Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

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Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli

 

CHAPTER 3. Learning [PDF]

SECTION

3.1. Lifelong Learning – General Perspectives
       on Learning in
Contemporary Society
[PDF]

 

 

1. Avis, J. (2000). Policy talk: Reflexive modernization and the construction of teaching and learning within post-compulsory education and lifelong learning in England. Journal of Education Policy, 15(2), 185-199.

 

            Explores the teaching and learning policy context within postsecondary education and lifelong learning in England. Critically examines globalization, reflexive modernization, and linkages with New Labour's third-way politics. Explores debates on pedagogic practice and waged labor organization. Debates are compromised by a consensual capitalism claiming to promote social justice.

 

            KEY WORDS: Capitalism; Conservatism; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Interpersonal Competence; Lifelong Learning; Modernization; Political Parties; Postsecondary Education; Social Change; Socialism; England; Globalization; Social Justice.

 

2. Bailey, T. (2003). Analogy, dialectics and lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(2), 132-146.

 

            Compares analogies and dialectics, discussing limitations of the Hegelian/Marxian dialectical form in adult education. Proposes the more holistic approach of Vico, a double dialectic that connects social and individual relationships, knowledge, and experience. Demonstrates a dialectical learning exchange that uses an analogy trigger.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Analogy; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Dialectical Reasoning; Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; Vico, Giambattista.

 

3. Binkley, M., Hudson, L., Knepper, P., Kolstad, A., Stowe, P., & Wirt, J. (2000). Lifelong learning NCES task force: Final report. District of Columbia: NCES.

 

            In September 1998, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) established a 1-year task force to review the NCES's role concerning lifelong learning. The eight-member task force established a working definition of lifelong learning ("a process or system through which individuals are able and willing to learn at all stages of life, from preschool through old age") and conducted the following activities: (1) summarized and prioritized policy issues concerning lifelong learning; (2) synthesized exiting data to address monitoring and policy needs; (3) identified and prioritized gaps in existing data; and (4) developed recommendations on data collection strategies. The recommendations focused on the following lifelong learning issue areas: the adult population; learning attitudes and skills of adults; labor market demand for adult learning; participation levels and patterns; goals, incentives, and disincentives; investments in adult learning; adult learning providers; instructional delivery and new technologies; informal learning; services and accommodations for adults; outcomes and effectiveness; and the government's role in adult learning. The task force concluded that adult learning is an important area of education that should have a coherent data collection and reporting system within NCES and that NCES should take the following steps to develop such a system: (1) develop a compendium report summarizing existing information on lifelong learning; and (2) modify existing survey instruments that collect relevant information.

 

            KEY WORDS: Academic Achievement; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Agency Role; Change Strategies; Cost Effectiveness; Data Collection; Definitions; Delivery Systems; Education Work Relationship; Educational Attainment; Educational Benefits; Educational Finance; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Technology; Employment Qualifications; Enrollment Trends; Government School Relationship; Informal Education; Information Needs; Job Skills; Labor Market; Labor Needs; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Organizational Development; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Program Development; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Research Design; Research Methodology; Student Educational Objectives; National Center for Education Statistics; Task Force Approach.

 

4. Bostrom, A. K., Boudard, E., & Siminou, P. (2001). Lifelong learning in Sweden: The extent to which vocational education and training policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Sweden. CEDEFOP Panorama. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

 

            The extent to which vocational education and training (VET) policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Sweden was examined through a review of recent policy documents issued by various Swedish government agencies and data from comparative studies compiled by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Adult Literacy Survey. The review focused on the following items: (1) VET policy and the structural framework of Sweden's VET system; (2) support measures to promote participation and access, modes of delivery, and actors; and (3) curricular development, learning strategies, and methodology. The study established that Sweden is making a large public investment in VET, with VET and general education functioning as parts of an integrated system that has been highly decentralized since 1991. Extensive examples of lifelong learning policy within Sweden's educational system were identified. Swedish policy was actively supporting a lifelong learning perspective for VET, and Sweden appeared to be moving toward a genuine system for lifelong learning. (Sixteen tables/figures are included. The following items are appended: list of social partners involved in the knowledge week; tables detailing integration of the Adult Education Initiative with upper-secondary education for adults between 1997 and 1999; and list of pertinent legal provisions.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Literacy; Articulation (Education); Counseling Services; Curriculum Development; Delivery Systems; Disadvantaged; Educational Administration; Educational Finance; Educational Legislation; Educational Objectives; Educational Policy; Educational Trends; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Enrollment Influences; Enrollment Trends; Experiential Learning; Federal Legislation; Financial Support; Foreign Countries; Government School Relationship; Incentives; Information Services; Information Technology; Labor Force Development; Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; Motivation Techniques; National Programs; Nonformal Education; Participation; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Public Policy; School Business Relationship; Social Integration; Student Certification; Teaching Methods; Transitional Programs; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.

