and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
1. Aitchison, J.
(2004). Lifelong learning in South Africa: Dreams and
delusions. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(6),
new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning'
in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of
'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has
there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought
significant changes to education and training for adults?
Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Adult Education;
Educational Policy; Policy Analysis.
2. Arnott, A. (2003). Learning
from the past: Implications for effective VET delivery of adult education
services in the Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Adult
Learning, 43(1), 43-72.
Reviews the history of adult education in Australia's Northern Territory,
1974-1989, and compares it to the current state. Finds that adult
education resources were greater 15 years ago. Current training, funding
and delivery lacks context, community control, and local, especially
Aboriginal Australians; Adult Education; Educational
Opportunities; Educational Resources; Foreign Countries; Job Training;
Rural Areas; Vocational Education; Australia (Northern Territory).
3. Baran, J., Berube, G., Roy,
R., & Salmon, W. (2000). Adult education and training in Canada: Key
knowledge gaps. Quebec: HRDC.
paper identifies important knowledge gaps in adult education and training
(AET) in Canada and starts to explore strategies to fill these gaps.
Following an introduction in English and French, each of the next three
sections is comprised of a review of the current state of knowledge on
three topics (outcomes of adult learning, motivations and barriers to
adult learning, and informal learning) and a discussion of major knowledge
gaps relevant to each. Section 2, on outcomes, argues that more must be
known about outcomes in terms of overall benefits and costs if the
adequacy of AET in Canada is to be judged. Section 3, on motivations and
barriers, reports that key knowledge gaps include understanding reasons
for participation and non-participation, and assessing whether individual
decisions to participate or not are somehow unwarranted because they do
not fully reflect associated costs and benefits. The section also argues
that increasing knowledge of barriers to AET is a complementary strategy
to estimating rates of return in the process of judging the adequacy of
training levels in Canada and is essential in design of specific policy
actions towards the pursuit of equity goals. Distribution considerations
are addressed. Section 4 discusses issues related to informal learning and
questions whether informal training is the optimal way for some groups to
acquire new skills. Section 5 situates the issue of AET in the context of
a strategy of human capital investment and provides a sense of what
research priorities should be. Appendixes contain a statistical portrait
of AET in Canada; summaries of major Canadian surveys of AET; and 48-item
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Cost
Effectiveness; Developed Nations; Educational Benefits; Educational Needs;
Enrollment Influences; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Human Capital;
Informal Education; Job Training; Learning Motivation; Outcomes of
Education; Participation; Policy Formation; Research Needs; Skill
Development; Student Motivation; Canada; Return on Investment.
4. Bathmaker, A.-M. (2005).
Hanging in or shaping a future: Defining a role for vocationally related
learning in a "knowledge" society. Journal of Education Policy, 20(1),
paper explores the changing roles and purposes of vocational education for
young people in what has been called a 'knowledge' society, using the
General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) as an example. This
qualification dominated the broad, vocationally-related route within the
English qualifications system throughout the 1990s. The paper considers
how lecturers in a college of further education understood the role and
purpose of GNVQs, and explores the ways in which they engaged in mediating
national qualifications policy in practice, through their engagement with
students and constructions of students' learning identities. The paper
draws on data from a case study of one college of further education in the
English Midlands, which involved interviews with lecturers and students
across three vocational areas of the GNVQ. The focus in this paper is on
the ways in which lecturers constructed GNVQs around what they perceived
to be students' needs. They encouraged students to use GNVQs to shape a
future, which involved progression to further and higher education. The
paper argues that, whilst such attempts to create a constructive and
meaningful role for vocational education are important, they do not
overcome the hierarchical structure of participation in formal learning
which remains inherent in the education system. The paper concludes by
considering the implications of this study for the future role of
vocational education for young people within a wider system of education
Qualifications; Young Adults; Adult Education; Vocational
Education; Futures of Society; Foreign Countries; Student Needs; Higher
Education; Case Studies; Role of Education; England.
5. Federighi, P. (Ed.).
(1999). Glossary of adult learning in Europe. Brussels: Commission
of the European Communities. Directorate-General for Education and
Detailed "definitions" of more than 150 key terms covering the lexicon
currently being used in the field of adult learning in 20 European
countries. Beginning with an introduction that discusses the glossary's
theoretical and historical references and includes 14 references and a
16-item bibliography. After the introduction, the glossary entries were
developed by 40 experts of different nationalities including: the term in
English and/or the language in which it originated; the country/countries
where the term developed; detailed information about the term's origin,
evolution, and current usage; and one or more references. Key terms belong
to one of the following categories: (1) theories & general concepts; (2)
strategies & policies (general concepts, legislation and measures); (3)
system & sectors (the general system, services, school, culture, work,
organizations and providers); (4) organizations & providers; (5) programs,
activities, and methods; (6) the public; and (7) adult learning operators.
