Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

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Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli


CHAPTER 3. Learning [PDF]


3.3. Adult/Further/Continuing/Non-formal
       Education, Formal


1. Aitchison, J. (2004). Lifelong learning in South Africa: Dreams and delusions. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(6), 517-544.


            The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Adult Education; Educational Policy; Policy Analysis.


2. Arnott, A. (2003). Learning from the past: Implications for effective VET delivery of adult education services in the Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 43(1), 43-72.


            Reviews the history of adult education in Australia's Northern Territory, 1974-1989, and compares it to the current state. Finds that adult education resources were greater 15 years ago. Current training, funding and delivery lacks context, community control, and local, especially indigenous, input.


            KEY WORDS: Aboriginal Australians; Adult Education; Educational Opportunities; Educational Resources; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Rural Areas; Vocational Education; Australia (Northern Territory).


3. Baran, J., Berube, G., Roy, R., & Salmon, W. (2000). Adult education and training in Canada: Key knowledge gaps. Quebec: HRDC.


            This paper identifies important knowledge gaps in adult education and training (AET) in Canada and starts to explore strategies to fill these gaps. Following an introduction in English and French, each of the next three sections is comprised of a review of the current state of knowledge on three topics (outcomes of adult learning, motivations and barriers to adult learning, and informal learning) and a discussion of major knowledge gaps relevant to each. Section 2, on outcomes, argues that more must be known about outcomes in terms of overall benefits and costs if the adequacy of AET in Canada is to be judged. Section 3, on motivations and barriers, reports that key knowledge gaps include understanding reasons for participation and non-participation, and assessing whether individual decisions to participate or not are somehow unwarranted because they do not fully reflect associated costs and benefits. The section also argues that increasing knowledge of barriers to AET is a complementary strategy to estimating rates of return in the process of judging the adequacy of training levels in Canada and is essential in design of specific policy actions towards the pursuit of equity goals. Distribution considerations are addressed. Section 4 discusses issues related to informal learning and questions whether informal training is the optimal way for some groups to acquire new skills. Section 5 situates the issue of AET in the context of a strategy of human capital investment and provides a sense of what research priorities should be. Appendixes contain a statistical portrait of AET in Canada; summaries of major Canadian surveys of AET; and 48-item bibliography.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Cost Effectiveness; Developed Nations; Educational Benefits; Educational Needs; Enrollment Influences; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Informal Education; Job Training; Learning Motivation; Outcomes of Education; Participation; Policy Formation; Research Needs; Skill Development; Student Motivation; Canada; Return on Investment.


4. Bathmaker, A.-M. (2005). Hanging in or shaping a future: Defining a role for vocationally related learning in a "knowledge" society. Journal of Education Policy, 20(1), 81-100.


            This paper explores the changing roles and purposes of vocational education for young people in what has been called a 'knowledge' society, using the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) as an example. This qualification dominated the broad, vocationally-related route within the English qualifications system throughout the 1990s. The paper considers how lecturers in a college of further education understood the role and purpose of GNVQs, and explores the ways in which they engaged in mediating national qualifications policy in practice, through their engagement with students and constructions of students' learning identities. The paper draws on data from a case study of one college of further education in the English Midlands, which involved interviews with lecturers and students across three vocational areas of the GNVQ. The focus in this paper is on the ways in which lecturers constructed GNVQs around what they perceived to be students' needs. They encouraged students to use GNVQs to shape a future, which involved progression to further and higher education. The paper argues that, whilst such attempts to create a constructive and meaningful role for vocational education are important, they do not overcome the hierarchical structure of participation in formal learning which remains inherent in the education system. The paper concludes by considering the implications of this study for the future role of vocational education for young people within a wider system of education and training.


            KEY WORDS: Qualifications; Young Adults; Adult Education; Vocational Education; Futures of Society; Foreign Countries; Student Needs; Higher Education; Case Studies; Role of Education; England.


5. Federighi, P. (Ed.). (1999). Glossary of adult learning in Europe. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


            Detailed "definitions" of more than 150 key terms covering the lexicon currently being used in the field of adult learning in 20 European countries. Beginning with an introduction that discusses the glossary's theoretical and historical references and includes 14 references and a 16-item bibliography. After the introduction, the glossary entries were developed by 40 experts of different nationalities including: the term in English and/or the language in which it originated; the country/countries where the term developed; detailed information about the term's origin, evolution, and current usage; and one or more references. Key terms belong to one of the following categories: (1) theories & general concepts; (2) strategies & policies (general concepts, legislation and measures); (3) system & sectors (the general system, services, school, culture, work, organizations and providers); (4) organizations & providers; (5) programs, activities, and methods; (6) the public; and (7) adult learning operators. Various entries concern a wide variety of forms of adult education, including community, continuing, nonformal, popular, reflexive, vocational, work-based, literacy, open, civic, professional, and corporate education, as well as lifelong learning, self-directed learning, study associations, workers' universities, apprenticeships, along with adult education programs for specific ethnic groups and special populations.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Certification; Colleges; Continuing Education; Correctional Education; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Finance; Educational Legislation; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Educational Theories; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; General Education; Glossaries; Government School Relationship; High Schools; Independent Study; Informal Education; Leadership Training; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Models; Nontraditional Students; Open Education; Organizations (Groups); Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Public Policy; Special Education; Student Evaluation; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods; Universities; Vocational Education; Youth Programs; Europe; Folk High Schools; Institutionalization (of Change); Social Partners (European Community); Stakeholders; Work Based Learning.