 

5. Bourn, D. (2001). Global perspectives in lifelong learning. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 6(3), 325-338.

 

            Explores the importance of lifelong learning in a global society and presents contributions of development education. Discusses the agendas of citizenship and sustainable development and proposes key concepts, skills, and values for a global curriculum.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizenship Education; Global Education; Lifelong Learning; Sustainable Development; Globalization.

 

6. Bundy, A. (2002). Essential connections: School and public libraries for lifelong learning. Australian Library Journal, 51(1), 47-70.

 

            Discusses the importance of information literacy for lifelong learning and the need for cooperation between public libraries and school libraries and teacher librarians. Reports results of a survey of Australian school and public libraries that investigated interaction and cooperation.

 

            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Information Literacy; Library Cooperation; Library Surveys; Lifelong Learning; Public Libraries; School Libraries; Australia; Teacher Librarians.

 

7. Cairns, T. (2000). For the sake of informality. Adults Learning (England), 12(3), 16-18.

 

            Informal learning probably accounts for most significant and meaningful learning in daily life. It should be considered in policy discussions and initiatives about lifelong learning, community development, and work-based learning.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Educational Policy; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning.

 

8. Coffield, F. (2000). Lifelong learning as a lever on structural change? Evaluation of White Paper: Learning To Succeed: A New Framework for Post-16 Learning. Journal of Education Policy, 15(2), 237-246.

 

            Evaluates a (British) government white paper on postsecondary education. Welcomes community councils, social partnerships, and enhanced resources, while criticizing absence of a change model, inadequate employer training investments, and slavish adherence to business's needs and human-capital theory. Empowerment goes further than endless technocratic reforms.

 

            KEY WORDS: Change Strategies; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Empowerment; Foreign Countries; Human Capital; Job Skills; Lifelong Learning; Models; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Educational Restructuring; England.

 

9. Colley, H., Hodkinson, P., & Malcolm, J. (2003). Understanding informality and formality in learning. Adults Learning (England), 15(3), 7-9.

 

            Reviews definitions of and debates over distinctions among formal, informal, and nonformal learning. Outlines questions about four aspects of formality/informality with which to analyze learning situations: process, location/setting, purposes, and content.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Environment; Informal Education; Learning Processes; Nonformal Education; Lifelong Learning.

 

10. Colley, H., Hodkinson, P., & Malcom, J. (2003). Informality and formality in learning: A report for the learning and skills research centre. London, England: Learning and Skills Research Centre.

 

            This report was commissioned by the LSDA to map the conceptual terrain around non-formal learning. In order to do this, three research strands were combined. We conducted a major literature search, from which we analysed explicit classifications of learning as informal, non-formal or formal. The report provides a detailed investigation of different learning situations in the workplace, further education, adult and community education (ACE) and mentoring. The historical development of ideas through the literature, identifying and analysing two overlapping dimensions of thinking, to which we give the shorthand labels of ‘theoretical’ and ‘political’.

 

            KEY WORDS: Learning; Informal Learning; Learning and Work; Lifelong Learning.

 

11. Coppieters, P. (2005). Turning schools into learning organizations. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(2), 129-139.

 

            The concept of life-long learning has become a frequently used term in political and educational parlance. The final aim of schools has to be the development of the self-directed learner by developing the students' life-long learning competences. To realize this goal schools have to change from institutions that transfer knowledge into learning organizations. This paper will show that this transformation needs a new view on change processes and change management. The old view is known as the School Effectiveness, Improvement and Culture (SEIC) movement. We argue in this paper that the overall direction of this movement with its emphasis on factorial, deterministic and simplistic approaches to change and school improvement has little to offer to understand the complex change processes in schools. Therefore, we explore a new view, in which schools are seen as dynamic, unpredictable and complex social organisms the development of which depends on complex adaptation systems based on knowledge management and learning.