Various entries concern a wide variety of forms of adult education,
including community, continuing, nonformal, popular, reflexive,
vocational, work-based, literacy, open, civic, professional, and corporate
education, as well as lifelong learning, self-directed learning, study
associations, workers' universities, apprenticeships, along with adult
education programs for specific ethnic groups and special populations.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Educators;
Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Certification; Colleges; Continuing
Education; Correctional Education; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Distance
Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Finance; Educational
Legislation; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Educational
Practices; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Educational
Theories; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; General Education;
Glossaries; Government School Relationship; High Schools; Independent
Study; Informal Education; Leadership Training; Learning Theories;
Lifelong Learning; Models; Nontraditional Students; Open Education;
Organizations (Groups); Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary
Education; Public Policy; Special Education; Student Evaluation; Teacher
Education; Teaching Methods; Universities; Vocational Education; Youth
Programs; Europe; Folk High Schools; Institutionalization (of Change);
Social Partners (European Community); Stakeholders; Work Based Learning.
Fretwell, D. H., & Colombano, J. E. (2000).
Adult continuing education: An integral part of lifelong learning.
Emerging policies and programs for the 21st century in upper and middle
income countries. World Bank discussion paper. Washington: The World Bank.
continuing education (ACE) can be a major force in human capital
development and an integral part of lifelong learning. Although
recognition of the importance of ACE in developed countries is increasing,
the impact of ACE is not well understood in some middle-income countries (MICs),
there is a lack of leadership, and the sector is somewhat underdeveloped.
ACE must be viewed as a number of interrelated policies and delivery
systems reflecting the needs of different clients and components of ACE.
Successful governance of ACE depends on involving key stakeholders. Major
issues that need to be addressed include equity, access, and support for
career progression for adults. Although individuals and/or employers often
bear the financial costs of ACE, there is recognition of the need for
investment of some public funds to support ACE programs in literacy and
foundation education and for some categories of clients to ensure access
and promote equity objectives. MICs that are developing ACE as an integral
part of lifelong learning must adopt policy and delivery models addressing
learning objectives through a combination of short- and long-term programs
to a broad range of clients in what are often nonconventional settings.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning;
Articulation (Education); Certification; Comparative Analysis; Continuing
Education; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Developing Nations;
Disadvantaged; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship;
Educational Administration; Educational Finance; Educational Policy;
Educational Practices; Educational Technology; Educational Theories;
Employment Patterns; Employment Qualifications; Enrollment Trends; Equal
Education; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; Government School
Relationship; Human Capital; Job Skills; Lifelong Learning; National
Standards; Needs Assessment; Nongovernmental Organizations; Outcomes of
Education; Postsecondary Education; Role of Education; Salary Wage
Differentials; Theory Practice Relationship; Training; Trend Analysis;
7. Grubb, W. N. (2005).
Cinderella without her prince: Further education colleges in England.
Perspectives: policy and practice in higher education, 9(1), 23-28.
the expansion and increasingly vocational orientation of English
education, Further Education (FE) colleges have played special roles (as
have community colleges in the US). FE colleges are conventionally
described as the Cinderella of British education - the overlooked beauty
who comes to widespread attention because of her courtship by the prince.
Certainly FE colleges are overlooked, in the sense that they receive much
less attention than do universities, and also in the sense that there has
been relatively little research and writing about them. But it is unclear
who the prince might be, and policies over the past decade have not done
much to raise these institutions from relative obscurity. FE colleges
developed from adult education and training, part-time and voluntary,
provided in fragmented and ad hoc ways. These providers, including many
mechanics' institutes, aggregated into technical colleges providing
day-release training for apprentices and employed individuals. In the late
1960s these were transformed into FE colleges with a broader array of
academic, vocational, and pre-vocational offerings - like the broad array
of offerings in community colleges.
Foreign Countries; Adult Education; Technical Institutes;
Continuing Education; Educational History; Vocational Education; Career
Education; Educational Policy; Government Role; England.
Hamil-Luker, J., & Uhlenberg, P. (2002).
Later life education in the 1990s: Increasing involvement and continuing
disparity. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences &
Social Sciences, 57B(6), S324-S331.
paper examines age differences in adults' participation in, perceived
barriers to, and institutional support for educational activities provided
by schools, businesses, and community organizations in the 1990s.
Researchers conducted descriptive and logistic regression analyses on a
sample of respondents aged 30-74 yrs from the National Household Education
Surveys. Adult education participation rates increased for all ages over
the 1990s, but gains were proportionately largest among people in later
phases of the life course. Although age was a weaker predictor of engaging
in educational activities at the end of the 1990s than it was at the
beginning of the decade, older adults continue to be less likely than
younger ones to participate in education and training provided by
businesses and schools. Some age discrepancy occurs because employers are
more likely to provide financial support for training to younger
employees. Older adults, however, are less likely than younger adults to
perceive obstacles to their participation in education and training. It is
concluded that, although age-graded roles of student, worker, and retiree
are becoming increasingly blurred, Americans' pursuit of education at the
end of the 20th century was still guided by age-related role expectations.
Adult Education; Age Differences; Participation; Trends.
9. Harrison, R., Reeve, F.,
Cartwright, M., & Edwards, R. (Eds.). (2002). Supporting lifelong
learning. New York: Routledge.