6. Fretwell, D. H., & Colombano, J. E. (2000). Adult continuing education: An integral part of lifelong learning. Emerging policies and programs for the 21st century in upper and middle income countries. World Bank discussion paper. Washington: The World Bank.


            Adult continuing education (ACE) can be a major force in human capital development and an integral part of lifelong learning. Although recognition of the importance of ACE in developed countries is increasing, the impact of ACE is not well understood in some middle-income countries (MICs), there is a lack of leadership, and the sector is somewhat underdeveloped. ACE must be viewed as a number of interrelated policies and delivery systems reflecting the needs of different clients and components of ACE. Successful governance of ACE depends on involving key stakeholders. Major issues that need to be addressed include equity, access, and support for career progression for adults. Although individuals and/or employers often bear the financial costs of ACE, there is recognition of the need for investment of some public funds to support ACE programs in literacy and foundation education and for some categories of clients to ensure access and promote equity objectives. MICs that are developing ACE as an integral part of lifelong learning must adopt policy and delivery models addressing learning objectives through a combination of short- and long-term programs to a broad range of clients in what are often nonconventional settings.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Articulation (Education); Certification; Comparative Analysis; Continuing Education; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Developing Nations; Disadvantaged; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Administration; Educational Finance; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Technology; Educational Theories; Employment Patterns; Employment Qualifications; Enrollment Trends; Equal Education; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; Government School Relationship; Human Capital; Job Skills; Lifelong Learning; National Standards; Needs Assessment; Nongovernmental Organizations; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Role of Education; Salary Wage Differentials; Theory Practice Relationship; Training; Trend Analysis; Workplace Literacy.


7. Grubb, W. N. (2005). Cinderella without her prince: Further education colleges in England. Perspectives: policy and practice in higher education, 9(1), 23-28.


            In the expansion and increasingly vocational orientation of English education, Further Education (FE) colleges have played special roles (as have community colleges in the US). FE colleges are conventionally described as the Cinderella of British education - the overlooked beauty who comes to widespread attention because of her courtship by the prince. Certainly FE colleges are overlooked, in the sense that they receive much less attention than do universities, and also in the sense that there has been relatively little research and writing about them. But it is unclear who the prince might be, and policies over the past decade have not done much to raise these institutions from relative obscurity. FE colleges developed from adult education and training, part-time and voluntary, provided in fragmented and ad hoc ways. These providers, including many mechanics' institutes, aggregated into technical colleges providing day-release training for apprentices and employed individuals. In the late 1960s these were transformed into FE colleges with a broader array of academic, vocational, and pre-vocational offerings - like the broad array of offerings in community colleges.


            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Adult Education; Technical Institutes; Continuing Education; Educational History; Vocational Education; Career Education; Educational Policy; Government Role; England.



8. Hamil-Luker, J., & Uhlenberg, P. (2002). Later life education in the 1990s: Increasing involvement and continuing disparity. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 57B(6), S324-S331.


            This paper examines age differences in adults' participation in, perceived barriers to, and institutional support for educational activities provided by schools, businesses, and community organizations in the 1990s. Researchers conducted descriptive and logistic regression analyses on a sample of respondents aged 30-74 yrs from the National Household Education Surveys. Adult education participation rates increased for all ages over the 1990s, but gains were proportionately largest among people in later phases of the life course. Although age was a weaker predictor of engaging in educational activities at the end of the 1990s than it was at the beginning of the decade, older adults continue to be less likely than younger ones to participate in education and training provided by businesses and schools. Some age discrepancy occurs because employers are more likely to provide financial support for training to younger employees. Older adults, however, are less likely than younger adults to perceive obstacles to their participation in education and training. It is concluded that, although age-graded roles of student, worker, and retiree are becoming increasingly blurred, Americans' pursuit of education at the end of the 20th century was still guided by age-related role expectations.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Age Differences; Participation; Trends.



9. Harrison, R., Reeve, F., Cartwright, M., & Edwards, R. (Eds.). (2002). Supporting lifelong learning. New York: Routledge.


