and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Formal Education, Schooling
1. Apple, M.,
Kenway, J., & Singh, M. (Eds.). (2005). Globalizing
education: Policies, pedagogies, and politics. New York:
Sixteen contributions from researchers in education, sociology, and
planning - predominantly based in Australia - discuss the ramifications of
globalization for education and education systems globally. The first
essay - by editors Michael Apple (educational policy studies, U. of
Wisconsin), Jane Kenway (global education studies, Monash U., Australia),
and Micahel Singh (education, U. of Western Sydney, Australia)-provides an
overview of the complexities of the topics addressed more specifically by
the contributors, including theoretical understanding of the processes of
globalization, the changing economic context of education, neoliberal
governance and the enterprise culture, globalizing changes in knowledge
production, changing teacher and student identities, and democratic
purposes and public schooling.
Critical Pedagogy; Globalization; Politics and Education;
Work and Learning; Formal Education.
2. Bailey, T., Hughes, K., &
Moore, D. (2004). Working knowledge: Work-based learning and education
reform. London: Routledge Falmer.
on over five years of research on work-based learning in high school and
community college programs across the country, this book explores the
potential for using work-based learning as part of a broad education
reform strategy. The authors synthesize a historical overview of
work-based learning and its place in policy-making with the experiences of
teachers and students, resulting in a dynamic account of the state of
work-based learning and its significance for the field of education.
Work-Based Learning; Policy Making; Government; Formal
3. Barro, R. J., & Lazear, E.
P. (2002). Education in the twenty-first century. Stanford: Hoover
this book, several Hoover Institution scholars search for the answers to
failures in U.S. schools and examine the debate over what works and what
does not work. Such widely debated topics as national examinations,
accountability, performance, and school funding are discussed. The
importance of education to both the individual and society as a whole,
shedding light on what education does, various ways to structure
education, lessons learned from the past, and what can be accomplished in
the future are detailed.
Education; Economic Aspects; United States; Social Aspects;
Educational Planning; Work and Learning; Formal Education; Schooling.
4. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H.
(2002). Schooling in capitalist America revisited. Sociology of
Education, 75(1), 1-18.
Justifying the once-controversial estimates of high levels of
intergenerational persistence of economic status & the unimportance of the
heritability of IQ in this process. The fact that the contribution of
schooling to cognitive development plays little part in explaining why
those with more schooling have higher earnings. Further research has
supported the authors' hypotheses concerning the role of personality
traits, rather than skills, as determinants of labor market success.
Current contributions to the study of cultural evolution allow the authors
to be considerably more specific about how behaviors in schools are
Socioeconomic Status; Intelligence; Academic Achievement;
Educational Inequality; Social Inequality; Intergenerational Mobility;
Educational Systems; Education; Work Relationship; Formal Education;
5. Bussière, P. (2001).
Measuring up: The performance of Canada's youth in reading, mathematics
and science. OECD PISA Study-First Results for Canadians aged 15. Ottawa:
Human Resources Development Canada.
report presents initial results for Canada, Canadian provinces and
selected countries from PISA (Program for International Student
Assessment) 2000. Reading literacy is the major focus of PISA 2000, with
mathematical and scientific literacy as minor domains. This report also
includes outcomes from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), a Canadian
longitudinal survey designed to study the patterns of, and influences on,
major transitions in young people's lives, particularly with respect to
education, training and work. Thirty-two countries participated in PISA
2000. In Canada, approximately 30,000 15-year-old students from more than
1,000 schools participated.
Academic Achievement; Analytical Products; Cognitive
Abilities; Educational Indicators; High School Education; Languages;
Learning; Mathematics; Parental Educational Attainment; Reading; Sciences;
Skill Requirements; Student to Teacher Ratio; Students; Tests; Transition
from School to Work; Formal Education; Schooling.
6. Council of Ministers of
Education. (2005). Education indicators in Canada: Report of the
Pan-Canadian education indicators program, 2005. Ottawa: Statistics
report presents statistical indicators of education in Canada. The
indicators cover various aspects of the elementary, secondary and
postsecondary education, such as enrollment, graduation and human
resources, as well as the financing of the education systems in Canada.
The first chapter provides a statistical description of the school-age
population while the last one shows measures of transitions from secondary
to postsecondary education and then to the labour market. Labour market
results are also included.
Educational Indicators; Canada; Education; Statistics;
Formal Education; Schooling.
7. Dei, G. J., & Karumanchery,
L. L. (1999). School reforms in Ontario: The marketization of education
and the resulting silence on equity. Alberta Journal of Educational
Research, 45(2), 111-131.
