowledge
approach facilitates a systematic and powerful way to represent
communities in terms of the resources they possess and how to harness them
for classroom teaching. This volume accomplishes three objectives: It
gives readers the basic methodology and techniques followed in the
contributors' funds of knowledge research; it extends the boundaries of
what these researchers have done; and it explores the applications to
classroom practice that can result from teachers knowing the communities
in which they work. In a time when national educational discourses focus
on system reform and wholesale replicability across school sites, this
book offers a counter-perspective stating that instruction must be linked
to students' lives, and that details of effective pedagogy should be
linked to local histories and community contexts. This approach should not
be confused with parent participation programs, although that is often a
fortuitous consequence of the work described. It is also not an attempt to
teach parents "how to do school" although that could certainly be an
outcome if the parents so desired. Instead, the funds of knowledge
approach attempts to accomplish something that may be even more
challenging: to alter the perceptions of working-class or poor communities
by viewing their households primarily in terms of their strengths and
resources, their defining pedagogical characteristics.
Housework; Classroom Environment; Teaching; Knowledge.
14. Haines, S. (2003).
Informal life science: Incorporating service learning components into
biology education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 32(7),
Describes a college course enhanced by hands-on science applications and a
service-learning project. Requires registered students to participate in
volunteer training at a nature center and offers certification in several
environmental education curricula. Reports successful outcomes with regard
to conceptual development and teaching experiences.
Biological Sciences; Biology; Course Descriptions;
Elementary Education; Environmental Education; Hands on Science; Higher
Education; Informal Education; Service Learning; Teacher Education
Programs; Teaching Methods.
15. Harrison, L. (2000). The
informal teachers' contribution to lifelong learning. Australian
Journal of Adult Learning, 40(1), 101-106.
Informal adult educators in an Australian rural community (n=31) viewed
their characteristics and commitment to teaching as varying according to
purpose and context. The study suggested that differences in informal
teaching are influenced by the lack of externally imposed criteria and
other institutional constraints.
Adult Education; Community Education; Foreign Countries;
Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Teacher Characteristics; Teaching
Methods; Australia (Tasmania).
16. Harrison, L. (2003). A
case for the underestimated, informal side of lifelong learning.
Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 43(1), 23-42.
Residents of a rural Australian community identified people considered
informal teachers. Informal learning was characterized as arising through
natural social interactions and involving interpersonal relationships and
information exchange. Informal teachers were discovered through
heterophilous contacts and had experience and expertise.
Adult Learning; Foreign Countries; Informal Education;
Interpersonal Relationship; Lifelong Learning; Rural Areas; Teacher
Student Relationship; Australia (Tasmania); Expertise.
17. Inderbitzin, M. (2006).
Lessons from a juvenile training school: Survival and growth. Journal
of Adolescent Research, 21(1), 7-26.
article examines the lessons learned by youths confined to a
maximum-security juvenile correctional facility. Using data from an
ethnographic study of a cottage of violent offenders in one state's
end-of-the-line training school, the author describes the lessons the
institution and its staff members hoped to teach the young people in their
care and the informal but vital lessons the inmates indicated they had
learned during their incarceration. The continued viability of training
schools as a response to serious and violent juvenile offenders is
analyzed and discussed.
Ethnography; Delinquency; Correctional Institutions;
Correctional Education; Youth.
18. Jannings, W., & Armitage,
S. (2001). Informal education: A hidden element of clinical nurse
consultant practice. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 32(2),
survey of 16 Australian clinical nurse consultants showed they spent
substantial time in informal teaching, but only 3% of it is recorded as
limited educational activity for accountability purposes. However, a
survey of 58 nurses taught by the consultants demonstrates the gains
derived from informal education.
Consultants; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Nurses;
Professional Continuing Education; Public Health; Teaching Methods;
19. Matherly, C. (2000).
Exploring nature from the inside out: Homeschooling opportunities at
informal-learning facilities. Legacy, 11(4), 14-20.