            This Open University Reader looks at the practices of learning and teaching which have been developed to support lifelong learning, and the understanding and assumptions that underpin them. The selection of texts trace the widening scope of academic understanding of learning and teaching, and considers the implications for those who develop programmes of learning. The authors examine in great depth those theories that have had the greatest impact in the field, theories of reflection and learning from experience and theories of situated learning. The implications of these theories are examined in relation to themes which run across the reader, primarily, workplace learning, literacies, and the possibilities offered by information and communication technologies. The particular focus of this Reader is on the psychological or cognitive phenomena that happen in the minds of individual learners. The readings have been selected to represent a range of experience in different sectors of education from around the globe.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Continuing Education; Lifelong Learning; Work and Learning.


10. Herman, L., & Mandell, A. (2004). From teaching to mentoring: Principles and practice, dialogue and life in adult education. New York: RoutledgeFalme.


            This book explains both the principles of adult education and their application in the daily work of teaching adult college students. The authors draw upon more than two decades of experience integrating research and practice to contribute to the prominent national and international discussions.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; College; Work.


11. Hudson, L., Bhandari, R., Peter, K., & Bills, D. B. (2005). Labor force participation in formal work-related education in 2000-01. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.


            Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal education and training to acquire and maintain their workforce skills. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal education and training to acquire and maintain their workforce skills. The report is based on data from the Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Survey of the 2001 National Household Education Surveys Program (AELL-NHES:2001) conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The report describes participation in work-related education among 25- to 64-year-old civilian, non-institutionalized labor force members (employed and unemployed adults) over a 12-month period in 2000-01. (The age restriction and the restriction to labor force members make this population different from that used in past NCES reports of NHES data.) The comparisons made in the text were tested using the Student's "t" statistic; all differences cited are statistically significant at the .05 level. Appended are: (1) Standard Error Tables; and (2) Technical Notes and Methodology.


            KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Labor Market; Labor Force; Education Work Relationship; Job Skills; Adults; Adult Education; Postsecondary Education; Apprenticeships; Vocational Education.


12. Hughes, M. E., & Turner, P. E. (2002). Mapping research into the delivery of work-based learning. LSDA Research Report. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.


            This report provides a summary of findings from research into work-related education and training undertaken over the last five years by organizations then called the Further Education Development Agency (FEDA) and Quality and Performance Improvement Dissemination (QPID) Unit of the Department for Education and Employment. Cross-references to relevant material are included in the individual topic-related sections. After an introduction, Section 2 lists overarching messages and provides a summary of key findings and their implications for post-16 learning. Sections 3-13 report findings for specific aspects of post-16 learning. Each section includes keywords; summary of key messages from FEDA/QPID research; and further details of the key FEDA/QPID research findings. The 11 aspects of post-16 learning considered are the learner and learning experience; learning facilitators (teacher/trainer/assessor/mentor); teaching and learning methods; the content of learning programs; assessment and qualifications; quality and inspection; barriers to participation; equal opportunities; learners, learning, and the labor market; policy/program development; and operational management. Appendixes include annotated bibliographies of 78 topic-related FEDA and 60 topic-related QPID materials; a 230-item bibliography of further QPID information; and a glossary. The annotated bibliography entries include audience, purpose, and which topic(s) are addressed.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Annotated Bibliographies; Basic Skills; Career Education; Developed Nations; Educational Certificates; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Industrial Training; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Market; Out of School Youth; Prior Learning; Staff Development; Student Certification; Vocational Education.


13. Jarvis, P. E. (2001). Twentieth century thinkers in adult & continuing education (2 ed.). London: Stylus.


            This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Adult Education - An Ideal for Modernity?" (Peter Jarvis); "Albert Mansbridge" (David Alfred); "Basil Yeaxlee and the Origins of Lifelong Education" (Angela Cross-Durrant); "R. H. Tawney - Patron Saint of Adult Education" (Barry Elsey); "John Dewey and Lifelong Education" (Angela Cross-Durrant); "E. L. Thorndike" (W. A. Smith); "Eduard Lindeman" (Stephen Brookfield); "Robert Peers" (Stella Parker); "Cyril O. Houle" (William S. Griffith [updated by Peter Jarvis]); "Malcolm S. Knowles" (Peter Jarvis); "Roby Kidd - Intellectual Voyager" (Alan M. Thomas); "K. Patricia Cross" (Carol E. Kasworm); "Chris Argyris - The Reluctant Adult Educator" (Karen E. Watkins and Jacqueline A. Wilson); "Donald Schon" (Ron Cervero); "Moses Coady and Antigonish" (John M. Crane); "Horton of Highlander" (John M. Peters and Brenda Bell); "Paulo Freire" (Peter Jarvis); "Ettore Gelpi" (Colin Griffin); "Women in Adult Education - Second Rate or Second Class?" (Mal Leicester); and "Conclusion: Adult Education at the End of the Twentieth-Century" (Peter Jarvis).