Critically examines recent market-oriented educational reforms in Ontario
and their impact on socially disadvantaged groups. Argues that current
trends lead toward a "marketization" of education in Ontario, as the
rhetoric of cost-effectiveness and bureaucratic efficiency shifts the
official agenda of educational reform away from equity considerations to
those of capital and big business.
Centralization Disadvantaged; Educational Change;
Educational Legislation; Educational Policy; Educational Trends;
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Free
Enterprise System; Minority Groups; Politics of Education; Public
Education; Formal Education; Schooling.
Dori, Y. J., & Tal, R. T. (2000). Formal and
informal collaborative projects: Engaging in industry with environmental
awareness. Science Education, 84(1), 95-113.
Describes the development, implementation, and assessment of a mixed
formal-informal Science, Technology and Society (STS) curriculum that
incorporates collaborative projects with case studies, field trips, and
formal class sessions.
Case Method (Teaching Technique); Cooperative Learning;
Elementary/ Secondary Education; Environmental Education; Field Trips;
Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Science and Society; Science
Curriculum; Student Projects; Teaching Methods; Israel; Formal Education;
9. Freeman, D. E., & Freeman,
Y. S. (2001). Between worlds: Access to second language acquisition.
(2nd ed.). Portsmouth NH: Heinemann.
book purports to expand the learning potential of students by considering
how the world inside the school interacts with outside social contexts. As
the schooling of English language learners becomes ever more complex and
political, this book has been updated in a second edition to address new
trends and issues related to the teaching of multilingual students. The
book features the following: a clear, accessible review of second language
acquisition theories and research in the fields of second language
acquisition, bilingual education, and second language teaching
methodology; new insight into the social and cultural factors that affect
second language acquisition and related current research theory;
discussion of the role of grammar in second language acquisition; the
content teachers need for certification to teach second language learners;
practical classroom examples, strategies, thematic units, student work,
and language stories; ideas for promoting cultural sensitivity; logical
organization that could easily serve as a basis for a course syllabus; and
practical suggestions and useful resources for working with parents of
language minority students. This book is intended for classroom teachers
of all levels who are working with a few or many second language students.
It is also written for second language educators, including those working
with pre-service or in-service teachers as well as college instructors of
undergraduate and graduate courses in second language, cross cultural
communication, and bilingual education. A subject index and an appendix of
Web sites for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers are included.
Bilingual Education Programs; Charts; Class Activities;
Classroom Techniques; Culturally Relevant Education; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; English (Second Language); Grammar; Illustrations; Inservice
Education; Language Acquisition; Learning Modules; Limited English
Speaking; Multilingualism; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Politics of
Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Second Language Instruction;
Second Language Learning; Sociolinguistics; Teacher Educators; Teaching
Methods; United States; Formal Education; Schooling.
10. Fullan, M., Hill, P., &
Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousands Islands, CA: Corwin
book presents a new approach to educational reform that breaks away from
conventional paradigms to help educators create focused instruction,
transform the classroom experience, and dramatically raise-and
sustain-performance levels for students and teachers alike. The authors
provide the concepts needed for developing precise, validated, data-driven
instruction personalized to each and every student. Breakthrough
establishes the tipping point for moving toward personalized, high-quality
instruction and learning in the classroom to ensure continuous improvement
and ongoing academic success.
Educational Reform; Instruction; Teaching and Learning
Strategies; Formal Education; Schooling.
Giroux, H., & Myrsiades, K. (Eds.). (2001).
Beyond the corporate university: Culture and pedagogy in the new
millennium. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield.
chapters in this collection show how and why the critical functions of
democratically informed civic education must become the core of the
university’s mission. Part 1, "Higher Education and the Politics of
Corporate Culture," contains; (1) "Franchising the University" (Jeffrey J.
Williams); (2) "Vocationalizing” Higher Education: Schooling and the
Politics of Corporate Culture" (Henry A. Giroux); (3) "The University: A
Place To Think?" (Roger I. Simon); and (4) "Literary Theory and the Role
of the University" (Peter Baker). Part 2, "Cultural Politics and the
Struggle over Curricula," contains: (5) "Curriculum Mortis: A Manifesto
for Structural Change" (Ronald Strickland); (6) "Brown v. Higher
Education: Pedagogy, Cultural Politics, and Latina/o Activism" (Ralph E.