Open University Reader looks at the practices of learning and teaching
which have been developed to support lifelong learning, and the
understanding and assumptions that underpin them. The selection of texts
trace the widening scope of academic understanding of learning and
teaching, and considers the implications for those who develop programmes
of learning. The authors examine in great depth those theories that have
had the greatest impact in the field, theories of reflection and learning
from experience and theories of situated learning. The implications of
these theories are examined in relation to themes which run across the
reader, primarily, workplace learning, literacies, and the possibilities
offered by information and communication technologies. The particular
focus of this Reader is on the psychological or cognitive phenomena that
happen in the minds of individual learners. The readings have been
selected to represent a range of experience in different sectors of
education from around the globe.
Adult Learning; Continuing Education; Lifelong Learning;
Work and Learning.
10. Herman, L., & Mandell, A.
(2004). From teaching to mentoring: Principles and practice, dialogue and
life in adult education. New York: RoutledgeFalme.
book explains both the principles of adult education and their application
in the daily work of teaching adult college students. The authors draw
upon more than two decades of experience integrating research and practice
to contribute to the prominent national and international discussions.
Adult Education; College; Work.
11. Hudson, L., Bhandari, R.,
Peter, K., & Bills, D. B. (2005). Labor force participation in formal
work-related education in 2000-01. Washington: National Center for
the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important
is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important
not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that
adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report
examines how adults in the labor force use formal education and training
to acquire and maintain their workforce skills. This report examines how
adults in the labor force use formal education and training to acquire and
maintain their workforce skills. The report is based on data from the
Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Survey of the 2001 National
Household Education Surveys Program (AELL-NHES:2001) conducted by the
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The report describes
participation in work-related education among 25- to 64-year-old civilian,
non-institutionalized labor force members (employed and unemployed adults)
over a 12-month period in 2000-01. (The age restriction and the
restriction to labor force members make this population different from
that used in past NCES reports of NHES data.) The comparisons made in the
text were tested using the Student's "t" statistic; all differences cited
are statistically significant at the .05 level. Appended are: (1) Standard
Error Tables; and (2) Technical Notes and Methodology.
Lifelong Learning; Labor Market; Labor Force; Education
Work Relationship; Job Skills; Adults; Adult Education; Postsecondary
Education; Apprenticeships; Vocational Education.
12. Hughes, M. E., & Turner,
P. E. (2002). Mapping research into the delivery of work-based
learning. LSDA Research Report. London: Learning and Skills
report provides a summary of findings from research into work-related
education and training undertaken over the last five years by
organizations then called the Further Education Development Agency (FEDA)
and Quality and Performance Improvement Dissemination (QPID) Unit of the
Department for Education and Employment. Cross-references to relevant
material are included in the individual topic-related sections. After an
introduction, Section 2 lists overarching messages and provides a summary
of key findings and their implications for post-16 learning. Sections 3-13
report findings for specific aspects of post-16 learning. Each section
includes keywords; summary of key messages from FEDA/QPID research; and
further details of the key FEDA/QPID research findings. The 11 aspects of
post-16 learning considered are the learner and learning experience;
learning facilitators (teacher/trainer/assessor/mentor); teaching and
learning methods; the content of learning programs; assessment and
qualifications; quality and inspection; barriers to participation; equal
opportunities; learners, learning, and the labor market; policy/program
development; and operational management. Appendixes include annotated
bibliographies of 78 topic-related FEDA and 60 topic-related QPID
materials; a 230-item bibliography of further QPID information; and a
glossary. The annotated bibliography entries include audience, purpose,
and which topic(s) are addressed.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Annotated
Bibliographies; Basic Skills; Career Education; Developed Nations;
Educational Certificates; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Equal
Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Industrial Training;
Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Market; Out of School Youth; Prior
Learning; Staff Development; Student Certification; Vocational Education.
13. Jarvis, P. E. (2001).
Twentieth century thinkers in adult & continuing education (2 ed.).
book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing
education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th
century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists
of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and
social change. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Adult
Education - An Ideal for Modernity?" (Peter Jarvis); "Albert Mansbridge"
(David Alfred); "Basil Yeaxlee and the Origins of Lifelong Education"
(Angela Cross-Durrant); "R. H. Tawney - Patron Saint of Adult Education"
(Barry Elsey); "John Dewey and Lifelong Education" (Angela Cross-Durrant);
"E. L. Thorndike" (W. A. Smith); "Eduard Lindeman" (Stephen Brookfield);
"Robert Peers" (Stella Parker); "Cyril O. Houle" (William S. Griffith
[updated by Peter Jarvis]); "Malcolm S. Knowles" (Peter Jarvis); "Roby
Kidd - Intellectual Voyager" (Alan M. Thomas); "K. Patricia Cross" (Carol
E. Kasworm); "Chris Argyris - The Reluctant Adult Educator" (Karen E.
Watkins and Jacqueline A. Wilson); "Donald Schon" (Ron Cervero); "Moses
Coady and Antigonish" (John M. Crane); "Horton of Highlander" (John M.
Peters and Brenda Bell); "Paulo Freire" (Peter Jarvis); "Ettore Gelpi"
(Colin Griffin); "Women in Adult Education - Second Rate or Second Class?"