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult Literacy; Adult Programs; Adult Students; Antigonish Movement; Colleges; Continuing Education; Corporate Education; Disadvantaged; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Objectives; Educational Psychology; Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; General Education; Global Approach; Independent Study; Intelligence; Labor Force Development; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Motivation Techniques; Nonformal Education; Nontraditional Students; Open Education; Postsecondary Education; Reflective Teaching; Social Change; Student Characteristics; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Trend Analysis; Universities; Vocational Education; Women’s Education; United Kingdom; United States.


14. Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.


            In this book, the author has made extensive revisions and included substantial additional material to take account of the many changes, which have occurred, in the field of adult education. The book starts with a rationale for the provision of education for adults and analyses contemporary theory before going on to give practical advice on the curriculum development and the teaching of adults. Adult education students will find it an invaluable course companion, whilst practitioners in the field of adult and continuing education and lifelong learning will find much in this book that is relevant to their day-to-day work.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Continuing Education; Curriculum Development; Work.


15. Kim, K., Hagedorn, M., Williamson, J., & Chapman, C. (2004). National household education surveys of 2001: Participation in adult education and lifelong learning, 2000-01, Retrieved November 10, 2006, from


            Adults participate in various types of educational activities in order to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the workforce, to earn a college or advanced degree, to learn basic skills or English language skills, or to enrich their lives. Taken as a whole, these activities constitute adult education. Traditionally, full-time enrollment in postsecondary degree or diploma programs is not considered to be adult education participation. This report holds to that convention. A recent study indicates that participation in adult education has grown steadily over the past three decades (Kim and Creighton 2000; Creighton and Hudson 2002). Many societal factors influence participation in adult education activities. Changing demographics, including the aging of the population, reentry of women into the workplace, and an influx of immigrants, alter the base of potential participants. The effect of the global economy and technological advances on the nature of adult education has been significant.


            KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Housework; Adult Education; United States of America.


16. La Belle, T. J. (2000). The changing nature of non-formal education in Latin America. Comparative Education, 36(1), 21-36.


            Traces the history of nonformal education in Latin America since the 1920s, highlighting community-based programs, literacy education, vocational training, extension education, popular education, community schooling, and female-dominated social movements. Suggests citizenship education, the needs of indigenous populations, and urban youth unemployment as potential areas for nonformal education programming.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Community Education; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Nonformal Education; Popular Education; Poverty; Latin America; Social Movements.


17. Langer, N. (2002). Enhancing adult learning in aging studies. Educational Gerontology, 28(10), 895-904.


            Presents a rationale for shifting the focus of social work /gerontology education from training to a learner-centered approach that incorporates principles of adult learning. Suggests the use of adult experiences, storytelling, simulation, role playing, and a supportive learning environment.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Aging (Individuals); Educational Environment; Gerontology; Higher Education; Social Work; Learner Centered Instruction.


18. Lavrnja, I., & Klapan, A. (2000). Methodological suspicions in the future study of adult education. Paper presented at the Salzburg Talking, Salzburg.


            Science plays an extremely important role in predicting the future of social phenomena, including pedagogy and andragogy. Research in these areas must be based on an interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, systemic, and structural approach that is based on the assumption that upbringing and education are specific phenomena in which human praxis - conscious and creative human activity - plays a prominent role. Value-normative statements must be differentiated from cognitive statements of upbringing and education so as to differentiate between the methodological approach of "exploration of the future" and that of "creating and modeling the future." Future research in pedagogy and andragogy should be based on the fact that education can give to the Marxist- Socialist system and all its subsystems all that ensues from its authentic nature and functionality. Researchers could then use the methodological set of instruments and orientation that can foresee such development in the future. When dealing with the adult education concept of lifelong education, researchers should shift their focus from "education for the future" to "education and the future." Croatia's system and model of formal education must be broadened; nonformal and informal education must be promoted and better organized; and adult education must be enriched with modern methods, forms, and technology.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Andragogy; Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational Finance; Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Futures of Society; Instruction; Interdisciplinary Approach; Lifelong Learning; Marxism; Needs Assessment; Position Papers; Prediction; Predictive Measurement; Predictive Validity; Predictor Variables; Research Design; Research Methodology; Socialism; Trend Analysis; Croatia; Praxis.