Rodriguez); (7) "Culture, the Academy, and the Police; or Reading Matthew
Arnold in 'Our Present Unsettled State'" (Jerry Philips); and (8) "Timescapes
for Literacy: Time in Academic Communities" (John Lofty). Part 3, "The
Responsibility of Literature and the Possibility of Politics," contains:
(9) "The Political Responsibility of the Teaching of Literatures" (Paul
Smith); (10) "The Case for Jameson; or, Towards a Marxian Pedagogy of
World Literature" (Christopher Wise); (11) "Subversion and Oppositionality
in the Academy" (Barbara Foley); and (12) "World Bank Literature 101" (Amitava
Kumar). The final section, "Making the Pedagogical More Political,"
contains: (13)"Going Postal: Pedagogic Violence and the Schooling of
Emotion" (Lynn Worsham); (14) "The Politics of Teaching Literature: The 'Paedegogical
Effect'" (Robert Miklitsch); (15) "Guerrilla Pedagogy: Conflicting
Authority and Interpretation in the Classroom" (Jody Norton); and (16)
"Multimedia Pedagogy and Sunday Morning Millennial Fever" (Richard
Feldstein). Each chapter contains references.
Higher Education; United States; Economic Aspects; Social
Aspects; Work and Learning; Formal Education; Schooling.
12. Holmesland, I., & Tarrou,
A.-L. H. (2001). Institutionalising research in teacher education: The
creation of a research centre as a means of lifelong learning for teacher
educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 24(1), 67-76.
Examines efforts by one Norwegian university college to institutionalize
research among the academic staff, describing different steps taken by the
college's leadership and a group of teacher educators/researchers to
establish a research environment at the institution and stimulate research
among the staff. Hindrances to establishing a research environment in an
institution with a strong teaching-dominated tradition are discussed.
Educational Research; Elementary/ Secondary Education;
Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education;
Research and Development Centers; Research Projects; Teacher Educators;
Teacher Researchers; Norway; Formal Education; Schooling.
13. Kanu, Y. (2002). In their
own voices: First Nations students identify some cultural mediators of
their learning in the formal school system. Alberta Journal of
Educational Research, 48(2), 98-121.
study examined how culture influences Canadian Native student learning.
Classroom observations, conversations, and student journals from 10
Aboriginal students in a Winnipeg high school social studies class
identified five related themes: traditional Aboriginal approaches to
learning, patterns of oral interaction, self-concept, curriculum
relevance, and teachers' interpersonal style. Includes recommendations for
preservice teacher education.
American Indian Education; American Indian Students; Canada
Natives; Cognitive Style; Culturally Relevant Education; Educational
Environment; Educational Strategies; Foreign Countries; High School
Students; Preservice Teacher Education; Secondary Education; Teacher
Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; Formal Education; Schooling.
14. Kirby, D., & Sharpe, D.
(2001). Student attrition from Newfoundland and Labrador's public college.
Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 47(4), 353-368.
paper shows that about one quarter of first-semester students enrolled in
engineering technology programs at a Newfoundland (Canada) college dropped
out. Student interviews and surveys indicate that academic difficulty was
the most significant factor. Part-time attendance, uncertainty about
future employment opportunities, work, and time elapsed since high school
were also factors.
Academic Achievement; College Freshmen; Dropouts;
Educational Experience; Engineering Education; Foreign Countries; Higher
Education; Prior Learning; Student Attitudes; Student Attrition; Student
Characteristics; Formal Education; Schooling.
15. Levin, B. (2001).
Reforming education: From origins to outcomes. London: Routledge 2001.
book includes a study of large-scale education reform in five different
settings: England, New Zealand, the Canadian provinces of Alberta and
Manitoba and the US state of Minnesota. The book considers a variety of
reforms covering: school choice; charter schools; increased testing of
students; stricter curriculum guidelines; and local school management.
Drawing from theoretical and empirical work in education, political
theory, organizational theory and public administration, a clearly
developed conceptual framework of analyzing reform programs is presented.
The author reviews the political origins of the reforms, the process of
adoption into law, the implementation processes used to support the
reforms and the impact of the reforms on students, schools and
Education and State; Cross-Cultural Studies; Educational
Change; Formal Education; Schooling.