(Mal Leicester); and "Conclusion: Adult Education at the End of the
Twentieth-Century" (Peter Jarvis).
Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult
Literacy; Adult Programs; Adult Students; Antigonish Movement; Colleges;
Continuing Education; Corporate Education; Disadvantaged; Distance
Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Educational
History; Educational Objectives; Educational Psychology; Educational
Theories; Foreign Countries; General Education; Global Approach;
Independent Study; Intelligence; Labor Force Development; Learning
Processes; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Motivation Techniques;
Nonformal Education; Nontraditional Students; Open Education;
Postsecondary Education; Reflective Teaching; Social Change; Student
Characteristics; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Trend
Analysis; Universities; Vocational Education; Women’s Education; United
Kingdom; United States.
14. Jarvis, P. (2004).
Adult education and lifelong learning: Theory and practice (3rd
ed.). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
this book, the author has made extensive revisions and included
substantial additional material to take account of the many changes, which
have occurred, in the field of adult education. The book starts with a
rationale for the provision of education for adults and analyses
contemporary theory before going on to give practical advice on the
curriculum development and the teaching of adults. Adult education
students will find it an invaluable course companion, whilst practitioners
in the field of adult and continuing education and lifelong learning will
find much in this book that is relevant to their day-to-day work.
Adult Education; Continuing Education; Curriculum
15. Kim, K., Hagedorn, M.,
Williamson, J., & Chapman, C. (2004). National household education
surveys of 2001: Participation in adult education and lifelong learning,
2000-01, Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004050.pdf
Adults participate in various types of educational activities in order to
acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the workforce, to
earn a college or advanced degree, to learn basic skills or English
language skills, or to enrich their lives. Taken as a whole, these
activities constitute adult education. Traditionally, full-time enrollment
in postsecondary degree or diploma programs is not considered to be adult
education participation. This report holds to that convention. A recent
study indicates that participation in adult education has grown steadily
over the past three decades (Kim and Creighton 2000; Creighton and Hudson
2002). Many societal factors influence participation in adult education
activities. Changing demographics, including the aging of the population,
reentry of women into the workplace, and an influx of immigrants, alter
the base of potential participants. The effect of the global economy and
technological advances on the nature of adult education has been
Lifelong Learning; Housework; Adult Education; United
States of America.
16. La Belle, T. J. (2000).
The changing nature of non-formal education in Latin America.
Comparative Education, 36(1), 21-36.
Traces the history of nonformal education in Latin America since the
1920s, highlighting community-based programs, literacy education,
vocational training, extension education, popular education, community
schooling, and female-dominated social movements. Suggests citizenship
education, the needs of indigenous populations, and urban youth
unemployment as potential areas for nonformal education programming.
Adult Education; Community Education; Educational History;
Educational Needs; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Job Training;
Nonformal Education; Popular Education; Poverty; Latin America; Social
17. Langer, N. (2002).
Enhancing adult learning in aging studies. Educational Gerontology, 28(10),
Presents a rationale for shifting the focus of social work /gerontology
education from training to a learner-centered approach that incorporates
principles of adult learning. Suggests the use of adult experiences,
storytelling, simulation, role playing, and a supportive learning
Adult Learning; Aging (Individuals); Educational
Environment; Gerontology; Higher Education; Social Work; Learner Centered
18. Lavrnja, I., & Klapan, A.
(2000). Methodological suspicions in the future study of adult
education. Paper presented at the Salzburg Talking, Salzburg.
Science plays an extremely important role in predicting the future of
social phenomena, including pedagogy and andragogy. Research in these
areas must be based on an interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, systemic,
and structural approach that is based on the assumption that upbringing
and education are specific phenomena in which human praxis - conscious and
creative human activity - plays a prominent role. Value-normative
statements must be differentiated from cognitive statements of upbringing
and education so as to differentiate between the methodological approach
of "exploration of the future" and that of "creating and modeling the
future." Future research in pedagogy and andragogy should be based on the
fact that education can give to the Marxist- Socialist system and all its
subsystems all that ensues from its authentic nature and functionality.
Researchers could then use the methodological set of instruments and
orientation that can foresee such development in the future. When dealing
with the adult education concept of lifelong education, researchers should
shift their focus from "education for the future" to "education and the
future." Croatia's system and model of formal education must be broadened;
nonformal and informal education must be promoted and better organized;
and adult education must be enriched with modern methods, forms, and
Adult Education; Andragogy; Change Strategies; Educational
Change; Educational Finance; Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy;
Educational Research; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Futures of
Society; Instruction; Interdisciplinary Approach; Lifelong Learning;
Marxism; Needs Assessment; Position Papers; Prediction; Predictive
Measurement; Predictive Validity; Predictor Variables; Research Design;
Research Methodology; Socialism; Trend Analysis; Croatia; Praxis.