19. Nash, I., & Walshe, J. (1999). Overcoming exclusion through adult learning. Paris: OECD.


            In this study, strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based learning initiatives. Special attention was paid to the following topics: concepts and dimensions of social exclusion and adult learning; national policy approaches and local initiatives designed to combat exclusion through adult learning; and costs and effectiveness. The following were among the main conclusions: (1) given sufficient energy, innovation, and support, innovative programs can help combat even severe disadvantage and exclusion; (2) small-scale but sustained investment can be more effective than less-targeted, "scatter-gun" funding of large-scale programs; (3) policies must be devised in a manner that does not constrain grassroots energy or cross conventional departmental and policy demarcations; (4) programs should be demand driven rather than supply driven; (5) leadership is the crucial determinant of programs' futures; and (6) programs should focus not only on developing vocational knowledge and skills but also on equipping adults for shifting working and labor market arrangements.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Case Studies; Community Education; Comparative Analysis; Context Effect; Conventional Instruction; Cost Effectiveness; Developed Nations; Developing Nations; Disadvantaged; Educational Environment; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Informal Education; Innovation; Job Skills; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education; Participation; Partnerships in Education; Private Sector; Program Costs; Program Effectiveness; Public Education; Public Policy; Research Needs; School Business Relationship; Skill Development; Social Integration; Social Isolation; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.


20. Novak, M. (2001). The new older learner. Continuing Higher Education Review, 65, 98-105.


            Current models of university continuing education resemble traditional higher education and do not meet the needs of people in or near retirement. Constraints on change include a mindset focused on formal education as career development, the need for programs to be self-sufficient, and a reward structure that does not support programs for older adults.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Adult Students; Continuing Education; Educational Change; Higher Education; Older Adults.


21. Pickerden, A. (2002). Muslim women in higher education: New sites of lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 37-43.


            A British university sought to increase participation of Muslim women in higher education by working with community organizations, conducting focus groups, developing curricula desired by learners, and delivering them at community sites. Flexible entry points and supports for nontraditional students were recommended.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Learning; Community Organizations; Females; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Muslims; Outreach Programs; Research Universities; Women's Education; United Kingdom.


22. Poonwassie, D. H., & Poonwassie, A. (2001). Fundamentals of adult education: Issues and practices for lifelong learning. Toronto: Thompson Educational.


            This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory Building in Adult Education: Questioning Our Grasp of the Obvious" (Donovan Plumb, Michael R. Welton); "Perspectives and Theories of Adult Learning" (Karen M. Magro); "Needs Assessment" (Thomas J. Sork); "Program Planning in Adult Education" (Atlanta Sloane-Seale); "University Continuing Education: Traditions and Transitions" (Anne Percival); "Facilitating Adult Education: A Practitioner's Perspective" (Anne Poonwassie); "Prior Learning Assessment: Looking Back, Looking Forward" (Angelina T. Wong); "Adult Education in the Community Colleges" (Anthony Bos); "A UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization] View of Adult Education and Civil Society" (Marshall Wm. Conley, Elisabeth Barot); "The Issue of Access in Adult Education: Privilege and Possibility") (Dianne L. Conrad); "Labour Education in Canada" (Bruce Spencer); "Technical-Vocational Education and Training" (David N. Wilson); "The Issue of Professionalization for Adult Educators in Quebec" (Paul Bouchard); "Women's Empowerment and Adult Education" (Margot Morrish, Nancy Buchanan); "Adult Education in First Nations Communities: Starting with the People" (Deo H. Poonwassie); "Distance Education for Adults" (Walter Archer); and "Lifelong Learning, Voluntary Action and Civil Society" (Alan M. Thomas). Most papers include substantial bibliographies.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Andragogy; Citizenship Education; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Distance Education; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Opportunities; Educational Planning; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Empowerment; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Indigenous Populations; International Organizations; Job Training; Labor Education; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Nongovernmental Organizations; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Professional Development; Program Development; School Community Relationship; Student Evaluation; Teacher Improvement; Technical Education; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Two Year Colleges; Universities; Vocational Education; Volunteers; Women’s Education.


23. Roberson, J. D. N. (2005). Masters of adaptation: Learning in late life adjustments. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 61(4), 265-291.


            The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship between human development in older adults and personal learning. Personal or self-directed learning (SDL) refers to a style of learning where the individual directs, controls, and evaluates what is learned. It may occur with formal classes, but most often takes place in non-formal situations. This study employed a descriptive qualitative design incorporating in-depth, semi-structured interviews for data collection. The sample of 10 purposefully selected older adults from a rural area reflected diversity in gender, race, education, and employment. Data analysis was guided by the constant comparative method. The primary late life adjustments of these older adults were in response to having extra time, changes in family, and social and physical loss. This research also indicated that late life adjustments are a primary incentive for self-directed learning. The results of this study indicated that older adults become masters of adaptation through the use of self-directed learning activities.


            KEY WORDS: Comparative Analysis; Rural Areas; Older Adults; Individual Development; Independent Study; Learning Activities; Adjustment (to Environment); Independent Study; Coping.