 

            KEY WORDS: Educational Change; Change Strategies; School Effectiveness; School Culture; School Policy; Organization; Educational Policy; Motivation; Lifelong Learning.

 

12. Crowther, J., & Sutherland, P. (Eds.). (2005). Lifelong learning: Concepts and contexts. New York: Routledge.

 

            Lifelong learning has developed enormously as a distinct area of study within education in recent years. This guide brings together new writing from some of the leading thinkers in the field to offer a broad ranging yet detailed snapshot of current developments in understanding adult learning and its social and personal context.

 

The book identifies four themes: Adult learning is distinctly different from learning in childhood; Learning is more than a cognitive activity in that it includes an affective dimension and contextual influences; Lifelong learning has implications for the purpose and processes of learning in educational institutions; There are subordinate discourses of lifelong learning that need to be aired.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Lifelong Learning.

 

 

13. Cruikshank, J. (2002). Lifelong learning or re-training for life: Scapegoating the worker. Studies in the Education of Adults, 34(2), 140-157.

 

            This article explores the current focus of lifelong learning in Canada. It looks at the new economy, the increasing polarisation between the rich and the poor, the role lifelong learning plays in supporting this polarisation and describes why so many Canadians continue to believe the training-as-panacea rhetoric. The article highlights the need for research that will challenge current lifelong policies, explore new economy issues from alternative perspectives and view lifelong learning from a more holistic perspective. It also identifies a need for adult educators to lobby for more progressive lifelong learning policies that will improve the quality of life for all citizens.

 

            KEY WORDS: Canada; Lifelong Learning; Policy; Adult Learners.

 

14. Dimitriadis, G., & Kamberelis, G. (2006). Theory for education. London: Routledge.

 

            This book provides a concise and clear introduction to key contemporary theorists, including their lives, major works, and ideas. Written for the student in need of a quick introduction or for the scholar brushing up on details, this new book in the theory series presents major thinkers whose work and ideas have shaped critical thinking in our time. The authors underscore the particular relevance of these thinkers for the field of education - their work on education, how others in education have used them, and possible future directions for teachers and researchers. The volume gives special attention to theorists of "the post" - post-modernism, post-structuralism, and post-colonialism.

 

            KEY WORDS: Education Theory; Poststructuralism; Research; Lifelong Learning.

 

15. Dyer, C. (2001). Nomads and education for all: Education for development or domestication? Comparative Education, 37(3), 315-327.

 

            In Gujarat, India, illiterate Rabari nomads see formal education and literacy as irrelevant to pastoralism, but as providing possible alternatives if the pastoral life dies. Access and school culture present many difficulties. The hegemonic values of the international initiative Education for All and associated national policies ignore the importance of local knowledge and context.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Acculturation; Educational Attitudes; Educational Principles; Foreign Countries; Migrant Education; Minority Groups; Nomads; Public Policy; Relevance (Education); Social Bias; Values; Lifelong Learning.

 

16. Edwards, R., Armstrong, P., & Miller, N. (2001). Include me out: Critical readings of social exclusion, social inclusion and lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(5), 417-428.

 

            Social inclusion appears to be an unconditional good. Examination of social policy studies and poststructuralist philosophy suggests that "inclusion" is positioned within a philosophy of identity that denies difference and is thus exclusionary. Promoting social inclusion heightens awareness of difference. The rights of those who choose not to be included must be protected.

 

            KEY WORDS: Civil Rights; Cultural Pluralism; Democracy; Educational Policy; Equal Education; Lifelong Learning; Identity (Psychological).

 

17. Edwards, R., & Nicoll, K. (2001). Researching the rhetoric of lifelong learning. Journal of Education Policy, 16(2), 103-112.

 

            In the analysis of polices for lifelong learning, the gap between the rhetoric and reality has become the focus for much debate and concern. Reality is compared with rhetoric and both are found wanting. In this paper, we argue that such critiques misconceive the significance of rhetoric and we outline the form a rhetorical analysis of lifelong learning policy could take. Using the UK government's 1998 Green Paper and 1999 White Paper on lifelong learning as illustrations, we suggest that rhetorical analysis helps to point to the politics of discourse that is at play in policy-making processes. This is a politics - often dismissed as spin-doctoring - with which we need to engage if our own attempts to develop lifelong learning are to be persuasive.