Highlights educational opportunities for homeschooling. Suggests visiting
learning facilities such as museums, aquaria, zoos, and parks which
provide access to natural areas, live animals, and self-directed, hands-on
exhibits. Describes learning opportunities at the Tennessee Aquarium.
Aquariums; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Home Schooling;
Nature Centers; Science Activities; Science Instruction; Tennessee.
20. Melber, L. M. (2000). Tap
into Informal science learning. Science Scope, 23(6), 28-31.
Discusses learning environments for informal science learning and points
out the importance of an environment on student learning. Suggests several
tips for field trip organization and accessing learning materials.
Aquariums; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Experiential
Learning; Field Trips; Museums; Nonformal Education; Science Education;
Teacher Improvement; Zoos.
21. Miles, S. P. A., Stauber,
B., Walther, A., Banha, R. M. B., & Gomes, M. D. C. (2002). Communities
of youth: Cultural practice and informal learning. Burlington:
roles of cultural practice and informal learning in young people's
transitions to work and adulthood were explored in case studies of
performing arts programs in Mannheim, Germany; Liverpool, England; and
Lisbon, Portugal. Expert interviews, participant observation, and
documentary analysis were conducted to explore how the pedagogical model
adopted by each program actually worked and what made each program
attractive to participants and effective in easing young people's
transition from school to work. All three programs offered an educational
setting where learning is likely to be closely related to several aspects
of identity work. First, the courses provided young people with a secure
biographical space where they could develop self-confidence and
self-consciousness. Second, the projects managed to bridge the gap between
social and symbolic aspects of youth lifestyles and the perception of
youth prevailing in education and training institutions. Third, the
projects featured a set of properties that are essential to successfully
stipulate informal learning. Those properties included reciprocal
relationships between trainers and participants, openness to experiential
activities, and a combination of activities performed for their own sake
with activities aiming at future goals. The case studies documented the
enormous potential of informal learning in helping youth develop the
generic skills needed for their adult lives and work.
Art Education; Case Studies; Community Support; Cross
Cultural Studies; Developed Nations; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Environment; Educational Practices; Employment Potential;
Empowerment; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Individual
Development; Informal Education; Outcomes of Education; Relevance
(Education); Skill Development; Transitional Programs; Youth Problems;
Youth Programs Contextualized Instruction; England (Liverpool); Europe;
Identity Formation; Portugal (Lisbon); Youth Culture.
22. Nazli, S. (2001). Literacy
without formal education: The case of Pakistan. Journal of
International Development, 13(5), 535-548.
article examines the role that informal educational institutions play in
Pakistan's policy on literacy. An overview of various definitions of
literacy is presented, illustrating how contemporary research has confused
the distinction between literate & illiterate & how the definition of
literacy in Pakistani society has changed. An additional overview of the
Pakistani government's implementation of various literacy policies during
the late 20th century is provided, emphasizing those that have established
informal means of increasing literacy levels. It is argued that informal
education would increase people's literacy in areas of Pakistan that have
low education density levels. Data from the 1981 Population Census are
used to support the hypothesis.
Pakistan; Literacy; Educational Policy.
23. Neufeld, S., Wright, S.
M., & Gaut, J. (2002). Not raising a "bubble kid": Farm parents' attitudes
and practices regarding the employment, training and supervision of their
children. Journal of Rural Health, 18(1), 57-66.
survey of 24 farm families in eastern Washington with at least one child
aged 4-18 examined parents' attitudes toward children's farm work,
children's experiential learning about farm work from an early age, safety
instruction and practices with children, and supervision of children
performing farm work.
Agricultural Safety; Child Development; Child Labor; Child
Rearing; Child Safety; Experiential Learning; Life Style; Nonformal
Education; Parent Attitudes; Rural Family; Rural Farm Residents; Work
Attitudes; Family Farms; Washington.