24. Schuller, T., Brassett-Grundy, A., Green, A., Hammond, C., & Preston, J. (2002). Learning, continuity and change in adult life. Wider benefits of learning research report. London: Department for Education and Skills.


            The relationship between learning and continuity and change in adult life was explored in a study involving 140 in-depth biographical interviews of adult learners in 3 different areas of England and case studies of 6 adult learners. The study methodology was based on a triangular conceptualization according to which personal identity, human capital, and social capital constitute the apices of a triangle encompassing 12 categories of benefits derived from learning. The study established that initial education has a variety of effects beyond the crucial effects on subsequent life changes and earnings that have been well documented elsewhere. Education was shown to provide structure to people's lives and the confidence, skills, and opportunity to access knowledge relevant to new situations. Family members' participation in learning benefitted the rest of their families in numerous ways. Little evidence of education directly improving physical health was found; however, participation in education promoted civic activity and development of social capital and social cohesion. Policymakers were advised to give greater recognition to the sustaining effect of education on personal lives and the social fabric and to the benefits of family learning programs and nonaccredited and local courses. Information about respondents' background characteristics and the interview topic guides are appended.


            KEY WORDS: Adjustment (to Environment); Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; Career Change; Case Studies; Educational Attitudes; Educational Benefits; Educational Environment; Educational Research; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Family School Relationship; Foreign Countries; Individual Development; Learning Experience; Lifelong Learning; Models; Nonformal Education; Participant Characteristics; Personal Narratives; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Research Methodology; Role of Education; Social Change; Social Integration.


25. Segrist, K. (2004). Attitudes of older adults toward a computer training program. Educational Gerontology, 30(7), 563-571.


            Many older adults have an interest in learning to use computers. The study reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training. Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the Attitudes Toward Computers Questionnaire (ATCQ) before and after class participation. Attitudes were assessed on seven dimensions. There was borderline statistical significance for the "comfort" attitude dimension, which assesses the respondent's feeling of comfort with the computer and its use. No significant differences were found for the remaining six attitude dimensions. The results underscore the importance of the intervention design in eliciting attitude change. Based upon the findings of this research, several actions have taken place to increase comfort and efficacy and to control attitudinal dimensions, thereby providing more meaningful experiences for the participants.


            KEY WORDS: Older Adults; Attitude Change; Computer Attitudes; Computer Literacy; Computers; Program Effectiveness; Training; Adult Education.


26. Stein, D. (2000). Teaching critical reflection. Myths and realities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).


            Critical reflection blends learning through experience with theoretical and technical learning to form new knowledge constructions and new behaviors or insights. Through the process of critical reflection, adults come to interpret and create new knowledge and actions from their experiences. It is generally agreed that critical reflection consists of a process that can be taught to adults. Brookfield identified the following processes as being central to learning how to be critically reflective: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation, and reflective skepticism. Some educators consider critical reflection a learning strategy that can be taught with tools such as diaries, action learning groups, autobiographical stories, and sketching. However, other educators question the usefulness of classroom teaching in helping adults learn to engage in critical reflection. Wellington identified the following five orientations for differentiating levels of reflection: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal. Although reflection should help learners make meaning out of content applied in a specific practice situation, critical reflection skills learned in the classroom may be different from the skills needed in the everyday world. However, critical reflection holds the promise of emancipatory learning that frees adults from the implicit assumptions constraining thought and action in the everyday world.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Classroom Techniques; Critical Thinking; Definitions; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Experiential Learning; Learning Processes; Prior Learning; Reflective Teaching; Relevance (Education); Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Theory Practice Relationship.


27. Tangen, F. (2000). OECD thematic review on adult learning: Norway: Background report. Paris: OECD.


            Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long tradition in Norway and was originally in the hands of nongovernmental organizations; (2) today, adult education in Norway takes place in numerous arenas, including the public education system, resource centers, study associations, folk high schools, distance education institutions, private institutions, and enterprises; (3) of Norway's 4.48 million adults, approximately 1 million participate in adult education annually; (4) comprehensive reforms implemented in Norway's initial education and training system in the 1990s have allowed for the fact that education will increasingly be viewed in a lifelong learning perspective; and (5) the goals of the many public- and private-sector actors involved in developing learning arenas for adults and systems of lifelong learning include developing broad understanding of good teaching arenas and efficient systems for lifelong learning and building competence among special target groups.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; At Risk Persons; Change Strategies; Competency Based Education; Curriculum; Delivery Systems; Distance Education; Educational Administration; Educational Change; Educational Counseling; Educational Finance; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Enrollment Trends; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; Glossaries; Government School Relationship; Job Training; Labor Market; Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; Multimedia Instruction; Needs Assessment; Nonformal Education; Nongovernmental Organizations; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Popular Education; Postsecondary Education; Private Schools; Program Administration; Program Costs; Public Schools; Special Needs Students; Student Certification; Student Characteristics; Student Educational Objectives; Student Evaluation; Tables (Data); Teacher Education; Teaching Methods; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.