19. Nash, I., & Walshe, J.
(1999). Overcoming exclusion through adult learning. Paris: OECD.
this study, strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning
were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following
countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the
United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal,
nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based
learning initiatives. Special attention was paid to the following topics:
concepts and dimensions of social exclusion and adult learning; national
policy approaches and local initiatives designed to combat exclusion
through adult learning; and costs and effectiveness. The following were
among the main conclusions: (1) given sufficient energy, innovation, and
support, innovative programs can help combat even severe disadvantage and
exclusion; (2) small-scale but sustained investment can be more effective
than less-targeted, "scatter-gun" funding of large-scale programs; (3)
policies must be devised in a manner that does not constrain grassroots
energy or cross conventional departmental and policy demarcations; (4)
programs should be demand driven rather than supply driven; (5) leadership
is the crucial determinant of programs' futures; and (6) programs should
focus not only on developing vocational knowledge and skills but also on
equipping adults for shifting working and labor market arrangements.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult
Programs; Case Studies; Community Education; Comparative Analysis; Context
Effect; Conventional Instruction; Cost Effectiveness; Developed Nations;
Developing Nations; Disadvantaged; Educational Environment; Educational
Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Research;
Educational Trends; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Human Capital;
Informal Education; Innovation; Job Skills; Learning Theories; Lifelong
Learning; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education; Participation;
Partnerships in Education; Private Sector; Program Costs; Program
Effectiveness; Public Education; Public Policy; Research Needs; School
Business Relationship; Skill Development; Social Integration; Social
Isolation; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational
20. Novak, M. (2001). The new
older learner. Continuing Higher Education Review, 65, 98-105.
Current models of university continuing education resemble traditional
higher education and do not meet the needs of people in or near
retirement. Constraints on change include a mindset focused on formal
education as career development, the need for programs to be
self-sufficient, and a reward structure that does not support programs for
Adult Learning; Adult Students; Continuing Education;
Educational Change; Higher Education; Older Adults.
21. Pickerden, A. (2002).
Muslim women in higher education: New sites of lifelong learning.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 37-43.
British university sought to increase participation of Muslim women in
higher education by working with community organizations, conducting focus
groups, developing curricula desired by learners, and delivering them at
community sites. Flexible entry points and supports for nontraditional
students were recommended.
Access to Education; Adult Learning; Community
Organizations; Females; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Muslims;
Outreach Programs; Research Universities; Women's Education; United
22. Poonwassie, D. H., &
Poonwassie, A. (2001). Fundamentals of adult education: Issues and
practices for lifelong learning. Toronto: Thompson Educational.
document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and
foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following
papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper);
"Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman);
"Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory Building in Adult
Education: Questioning Our Grasp of the Obvious" (Donovan Plumb, Michael
R. Welton); "Perspectives and Theories of Adult Learning" (Karen M. Magro);
"Needs Assessment" (Thomas J. Sork); "Program Planning in Adult Education"
(Atlanta Sloane-Seale); "University Continuing Education: Traditions and
Transitions" (Anne Percival); "Facilitating Adult Education: A
Practitioner's Perspective" (Anne Poonwassie); "Prior Learning Assessment:
Looking Back, Looking Forward" (Angelina T. Wong); "Adult Education in the
Community Colleges" (Anthony Bos); "A UNESCO [United Nations Educational,
Scientific, and Cultural Organization] View of Adult Education and Civil
Society" (Marshall Wm. Conley, Elisabeth Barot); "The Issue of Access in
Adult Education: Privilege and Possibility") (Dianne L. Conrad); "Labour
Education in Canada" (Bruce Spencer); "Technical-Vocational Education and
Training" (David N. Wilson); "The Issue of Professionalization for Adult
Educators in Quebec" (Paul Bouchard); "Women's Empowerment and Adult
Education" (Margot Morrish, Nancy Buchanan); "Adult Education in First
Nations Communities: Starting with the People" (Deo H. Poonwassie);
"Distance Education for Adults" (Walter Archer); and "Lifelong Learning,
Voluntary Action and Civil Society" (Alan M. Thomas). Most papers include
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Educators;
Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Andragogy; Citizenship Education;
Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Distance Education; Educational
History; Educational Needs; Educational Opportunities; Educational
Planning; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Educational Trends;
Empowerment; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Indigenous Populations;
International Organizations; Job Training; Labor Education; Lifelong
Learning; Needs Assessment; Nongovernmental Organizations; Postsecondary
Education; Prior Learning; Professional Development; Program Development;
School Community Relationship; Student Evaluation; Teacher Improvement;
Technical Education; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Two
Year Colleges; Universities; Vocational Education; Volunteers; Women’s
23. Roberson, J. D. N. (2005).
Masters of adaptation: Learning in late life adjustments. International
Journal of Aging and Human Development, 61(4), 265-291.
purpose of this research is to understand the relationship between human
development in older adults and personal learning. Personal or
self-directed learning (SDL) refers to a style of learning where the
individual directs, controls, and evaluates what is learned. It may occur
with formal classes, but most often takes place in non-formal situations.
This study employed a descriptive qualitative design incorporating
in-depth, semi-structured interviews for data collection. The sample of 10
purposefully selected older adults from a rural area reflected diversity
in gender, race, education, and employment. Data analysis was guided by
the constant comparative method. The primary late life adjustments of
these older adults were in response to having extra time, changes in
family, and social and physical loss. This research also indicated that
late life adjustments are a primary incentive for self-directed learning.