 

            KEY WORDS: Policy; Lifelong Learning.

 

18. Edwards, R., & Usher, R. (2001). Lifelong learning: A postmodern condition of education? Adult Education Quarterly, 51(4), 273-287.

 

            In recent years, there has been much discussion of the significance of postmodernism and postmodernity for the study and practice of adult education. At the same time, lifelong learning has emerged as a significant strand of policy around the globe, reconfiguring the institutions and purposes of education. This article examines the complication of lifelong learning with some of the changes associated with the postmodern condition, in particular; the growth of performativity alongside a certain "unruliness" of knowledge. The article also suggests that lifelong learning signifies that the loss of mastery is associated with postmodern notions of ambivalence and incredulity. The article argues that given their interrelationship, lifelong learning can be constructed as a postmodern condition of education.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Lifelong Learning; Mastery Learning; Outcomes of Education; Postmodernism; Role of Education.

 

19. Edwards, R. (2003). Ordering subjects: Actor-networks and intellectual technologies in lifelong learning. Studies in the Education of Adults, 35(1), 54-67.

 

            Argues that discourses of lifelong learning act as intellectual technologies that construct individuals as subjects in a learning society. Discuses three discourses using actor-network theory: (1) economics/human capital (individuals as accumulators of skills for competitiveness); (2) humanistic psychology (individuals seeking fulfillment through participation in learning); and (3) social capital (collaborative learning within social relations and networks).

 

            KEY WORDS: Behavior Modification; Cognitive Processes; Discourse Analysis; Lifelong Learning; Actor Network Theory; Self Regulation; Subjectivity.

 

20. Edwards, R., Gallacher, J., & Whittaker, S. (2006). Learning outside the academy: International research perspectives on lifelong learning. London: Routledge.

 

            This work weaves together different strands of research in the area of Lifelong Learning that concentrates particularly on learning in alternative settings and ways, such experiential learning, informal and community learning. Drawing upon international research, the book looks at how these strands of research can contribute to each other.

 

The contributions to this volume are based on material presented at a conference at the Centre for Research in Lifelong Learning, UK, and they focus on research into key issues of policy and practice in Lifelong Learning. Establishing a wider framework for debate about the meaning and significance of lifelong learning, this timely and thought-provoking book will provide practitioners in the field with a relevant and current discussion on some very important ideas about non-formal education.

 

            KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; UK; Non-Formal Learning; Community Learning.

 

21. Elfert, M. E. (2002). Towards an open learning world: 50 years. Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

 

            An historical account of the creation and development of the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) is presented. Written in honor of the 50th anniversary of UIE, this institutional history begins with a series of seven prefaces and memoir essays about the organization written by UIE administrators, board members and researchers. Two chapters detail the founding and establishment of UIE, and present short portraits of these seven UIE pioneers: John West Robertson Thompson, Minna Specht, Paul Lengrand, Gottfried Hausmann, Paulo Freire, Bogdan Suchodolski, and Maria Montessori. Following these is a chapter, organized by decades, devoted entirely to the activities of UIE since its inception. The final chapter focuses on the present day activities of UIE and its current emphasis on lifelong learning and non-formal education. Publications of the UIE are next featured, including photographs of covers of the International Review of Education and other selected publications. Captioned photographs of both the founding and current staffs precede brief biographies of all UIE directors. Historical essays are included from these three UIE directors: Tetsuya Kobayashi, Ravindra Dave, and Paul Bélanger. Among the final lists and appended material are a list of governing board chairpersons; a list of governing board members from 1951-2002; a UIE chronology; a list of UIE conferences from 1952-2002; and an index of the 45 photographs included.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Basic Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Chronicles; Culturally Relevant Education; Delivery Systems; Developing Nations; Educational Development; Educational Environment; Educational Facilities; Educational Finance; Educational History; Federal Government; Foreign Countries; Government School Relationship; Informal Education; Intergenerational Programs; International Cooperation; International Educational Exchange; International Organizations; International Programs; Lifelong Learning; Literacy; Literacy Education; Nonformal Education; Open Education; Organizational Change; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Program Development; Program Effectiveness; Freire, Paulo; Institutional History; Montessori, Maria,; UNESCO; UNESCO Institute for Education; United Nations.