28. Thompson, J. E. (2000). Stretching the academy: The politics and practice of widening participation in higher education. Leicester, England: NIACE.


            These 12 papers support the view that the current, general interest in widening participation in higher education in the United Kingdom may provide opportunities to radicalize policies and intervene strategically in institutional practices in ways that help to influence them. Papers include "Joining, Invading, Reconstructing" (Janice Malcolm), which uses the author's personal experience to clarify her concerns about the contemporary practice of widening participation. "Beyond Rhetoric" (Mary Stuart) highlights one methodology for participation in higher education that grew out of approaches used in third world development and philosophically linked to the ideal of a popular education. "Concepts of Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education" (Richard Taylor) insists the role of the radical educator is to encourage and support the democratic and progressive articulation of self-directed learning. "Social Capital" (Loraine Blaxter, Christina Hughes) considers this concept within a frame that extends critical thinking about issues of social inclusion. "Missionary and Other Positions" (Pat Whaley) describes a joint initiative between the University of Durham and the Cleveland Community Enterprise Network to develop an accredited undergraduate program in community development and enterprise. "Working with Contradictions in the Struggle for Access" (John Bamber et al.) suggests actions and strategies that can make a positive difference in institutional contradictions.


            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adults; Community Development; Community Education; Democracy; Educational Change; Educational Policy; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Feminism; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Independent Study; Participation; School Community Relationship; Social Isolation; Women’s Education; Ireland; Radical Education; Self Direction; Social Capital; United Kingdom.


29. Tikkanen, T., Lahn, L. C., Withnall, A., Ward, P., & Lyng, K. (2002). Working life changes and training of older workers. Research report. Trondheim, Norway: VOX & European Commission.


            WORKTOW was a multidisciplinary action research project carried out in 27 small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom, Finland, and Norway. The main focus was on the learning of workers aged 45 and older. In-depth case studies were conducted in all three countries involving a range of learning interventions. Results showed age was not related to how stimulating workplaces were experienced as learning environments nor to subjective assessment of learning attitudes, skills, or motivation. The job competence of older workers was generally highly valued but not systematically monitored or recorded. Changes in working life and workplaces stimulated learning and reduced opportunities for it for all age groups. Introduction of information technology was the greatest learning challenge to older employees. In terms of human resources development, older employees participated in informal and nonformal training in the same way as younger workers, but to a lesser extent in formal training. Case studies showed successful work-based learning and training interventions involving older workers had the potential to improve learning motivation, strengthen self confidence and organizational commitment, and improve the social climate in groups with mixed ages. Conclusions indicated the need to acknowledge workplaces as learning environments; develop more systematic measures for broad-based job competence assessment; and implement an integrative, intergenerational approach to learning.


            KEY WORDS: Action Research; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Age Differences; Case Studies; Competence; Educational Research; Employee Attitudes; Employer Attitudes; Employer Employee Relationship; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Information Technology; Inplant Programs; Intergenerational Programs; Job Skills; Labor Force Development; Learning Motivation; Lifelong Learning; Off the Job Training; Older Adults; Older Workers; On-the-Job Training Organizational Change; Outcomes of Education; Small Businesses; Vocational Evaluation; Work Environment.



30. Van Der Veen, R., & Preece, J. (2005). Poverty reduction and adult education: Beyond basic education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(5), 381-391.


            One of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations in 2000 was to reduce by half the population of people living in extreme poverty, by 2015. Adult education can and should contribute significantly to this development goal. Nevertheless it has hardly been explored so far in the national Poverty Reduction Strategies Papers. In as far as attention has been given to the contribution of adult education to the reduction of poverty, the trend has been to focus on literacy or basic education. Nevertheless, adult education is potentially much more than literacy or basic education. Successful contribution of adult education to poverty reduction programmes includes also agricultural extension, vocational education, community development and training for active citizenship. In this introduction of the special issue of the International Journal of Lifelong Education, we will sketch the state of the art for each of these branches of adult education. Moreover, our central argument will be that developing countries do not only need a more extended system for adult education, but also a more flexible and more targeted system than the rather traditional practices in most developing countries.


            KEY WORDS: Rural Extension; Vocational Education; Poverty; Lifelong Learning; Community Development; Adult Education; Adult Basic Education; Poverty Programs.


31. Westerhuis, A. (2001). European structures of qualification levels: A synthesis based on reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.