The results of this study indicated that older adults become masters of
adaptation through the use of self-directed learning activities.
Comparative Analysis; Rural Areas; Older Adults; Individual
Development; Independent Study; Learning Activities; Adjustment (to
Environment); Independent Study; Coping.
24. Schuller, T., Brassett-Grundy,
A., Green, A., Hammond, C., & Preston, J. (2002). Learning, continuity
and change in adult life. Wider benefits of learning research report.
London: Department for Education and Skills.
relationship between learning and continuity and change in adult life was
explored in a study involving 140 in-depth biographical interviews of
adult learners in 3 different areas of England and case studies of 6 adult
learners. The study methodology was based on a triangular
conceptualization according to which personal identity, human capital, and
social capital constitute the apices of a triangle encompassing 12
categories of benefits derived from learning. The study established that
initial education has a variety of effects beyond the crucial effects on
subsequent life changes and earnings that have been well documented
elsewhere. Education was shown to provide structure to people's lives and
the confidence, skills, and opportunity to access knowledge relevant to
new situations. Family members' participation in learning benefitted the
rest of their families in numerous ways. Little evidence of education
directly improving physical health was found; however, participation in
education promoted civic activity and development of social capital and
social cohesion. Policymakers were advised to give greater recognition to
the sustaining effect of education on personal lives and the social fabric
and to the benefits of family learning programs and nonaccredited and
local courses. Information about respondents' background characteristics
and the interview topic guides are appended.
Adjustment (to Environment); Adult Education; Adult
Learning; Adult Students; Career Change; Case Studies; Educational
Attitudes; Educational Benefits; Educational Environment; Educational
Research; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Family School Relationship;
Foreign Countries; Individual Development; Learning Experience; Lifelong
Learning; Models; Nonformal Education; Participant Characteristics;
Personal Narratives; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Research
Methodology; Role of Education; Social Change; Social Integration.
25. Segrist, K. (2004).
Attitudes of older adults toward a computer training program.
Educational Gerontology, 30(7), 563-571.
older adults have an interest in learning to use computers. The study
reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward
computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training.
Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses
offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the Attitudes Toward
Computers Questionnaire (ATCQ) before and after class participation.
Attitudes were assessed on seven dimensions. There was borderline
statistical significance for the "comfort" attitude dimension, which
assesses the respondent's feeling of comfort with the computer and its
use. No significant differences were found for the remaining six attitude
dimensions. The results underscore the importance of the intervention
design in eliciting attitude change. Based upon the findings of this
research, several actions have taken place to increase comfort and
efficacy and to control attitudinal dimensions, thereby providing more
meaningful experiences for the participants.
Older Adults; Attitude Change; Computer Attitudes; Computer
Literacy; Computers; Program Effectiveness; Training; Adult Education.
26. Stein, D. (2000).
Teaching critical reflection. Myths and realities. Washington, DC:
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and
Critical reflection blends learning through experience with theoretical
and technical learning to form new knowledge constructions and new
behaviors or insights. Through the process of critical reflection, adults
come to interpret and create new knowledge and actions from their
experiences. It is generally agreed that critical reflection consists of a
process that can be taught to adults. Brookfield identified the following
processes as being central to learning how to be critically reflective:
assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation, and
reflective skepticism. Some educators consider critical reflection a
learning strategy that can be taught with tools such as diaries, action
learning groups, autobiographical stories, and sketching. However, other
educators question the usefulness of classroom teaching in helping adults
learn to engage in critical reflection. Wellington identified the
following five orientations for differentiating levels of reflection:
immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal. Although
reflection should help learners make meaning out of content applied in a
specific practice situation, critical reflection skills learned in the
classroom may be different from the skills needed in the everyday world.
However, critical reflection holds the promise of emancipatory learning
that frees adults from the implicit assumptions constraining thought and
action in the everyday world.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Classroom Techniques;
Critical Thinking; Definitions; Educational Practices; Educational
Theories; Experiential Learning; Learning Processes; Prior Learning;
Reflective Teaching; Relevance (Education); Teacher Attitudes; Teaching
Methods; Theory Practice Relationship.
27. Tangen, F. (2000). OECD
thematic review on adult learning: Norway: Background report. Paris: OECD.
learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the
following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in,
providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing
adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main
findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long tradition in Norway
and was originally in the hands of nongovernmental organizations; (2)
today, adult education in Norway takes place in numerous arenas, including
the public education system, resource centers, study associations, folk
high schools, distance education institutions, private institutions, and
enterprises; (3) of Norway's 4.48 million adults, approximately 1 million
participate in adult education annually; (4) comprehensive reforms
implemented in Norway's initial education and training system in the 1990s
have allowed for the fact that education will increasingly be viewed in a
lifelong learning perspective; and (5) the goals of the many public- and
private-sector actors involved in developing learning arenas for adults
and systems of lifelong learning include developing broad understanding of
good teaching arenas and efficient systems for lifelong learning and
building competence among special target groups.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; At Risk
Persons; Change Strategies; Competency Based Education; Curriculum;
Delivery Systems; Distance Education; Educational Administration;
Educational Change; Educational Counseling; Educational Finance;
Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational
Research; Enrollment Trends; Financial Support; Foreign Countries;
Glossaries; Government School Relationship; Job Training; Labor Market;
Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Literature
Reviews; Multimedia Instruction; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education;
Nongovernmental Organizations; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation;
Popular Education; Postsecondary Education; Private Schools; Program
Administration; Program Costs; Public Schools; Special Needs Students;
Student Certification; Student Characteristics; Student Educational
Objectives; Student Evaluation; Tables (Data); Teacher Education; Teaching
Methods; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational
28. Thompson, J. E. (2000).
Stretching the academy: The politics and practice of widening
participation in higher education. Leicester, England: NIACE.
12 papers support the view that the current, general interest in widening
participation in higher education in the United Kingdom may provide
opportunities to radicalize policies and intervene strategically in
institutional practices in ways that help to influence them. Papers
include "Joining, Invading, Reconstructing" (Janice Malcolm), which uses
the author's personal experience to clarify her concerns about the
contemporary practice of widening participation. "Beyond Rhetoric" (Mary
Stuart) highlights one methodology for participation in higher education
that grew out of approaches used in third world development and
philosophically linked to the ideal of a popular education. "Concepts of
Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education" (Richard Taylor) insists the
role of the radical educator is to encourage and support the democratic
and progressive articulation of self-directed learning. "Social Capital"
(Loraine Blaxter, Christina Hughes) considers this concept within a frame
that extends critical thinking about issues of social inclusion.
"Missionary and Other Positions" (Pat Whaley) describes a joint initiative
between the University of Durham and the Cleveland Community Enterprise
Network to develop an accredited undergraduate program in community
development and enterprise. "Working with Contradictions in the Struggle
for Access" (John Bamber et al.) suggests actions and strategies that can
make a positive difference in institutional contradictions.
Access to Education; Adult Education; Adults; Community
Development; Community Education; Democracy; Educational Change;
Educational Policy; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Feminism;
Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Independent Study; Participation;
School Community Relationship; Social Isolation; Women’s Education;
Ireland; Radical Education; Self Direction; Social Capital; United
29. Tikkanen, T., Lahn, L. C.,
Withnall, A., Ward, P., & Lyng, K. (2002). Working life changes and
training of older workers. Research report. Trondheim, Norway: VOX &
WORKTOW was a multidisciplinary action research project carried out in 27
small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom, Finland, and
Norway. The main focus was on the learning of workers aged 45 and older.
In-depth case studies were conducted in all three countries involving a
range of learning interventions. Results showed age was not related to how
stimulating workplaces were experienced as learning environments nor to
subjective assessment of learning attitudes, skills, or motivation. The
job competence of older workers was generally highly valued but not
systematically monitored or recorded. Changes in working life and
workplaces stimulated learning and reduced opportunities for it for all
age groups. Introduction of information technology was the greatest
learning challenge to older employees. In terms of human resources
development, older employees participated in informal and nonformal
training in the same way as younger workers, but to a lesser extent in
formal training. Case studies showed successful work-based learning and
training interventions involving older workers had the potential to
improve learning motivation, strengthen self confidence and organizational
commitment, and improve the social climate in groups with mixed ages.
Conclusions indicated the need to acknowledge workplaces as learning
environments; develop more systematic measures for broad-based job
competence assessment; and implement an integrative, intergenerational
approach to learning.
Action Research; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Age
Differences; Case Studies; Competence; Educational Research; Employee
Attitudes; Employer Attitudes; Employer Employee Relationship; Foreign
Countries; Informal Education; Information Technology; Inplant Programs;
Intergenerational Programs; Job Skills; Labor Force Development; Learning
Motivation; Lifelong Learning; Off the Job Training; Older Adults; Older
Workers; On-the-Job Training Organizational Change; Outcomes of Education;
Small Businesses; Vocational Evaluation; Work Environment.
Der Veen, R., & Preece, J. (2005). Poverty
reduction and adult education: Beyond basic education. International
Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(5), 381-391.
of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations in 2000
was to reduce by half the population of people living in extreme poverty,
by 2015. Adult education can and should contribute significantly to this
development goal. Nevertheless it has hardly been explored so far in the
national Poverty Reduction Strategies Papers. In as far as attention has
been given to the contribution of adult education to the reduction of
poverty, the trend has been to focus on literacy or basic education.
Nevertheless, adult education is potentially much more than literacy or
basic education. Successful contribution of adult education to poverty
reduction programmes includes also agricultural extension, vocational
education, community development and training for active citizenship. In
this introduction of the special issue of the International Journal of
Lifelong Education, we will sketch the state of the art for each of these
branches of adult education. Moreover, our central argument will be that
developing countries do not only need a more extended system for adult
education, but also a more flexible and more targeted system than the
rather traditional practices in most developing countries.