 

22. Field, J., & Leicester, M. (Eds.). (2000). Lifelong learning: Education across the lifespan. London: Falmer.

 

            Lifelong learning is an increasingly relevant issue for educators across the world, as societies all over the world are concerned with developing a literate, skilled and flexible workforce to expand participation in education at all levels and for all age groups. This book covers all the key issues.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Informal Learning; Lifelong Learning; Work and Learning.

 

23. Given, L. (1999). The promise of "lifelong learning" and the Canadian Census: The marginalization of mature students' information behaviours. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science-Revue Canadienne Des Sciences De L’Information Et De Bibliotheconomie, 24(4), 46-46.

 

            Examined is the rising popularity of "lifelong learning", as well as the effect on government and university initiatives, & the implications of these initiatives for academic information behaviours of mature students. Results of 1 part of a 2 phase study, involving both the manipulation of Canadian Census data and a series of in-depth, qualitative interviews with mature students. Results of the 1st-phase of the study, the author reports: First, the national demographic portrait of mature students that is captured by the Census. Second, limitations from a Census questionnaire for tracking demographic data for mature students. Third, the results from a series of logistic regression tests which used the Census data to explore the social stereotypes of the 'mature student'. Fourth, a discursive critique of Census-based Statistics Canada documents with implications for the promotion of 'lifelong learning'. Fifth, marginalization of mature students' experiences in Statistics Canada on student academic information behaviours.

 

            KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Mature Students; Government; University Initiatives; Canadian Census Data.

 

24. Gorard, S., & Selwyn, N. (2005). What makes a lifelong learner? Teachers College Record, 107(6), 1193-1216.

 

            This article uses the reports from 1,001 home-based interviews, with adults living in the United Kingdom, to describe their varying patterns of participation in lifelong learning. It finds that 37% of all adults report no further education or training of any kind after reaching compulsory school-leaving age. This proportion declines in each age cohort but is largely replaced by a pattern of lengthening initial education and still reporting no further education or training of any kind after leaving. The actual patterns of participation are predictable to a large extent from regression analysis using a life order model of determining variables. The key variables are age, ethnicity, sex, family background, and initial schooling, all of which are set very early in life. This suggests that universal theories to describe participation, such as simple human capital theory, are incorrect in several respects. Where individuals create, for themselves and through their early experiences, a learner identity inimical to further study, then the prospect of learning can become a burden rather than an investment. This has implications for the notion of overcoming barriers to access, such as those involving technology.

 

            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Family Characteristics; Adult Education; Human Capital; Lifelong Learning; Interviews; Age; Ethnicity; Sex; Educational Technology; Educational Attainment.

 

25. Gough, S., Walker, K., & Scott, W. (2001). Lifelong learning: Towards a theory of practice for formal and non-formal environmental education and training. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 178-196.

 

            Contends that environmental learning is possible only if all absolute criteria for judging educational or environmental worth are regarded as problematic.

 

            KEY WORDS: Educational Strategies; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Environmental Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Science Curriculum; Theory Practice Relationship.

 

26. Green, A. (2002). The many faces of lifelong learning: Recent education policy trends in Europe. Journal of Education Policy, 17(6), 611-626.

 

            Examines the rise of discourse on lifelong learning across Europe, including the variety of national policy trends related thereto. Highlights convergent and divergent trends and comments on some of the implications of different policy models. Analyzes policy-as-discourse and policy-as-practice through illustrations.

 

            KEY WORDS: Educational Policy; Educational Trends; Elementary/ Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Discourse; Europe.

 

27. Griffin, C. (1999). Lifelong learning and social democracy. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 18(5), 329-342.

 

            "Education" is being displaced by "learning" and it is becoming increasingly difficult to isolate educational policy from socioeconomic policy. Analysis of progressive social democratic policies shows that lifelong learning may be another name for expansion of education and training systems.

 

            KEY WORDS: Democracy; Educational Policy; Government Role; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Social Change; Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development; UNESCO.

 

28. Gustavsson, B. (2002). What do we mean by lifelong learning and knowledge? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 13-23.