24. Ng, R. (2002). Training
for whom? For what? Reflection on the lack of training opportunities for
immigrant garment workers. NALL Working Paper No. 66. Toronto: Centre
for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:
Unlike many recent immigrants who entered Canada as highly trained
professionals in their countries of origin, most of Canada's immigrant
garment workers are working-class women with little education. The Apparel
Textile Action Committee (ATAC) and Homeworker's Association (HWA) are
among the bodies that were established to assist immigrant garment workers
in Canada who lost their jobs to industrial restructuring and became home
workers. The experiences of both bodies has made it clear that the
training available to these women does not meet their needs as immigrants
with a limited command of English. A study of the informal learning
outcomes of HWA's members yielded the following findings: (1) most
immigrant garment workers have little expectation that taking classes will
lead to better jobs and higher pay; (2) although most immigrant garment
workers do not expect that English-as-a-second language (ESL) classes will
make them fluent in English, their ESL classes serve important social and
educational purposes by giving participants a place to develop a sense of
sociability with other workers and learn strategies for negotiating their
lives as non-English speaking immigrants and their rights as workers; and
(3) although classes are obvious places to look for informal learning, the
HWA's executive meetings provide environments for explicit "political
Dislocated Workers; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Attitudes; Educational Needs; English (Second Language);
Foreign Countries; Immigrants; Industrial Training; Informal Education;
Labor Education; Labor Market; Needle Trades; Needs Assessment; Non
English Speaking; Outcomes of Education; Political Socialization;
Semiskilled Occupations; Student Attitudes; Teleworking; Women’s
25. Pressick-Kilborn, K.
(2000). Supporting primary students' learning beyond the classroom.
Investigating, 16(4), 14-19.
Shares experiences as a teacher in the School-Museum Informal Learning
Experiences in Science Project (SMILES). Highlights factors that
contribute to excursions that successfully support students' learning of
Informal Education; Museums; Primary Education; Science
Education; Teacher Education.
26. Romi, S. (2000). Distance
learning and non-formal education: Existing trends and new possibilities
of distance learning experiences. Educational Media International, 37(1),
Reviews the characteristics of non-formal education as expressed in
various academic-theoretical definitions, presents the links in this field
to distance learning, and recommends future directions for exploring
distance learning in non-formal education. Discusses the use of
information and communication technology and considers problems with
non-formal education and distance learning.
Distance Education; Educational Technology; Futures of
Society; Information Technology; Nonformal Education; Problems; Technology
Utilization; Theoretical Analysis.
27. Shulman, D., & Silver, I.
(2003). The business of becoming a professional sociologist: Unpacking the
informal training of graduate school. American Sociologist, 34(3),
essay reports on a sociology graduate seminar (“Workplace Studies”) which
allows the instructor and students to combine learning with professional
development by making the work of the class writing a collectively written
“review of the literature” paper. Workplace studies are a genre of
sociology that uses eclectic methods to examine the process of doing work,
particularly the relationship of technology and the doing of the work.
Rather than teaching a traditional graduate seminar in Workplace Studies,
in which students would read and discuss journal articles and book
chapters, and then write a library research paper at the end of the
course, the authors decided to make the goal of the course collectively
writing a review of the literature paper. The authors assembled, read and
summarized a wide range of articles in workplace studies, debated the
strengths, weaknesses, gaps, needs and applications of the field, and came
up with a focus for a review of the literature article.
Sociology; Higher Education; Universities.
28. Silberman-Keller, D.
(2003, April 21-25). Toward the characterization of non-formal
pedagogy. Paper presented at the American Educational Research
study examined characteristic attributes of non-formal education and the
non-formal pedagogy directing its teaching and learning processes. Data
were collected on organizational and pedagogical characteristics in
several out-of-school organizations (youth movements, youth organizations,
community centers, bypass educational systems, local government agencies
offering cultural and other activities geared to youth, and museums of
art, science, and history with educational departments or branches).