Rural Extension; Vocational Education; Poverty; Lifelong
Learning; Community Development; Adult Education; Adult Basic Education;
31. Westerhuis, A. (2001).
European structures of qualification levels: A synthesis based on reports
on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the
United Kingdom (England and Wales). Luxembourg: Office for Official
Publications of the European Communities.
European structures of qualification levels were examined through a review
of reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the
Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The examination focused on the
following topics: the scope of the national frameworks; the definition of
standards and qualifications; the definition of levels in qualification
frameworks; development and maintenance of standards and qualifications;
classification of qualifications at the tertiary level; and the European
1985 five-level framework and the national structures. None of the
countries studied had a classification system consisting of one unique
(monopolistic) set of qualifications serving as a reference frame to
certify a wide variety of learning and work experience at an exhaustive
range of levels. England and France came the closest. The analysis of the
countries studied and their approach to level frameworks was said to
underline a general need for establishing such frameworks at least on the
national level to ensure transparency and coherence.
Adult Education; Adult Learning; Certification;
Classification; Comparative Analysis; Comparative Education; Credentials;
Definitions; Educational Planning; Educational Policy; Educational
Practices; Educational Trends; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning;
Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; Models; National
Standards; Nonformal Education; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education;
Prior Learning; Qualifications; Standard Setting; State of the Art
Reviews; Synthesis; Systems Approach; Trend Analysis; Vocational
Education; Work Experience.
32. Wilson, A. L., & Hayes, E.
R. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of adult and continuing education. New
edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
handbook presents the perspectives of more than 60 leading authorities on
the study and practice of adult and continuing education. The following
are among the papers included: "A Selective History of Adult Education
Handbooks" (A.L. Wilson, E.R. Hayes); "The Concept of Critically
Reflective Practice" (Stephen D. Brookfield); "Linking the Individual
Learner to the Context of Adult Learning" (Rosemary Caffarella, Sharan B.
Merriam); "Learning from Experience in Adult Education" (Nod Miller);
"Adult Learning for Self-Development and Change" (Mark Tennant);
"Discourses and Cultures of Teaching" (Daniel D. Pratt, Tom Nesbit); "The
Invisible Politics of Race in Adult Education" (Juanita Johnson-Bailey,
Ronald M. Cervero); "Cultures of Transformation" (Ann K. Brooks); "From
Functionalism to Postmodernism in Adult Education Leadership" (Joe F.
Donaldson, Paul Jay Edelson); "Adult Learning and Technology" (Carol E.
Kasworm, Carroll A. Londoner); "Adult Literacy" (Eunice N. Askov); "Moving
beyond Performance Paradigms in Human Resource Development" (Laura L.
Bierema); "Putting Meaning into Workplace Learning" (Tara J. Fenwick);
"Adult Education in Rural Community Development" (Lillian H. Hill, Allen
B. Moore); "Exploring 'Community' in Community College Practice" (Iris M.
Weisman, Margie S. Longacre); "Control and Democracy in Adult Correctional
Education" (Howard S. Davidson); "Cooperative Extension" (Glenn J.
Applebee); "Distance Education for Lifelong Learning" (Chere Campbell
Gibson); "English as a Second Language in Adult Education" (Richard A.
Orem); "Contributions of the Military to Adult and Continuing Education"
(Steve F. Klime, Clinton L. Anderson); "Older Adult Learning" (James C.
Fisher, Mary Alice Wolf); "Formal Mentoring Programs" (Catherine A.
Hansman); "Prior Learning Assessment: The Quiet Revolution" (Alan M.
Thomas); "A Postmodern Approach to Adult Religious Education" (Leona M.
English, Marie A. Gillen); "Urban Contexts for Adult Education Practice"
(Barbara J. Daley, James C. Fisher, Larry G. Martin); "Adult Education and
Society" (Thomas W. Heaney); "A Sociology of Adult Education" (Phyllis M.
Cunningham); "The Politics of Knowledge Construction" (David Deshler,
Nancy Grudens-Schuck); "Evolving Directions in Professionalization and
Philosophy" (Ronald Podeschi); "Defining the Profession: A Critical
Appraisal" (Susan Imel, Ralph G. Brockett, Waynne Blue James); and "The
Learning Society" (John Holford, Peter Jarvis).
Accountability; Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult
Learning; Adult Literacy; Adult Students; Classroom Techniques; College
Programs; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Correctional
Education; Critical Thinking; Definitions; Distance Education; Education
Work Relationship; Educational Administration; Educational History;
Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Technology; English
(Second Language); Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Global
Approach; Guidelines; Knowledge Base for Teaching; Labor Force
Development; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Mentors; Military
Training; Models; Older Adults; Outcomes of Education; Performance Based
Assessment; Politics of Education; Postmodernism; Postsecondary Education;
Professional Development; Program Administration; Racial Differences;
Reflective Teaching; Religious Education; Role of Education; Rural Areas;
Rural Education; School Community Relationship; Second Language Learning;
Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher
Student Relationship; Teaching Skills; Theory Practice Relationship;
Transformative Learning; Universities; Urban Areas; Urban Education; Work
Experience Programs; Workplace Literacy.