16. Livingstone, D. W., &
Stowe, S. (2001). Class and university education: Inter-generational
patterns in Canada. NALL Working Paper No. 36. Toronto: Centre for the
Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: http://www.nall.ca/.
people from lower class origins continue to face major barriers to
university education in Canada. This paper documents both substantial
inter-generational class mobility and continuing inequalities in formal
educational attainments by class origins. While Canada now has the world's
highest educational attainments in its youth cohorts and has experienced
rapid growth in adult education participation as well, those from
professional/managerial families remain more than three times as likely to
attain a degree as those from working class origins. There is also
mounting evidence that escalating financial costs are again increasing the
relative class inequalities in university education. These large and
increasing class inequalities are compared with the much more equitable
and extensive participation in informal learning found in a recent
national survey, as well as the underemployment of working class people in
the Canadian job structure. In light of these educational and economic
inequalities, needs-based student subsidies and democratic workplace
reforms are seen as major means to address persistent systemic
discrimination against the learning capacities and aspirations for
university education of those from lower class origins.
Access to Education; College Students; Equal Education;
Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Low Income Groups; Minority Groups;
Social Class; Socioeconomic Status; Formal Education; Schooling.
17. OECD. (2001). Knowledge
and skills for life. First results from OECD programme for international
student assessment (PISA) 2000. Paris: OECD.
report assesses how far students near the end of compulsory schooling
(15-year-olds) have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are
essential for full participation in society. It presents data on student
performance in reading, mathematical and scientific literacy, suggests
factors that influence the development of these skills at home and at
school, and explores the implications for policy development. The report
presents considerable variation in levels of knowledge and skills between
students, schools and countries. The degree to which the socio-economic
background of students and schools affects student performance varies.
Some countries have managed to lessen the influence of social background
and some have done that while achieving a high overall mean performance.
Knowledge and Skills; Student Performance; Reading;
Mathematics; Policy Development; Formal Education: Schooling.
Ortiz, F. I., & Gonzales, R. (2000). Latino
high school students' pursuit of higher education. Aztlan: A Journal of
Chicano Studies, 25(1), 67-107.
case study shows how joint organizational efforts and individual
initiative counteracted social structures inhibiting Latino students'
pursuit of higher education. A high school principal, university
president, institutional units responsible for student preparation and
access to college, students, and their parents created social
relationships, activities, and structures to raise Latino students'
eligibility for University of California admission.
Access to Education; Administrator Role; Case Studies;
College Bound Students; College Preparation; College School Cooperation;
Counselor Role; Educational Cooperation; Equal Education; Higher
Education; Hispanic American Students; Institutional Role; Parent Role;
Parent School Relationship; Secondary Education; Social Theories; Teacher
Role; Institutional Racism; Latinos; University of California; Formal
19. Rauschenbach, T. (2003).
Educational dilemma. [Un]Intended side effects of formal education.
Diskurs, 13(2), 50-58.
PISA results form the background for tracking down individual stages of
the educational reform project. The author examines an educational dilemma
in modern German society. In his opinion, educational reform is rooted in
the fact that the public perspective has been narrowed down to school as
the only place of learning & to lessons as the only mode of learning. The
author pleads for changing this perspective in the current debate, & to
see educational processes as the result of the diachronic & synchronic
interplay of different places & modes of learning throughout the life
courses of children & adolescents. In this way, several places & modes of
education & learning - family, school, peers, child care, youth services,
media, etc - will be on an equal footing. The paper then gives examples of
different places of learning & educational processes. The author argues
for a broader concept of education that comprises more than just school.
With a view to imparting key competencies & educational objectives, it
should also include learning & educational resources outside school.
Federal Republic of Germany; Educational Reform; Learning;
Socialization; Life Cycle; Education; Educational Systems; Formal
20. Rennie, F., & Mason, R.
(2004). The connection: Learning for the connected generation.
Greenwich: Information Age.
volume makes the case that the changes brought about by the connectivity
of the Internet have so transformed the nature of post secondary learning
that we need to view it differently. Both the content and the processes of
learning have been profoundly altered because of the accessibility of
information and the multi-way interactivity provided by the Internet. The
authors call this new phenomenon the Connecticon—which encompasses the new
opportunities created by the infrastructure, the content, the multiple
connection devices of the Web, as well as by the hyper-interactivity of
the connected generation for whom attention is the new currency. It is the
aim of this book to identify and document the connecticon—its nature, its
impact and its implications. We will do this in the broad domain of
learning, though a similar study could be carried out in commercial,
social or political fields.
Internet; New Economy; Learning; Formal Education;
Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (Eds.).
(2001). Defining and selecting key competencies. Göttingen: Hogrefe
Forward: Literacy is measured throughout Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, and the world and we are
still far from assessing a set of key competencies. Project Definition and
Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations (DeSeCo),
under the auspices of the OECD, is led by the Swiss Federal Statistical
Office in collaboration with the US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. The goal is to conduct research that will
foster the needed framework for defining and selecting key competencies.