Interviews with key players focused on what was being taught, who the
teachers were, how teaching was accomplished, and how the organizations
understood their role in facilitating teaching and learning. Texts
pertaining to the educational organizations were also reviewed. Results
highlighted consistently recurring activities, values, and behaviors. Four
major genres were revealed: the generative element genre, the
administrative-organizational genre, the genre of informal learning, and
the genre of the social function of non-formal education. Characteristic
practices in non-formal pedagogy included practices that: initiated and
fostered images of time and place; engendered phenomenological processes
of teaching and learning through which knowledge was singularly
negotiated; applied dialogue and conversation in teaching and learning
processes; and used play to shape the bond between reality and probability
by expanding the notion of what was considered within the bounds of
Community Centers; Elementary Education; Experiential
Learning; Informal Education; Local Government; Museums; Play;
Socialization; Teaching Methods; Youth Agencies.
C., & Adams, M. E. (1999). The role of administrative office
support personnel in office technology training. Business Education
Forum, 53(4), 14-20.
Responses from 46 of 262 administrative office support workers showed that
a majority was involved in providing office technology training to
subordinates, peers, and superiors, although it was in only one-third of
the job descriptions. More than 95% was informal training/question
Clerical Workers; Computer Literacy; Employee
Responsibility; Informal Education; Office Automation; Training;
Administrative Assistants; User Training.
30. Sperl, C. T. (2003).
Museums as informal learning environments for families that include
children with or without learning disabilities: Exploring children's
knowledge and interest and family interaction styles. Dissertation
Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 64(1-A),
purpose of this study is to explore how family visits to a participatory
exhibition affected the knowledge and interest of children with and
without learning disabilities. Additionally, this study examines the
learning behaviors of parents and children. Further, this investigation
identifies the parent-child interaction styles demonstrated by families
and considers how these patterns are related to children's knowledge and
interest. More specifically, the questions that are addressed in this
study include the following: (a) Does a hands-on learning experience in a
museum's discovery room affect the topic knowledge and interest of
children with and without learning disabilities? (b) How do the behaviors
of children with and without learning disabilities differ in a museum
discovery room? (c) Do parents of children with learning disabilities
interact differently with their children in a discovery room context than
parents of children who are normally achieving? and (d) Are the family
interaction styles differentially related to demonstrated changes in
knowledge and interest for children with and without learning
Museums; Informal Learning; Learning Disabilities; Family
Interaction; Children’s Knowledge; Children’s Interest; Parent-Child
31. Taylor, D. (2002). Gender
differences in informal education environments: A review of the literature
on gender and learning in science museums. Informal Learning(52),
Reviews research related to gender and learning in science museums.
Examines 10 studies including studies of stereotypic behavior patterns,
parent talk and family interactions, and gender-biased exhibits. Describes
the need for a better understanding of gender differences in informal
learning environments and more exhibits specifically designed to interest
Exhibits; Instructional Effectiveness; Museums; Science
Education; Science Teaching Centers; Sex Bias; Sex Differences.
32. Thomas, J. (2000).
Learning about genes and evolution through formal and informal education.
Studies in Science Education, 35, 59-92.
Focuses on the way learning about genetics and evolution raises ideas that
pupils and adults should relate to themselves whether what is learned
helps reveal what science can and cannot say about human nature. Reviews
the impact of informal learning after exploring the role and influence of
informal learning channels.
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Evolution; Genetics;
Higher Education; Informal Education; Science Education.
33. White, R. (2002). The
importance of cultural competence to informal learning attractions.
Informal Learning(52), 18-19.
Discusses the importance of matching informal learning projects to the
cultural contexts of participants. One way to analyze and understand a
culture is to examine how it distinguishes itself from others in terms of
relationships with people, time, and nature. Presents relevant factors to
consider within each of these dimensions. Introduces "Prime Directive of
Cultural Context; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Informal
Education; Nontraditional Education.