 

            In the last 20 years, the concepts of lifelong learning and knowledge have been expressed in economic terms, losing their humanistic and democratic content. To broaden the concept beyond theoretical-scientific knowledge, phronesis (practical wisdom) is defined as the ability to meet concrete situations with sensitivity and imagination, a concept employing human abilities more fully.

 

            KEY WORDS: Ethics; Humanistic Education; Lifelong Learning; Rhetoric; Knowledge; Phronesis; Technical Rationality.

 

29. Halimi, S., & Hristoskova, S. (2001). Lifelong learning for equity and social cohesion: A new challenge for higher education. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 7(1), 21-32.

 

            The Council of Europe's lifelong learning project affirmed the role of higher education in promoting social cohesion and equal access to lifelong learning opportunities. The need to change formal structures to accommodate nontraditional methods was recognized. The impact of information/communications technologies on educational processes and access was investigated.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Communications; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Information Technology; Lifelong Learning; Nontraditional Education; Role of Education; Council of Europe (France).

 

30. Halliday, J. (2003). Who wants to learn forever? Hyperbole and difficulty with lifelong learning. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 22(3-4), 195-210.

 

            Discusses issues of how lifelong learning, globalization and capitalism are related within late modernity and how an increasingly homogeneous global economy requires a high level of cognitive skills in its workers. Argues that policymakers should encourage life long learning so that it can be easily combined into people's lives.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Capitalism; Community Colleges; Democracy; Economics; Experiential Learning; Globalization; Independent Study; Lifelong Learning; Social Systems; Two Year Colleges.

 

31. Hodkinson, P. (2001). Researching the learning society: Review article. Work, Employment and Society, 15(2), 385-393.

 

            A review article including four books edited by Frank Coffield: (1) Learning at Work; (2) Why's the Beer Always Stronger Up North?: Studies in Lifelong Learning in Europe; (3) Speaking Truth to Power: Research and Policy on Lifelong Learning; & (4) The Necessity of Informal Learning (all, Bristol: Policy, 1998, 1999, 1999, & 2000, respectively). All four books resulted from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Research Program, "The Learning Society: Knowledge and Skills for Employment." Criteria for evaluation of these products include (1) the quality of the empirical findings, (2) the extent to which the program's 14 projects contribute to existing knowledge, & (3) the relevance of that knowledge to the intended beneficiaries. Consequently, it is argued that the third volume is the strongest because it uses research data to overturn certain overblown claims regarding the value of learning.

 

            KEY WORDS: Learning; Employment; Social Science Research; Work Skills; Job; Training; Social Constructionism; Lifelong Learning.

 

32. Hughes, C. (2001). Developing conceptual literacy in lifelong learning research: A case of responsibility. British Educational Research Journal, 27(5), 601-614.

 

            Contends the nature of lifelong learning research is marked by border crossings requiring researchers to be conceptually literate. Discusses aspects of conceptual literacy. Draws on fields of adult education, employment, and family as key domains of lifelong learning research. Explores literacy issues through a case study of feminist conceptualizations of responsibility.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Case Studies; Educational Research; Employment; Family (Sociological Unit); Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; England.

 

33. Hull, B. (2001). Libraries: Deliverers of lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 12(6), 20-22.

 

            A survey of British adult students returning to education found they lacked basic as well as information literacy skills and have difficulty with information retrieval and use of learning resource centers. Partnerships between adult educators as facilitators and librarians as teachers are needed.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Foreign Countries; Information Literacy; Information Retrieval; Library Services; Lifelong Learning; Great Britain.

 

34. Hyslop-Margison, E. J. (2000). The employability skills discourse: A conceptual analysis of the career and personal planning curriculum. Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensée Educative, 34(1), 59-72.

 

            States that British Columbia's Career and Personal Planning curriculum commits two fundamental mistakes in its classification of employability skills by: incorrectly conflating distinct categories of concepts under the general rubric of generic skills; and categorizing attitudes, values, and dispositions as skills. Reveals how these category mistakes may prevent students from achieving program objectives, and circumvents critical moral considerations.

 

            KEY WORDS: Canadian Studies; Curriculum Evaluation; Educational Practices; Employment Potential; Job Skills; Job Training; Moral Issues; Student Needs; Vocational Education; British Columbia; Lifelong Learning.