Published contributions here represent the result of the scholarly work
conducted during the 1st phase of the DeSeCo project. This book sounds out
perspectives from different academic principles and areas of policy and
Cognitive Ability; Competence; Self Management; Theoretical
Interpretation; Literacy; Formal Education; Schooling.
22. Sahlberg, P. (2001). From
non-formal education to lifelong learning: Bridging schools with youth
activity. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 6(1), 48-54.
more comprehensive forms of cooperation are needed between schools and
sources of nonformal education in the community. Institutions should work
together to promote a new culture of learning and enhanced learning
Community Organizations; Educational Cooperation;
Educational Environment; Lifelong Learning; Nonformal Education; School
Community Relationship; Student Organizations; Formal Education;
23. Taylor, A. (2002).
In/forming education policy. Journal of Education Policy, 17(1),
Discusses vocational education by analyzing "Framework for Enhancing
Business Involvement," a 1996 policy report from Alberta, Canada. Provide
in-depth analysis of report by examining policy context in which framework
developed, the policy process, and the implementation process. Briefly
discusses broader implications of report for other nations.
Education Work Relationship; Elementary/ Secondary
Education; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Policy Analysis; Vocational
Education; Work and Learning; Formal Education; Schooling.
24. Weiner, E. J. (2003).
Neoliberal ideology, state curriculum standards, and the manufacturing of
educational needs: Notes on the transformation of state power and
ideological state apparatuses in the age of globalization. Educational
Foundations, 17(4), 21-57.
author examines some key questions about the future of public education.
Specifically, the writer looks at the role of state and federal power and
the hegemonic effect of ideological state apparatuses in an era of
neoliberal globalization. He examines neoliberal ideology and explores how
it manufactures particular needs to serve specific interests at the local
and federal level. The writer examines two New Jersey curriculum
Globalization; Work and Learning; Business and Education;
United States of America; Curriculum.
25. Wheelahan, L. (2000).
Bridging the divide: Developing the institutional structures that most
effectively deliver cross-sectoral education and training. Melbourne:
National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
Issues in developing the institutional structures to deliver cross-sectoral
education and training were examined in a study of five Australian
single-sector higher education institutions with various institutional
arrangements with the vocational education and training (VET) sector and
five dual-sector universities. Data were collected from the following
sources: (1) a broad literature review; (2) reviews of commissioned
reports on Australia's VET and technical and further education (TAFE)
sectors; and (3) 31 interviews conducted during visits to the 10 case
study sites. The study focused on the following items: the structures and
mechanisms of service that are most effective; the advantages and
disadvantages of different mechanisms; criteria for identifying cross-sectoral
practice; and policy changes that would improve the efficiency and
effectiveness of dual-sector provision. The following were among the
recommendations emerging from the study: (1) develop a nationally coherent
policy on lifelong learning; (2) fund tertiary education by one level of
government; (3) institute comparable reporting requirements among the two
sectors; and (4) establish a single award for higher education and TAFE
Accountability; Accreditation (Institutions); Adult
Learning; Articulation (Education); Case Studies; Competency Based
Education; Cooperative Planning; Coordination; Cost Effectiveness;
Credits; Curriculum Development; Delivery Systems; Educational Finance;
Educational Needs; Educational Planning; Educational Trends; Financial
Support; Foreign Countries; Government School Relationship; Institutional
Administration; Institutional Cooperation; Integrated Curriculum;
Intercollegiate Cooperation; Job Training; Lifelong Learning; Models;
Needs Assessment; Organizational Development; Outcomes of Education;
Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Program Administration; Program
Content; Student Certification; Systems Approach; Teacher Certification;
Technical Institutes; Theory Practice Relationship; Transfer Policy;
Transfer Programs; Transfer Rates (College); Trend Analysis; Universities;
Vocational Education; Formal Education; Schooling.
26. Young, J., & Harris, A.
(2000). Comparing school improvement programmes in England and Canada.
School Leadership & Management, 20(1), 31-32.
Improving the Quality for All project in England and the Manitoba School
Improvement Program in Canada have demonstrated considerable success in
working with schools. This article traces both programs' development,
analyzes their different approaches, and reveals commonalities. Both
programs encourage teacher collaboration and foster professional learning
Change Strategies; Educational Improvement; Elementary/
Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Professional Development; Program
Descriptions; Program Development; Teacher Collaboration; Formal