            European structures of qualification levels were examined through a review of reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The examination focused on the following topics: the scope of the national frameworks; the definition of standards and qualifications; the definition of levels in qualification frameworks; development and maintenance of standards and qualifications; classification of qualifications at the tertiary level; and the European 1985 five-level framework and the national structures. None of the countries studied had a classification system consisting of one unique (monopolistic) set of qualifications serving as a reference frame to certify a wide variety of learning and work experience at an exhaustive range of levels. England and France came the closest. The analysis of the countries studied and their approach to level frameworks was said to underline a general need for establishing such frameworks at least on the national level to ensure transparency and coherence.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Certification; Classification; Comparative Analysis; Comparative Education; Credentials; Definitions; Educational Planning; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Trends; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; Models; National Standards; Nonformal Education; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Qualifications; Standard Setting; State of the Art Reviews; Synthesis; Systems Approach; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Work Experience.


32. Wilson, A. L., & Hayes, E. R. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of adult and continuing education. New edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


            This handbook presents the perspectives of more than 60 leading authorities on the study and practice of adult and continuing education. The following are among the papers included: "A Selective History of Adult Education Handbooks" (A.L. Wilson, E.R. Hayes); "The Concept of Critically Reflective Practice" (Stephen D. Brookfield); "Linking the Individual Learner to the Context of Adult Learning" (Rosemary Caffarella, Sharan B. Merriam); "Learning from Experience in Adult Education" (Nod Miller); "Adult Learning for Self-Development and Change" (Mark Tennant); "Discourses and Cultures of Teaching" (Daniel D. Pratt, Tom Nesbit); "The Invisible Politics of Race in Adult Education" (Juanita Johnson-Bailey, Ronald M. Cervero); "Cultures of Transformation" (Ann K. Brooks); "From Functionalism to Postmodernism in Adult Education Leadership" (Joe F. Donaldson, Paul Jay Edelson); "Adult Learning and Technology" (Carol E. Kasworm, Carroll A. Londoner); "Adult Literacy" (Eunice N. Askov); "Moving beyond Performance Paradigms in Human Resource Development" (Laura L. Bierema); "Putting Meaning into Workplace Learning" (Tara J. Fenwick); "Adult Education in Rural Community Development" (Lillian H. Hill, Allen B. Moore); "Exploring 'Community' in Community College Practice" (Iris M. Weisman, Margie S. Longacre); "Control and Democracy in Adult Correctional Education" (Howard S. Davidson); "Cooperative Extension" (Glenn J. Applebee); "Distance Education for Lifelong Learning" (Chere Campbell Gibson); "English as a Second Language in Adult Education" (Richard A. Orem); "Contributions of the Military to Adult and Continuing Education" (Steve F. Klime, Clinton L. Anderson); "Older Adult Learning" (James C. Fisher, Mary Alice Wolf); "Formal Mentoring Programs" (Catherine A. Hansman); "Prior Learning Assessment: The Quiet Revolution" (Alan M. Thomas); "A Postmodern Approach to Adult Religious Education" (Leona M. English, Marie A. Gillen); "Urban Contexts for Adult Education Practice" (Barbara J. Daley, James C. Fisher, Larry G. Martin); "Adult Education and Society" (Thomas W. Heaney); "A Sociology of Adult Education" (Phyllis M. Cunningham); "The Politics of Knowledge Construction" (David Deshler, Nancy Grudens-Schuck); "Evolving Directions in Professionalization and Philosophy" (Ronald Podeschi); "Defining the Profession: A Critical Appraisal" (Susan Imel, Ralph G. Brockett, Waynne Blue James); and "The Learning Society" (John Holford, Peter Jarvis).


            KEY WORDS: Accountability; Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult Literacy; Adult Students; Classroom Techniques; College Programs; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Correctional Education; Critical Thinking; Definitions; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Administration; Educational History; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Technology; English (Second Language); Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Global Approach; Guidelines; Knowledge Base for Teaching; Labor Force Development; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Mentors; Military Training; Models; Older Adults; Outcomes of Education; Performance Based Assessment; Politics of Education; Postmodernism; Postsecondary Education; Professional Development; Program Administration; Racial Differences; Reflective Teaching; Religious Education; Role of Education; Rural Areas; Rural Education; School Community Relationship; Second Language Learning; Special Needs Students; Student Evaluation; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Skills; Theory Practice Relationship; Transformative Learning; Universities; Urban Areas; Urban Education; Work Experience Programs; Workplace Literacy.





About the CFI Project

1.  General Resources
    for Work & Learning

2. Work

3. Learning

   3.1 Lifelong Learning

   3.2 Formal Education

   3.3 Further Education

   3.4 Informal Education

   3.5 Informal Learning

   3.6 Learning Recognition

4. Work & Learning

5. Other Topics in
Learning & Work


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