 

35. Illeris, K. (2003). Towards a contemporary and comprehensive theory of learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(4), 396-406.

 

            In this paper, an overarching learning theory is presented, based on assumptions that all learning includes (1) external learner-environment interaction and internal acquisition and elaboration and (2) cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions. The framework depicts four types of learning: cumulative, assimilative, accommodative, and transformative.

 

            KEY WORDS: Affective Behavior; Cognitive Processes; Cognitive Structures; Competence; Environmental Influences; Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Prior Learning; Social Environment.

 

 

36. Istance, D. E., Schuetze, H. G. E., & Schuller, T. E. (2002). International perspectives on lifelong learning: From recurrent education to the knowledge society. Berkshire: UK: Open University Press.

 

            This book of 17 chapters by different authors, traces the progress in developing lifelong learning policies over the past 30 years. It is organized in 6 parts following an introductory chapter, "From Recurrent Education to the Knowledge Society: An Introduction (Schuller, Schuetze, Istance). Part 1 is Historical Reflections on Policy-making and comprises: "Education in 2000 and 2025: Looking Back to the Future" (Husen); "Lifelong Learning Revisited" (Kallen); and "Lifelong Learning and the Changing Policy Environment" (Papadopoulos). Part 2 revolves around Building Human and Social Capital and includes: "Effective Schooling for Lifelong Learning" (Hargreaves); "Too Old to Learn? Lifelong Learning in the Context of an Ageing Population" (Lynch); and "From Human Capital to Social Capital" (Healy). Part 3 focuses On Organizing Learning. It includes: "The Seventh Sector: Social Enterprise for Learning in the United States" (Stern); "Training Networks and the Changing Organization of Professional Learning" (Caspar);"Learning in Post-industrial Organizations: Experiences of a Reflective Practitioner in Australia" (Ford). Part 4 is Globalization and Higher Education and comprises: "Globalization, Development and the International Knowledge Economy" (Carnoy); "Globalization, Universities and 'Knowledge as Control': New Possibilities for New Colonialisms?" (Kim); and "Universities and the Knowledge Society" (Duke). Part 5, Internationalizing Literacies and Learning, includes: "Problems of Adult Literacy in the Knowledge Society: Lessons from International Surveys" (Tuijnman); "The Digital Divide and Literacy: Focusing on the Most Poor" (Wagner); and "Learning Cultures and the Pursuit of Global Learning Norms" (Hirsch). Part 6 is entitled A Swedish Cod and includes the concluding chapter: "Adult Education Policy in Sweden 1967-2001.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; Communication (Thought Transfer); Competency Based Education; Context Effect; Cultural Pluralism; Developed Nations; Discourse Communities; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Benefits; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Government Role; Human Capital; International Educational Exchange; International Organizations; Job Skills; Labor Market; Learning Strategies; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Models; Networks; Older Adults; Older Workers; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Political Attitudes; Professional Development; Public Policy.

 

37. Jarvis, P. E. (2001). The age of learning: Education and the knowledge society. Herndon, VA: Stylus Publishing.

 

            This book's 18 chapters provide a multi-disciplinary analysis of lifelong learning and the learning society by doing the following: (1) examining the way that these phenomena have emerged; (2) analyzing the concepts; (3) discussing ways in which the learning society functions; (4) assessing the implications of the learning society for other sectors of the educational institution; and (5) reflecting on the age of learning. Many examples are taken from experiences in the United Kingdom. The following essays are included: "The Emerging Idea" (Linda Merricks); "Social, Economic, and Political Contexts" (Stephen McNair); "The Changing Educational Scene" (Peter Jarvis); "From Education Policy to Lifelong Learning Strategies" (Colin Griffin); "The Learning Society" (Colin Griffin and Bob Brownhill); "Lifelong Learning" (Bob Brownhill); "Paying for the Age of Learning" (Stephen McNair); "Work-Related Learning" (Paul Tosey and Stephen McNair); "Facilitating Access To Learning: Educational and Vocational Guidance" (Julia Preece); "Implications of the Learning Society for Education beyond School" (Linda Merricks); "The School in the Age of Learning" (John Holfford and Gill Nicholls); "Corporations and Professions" (Peter Jarvis and Paul Tosey); "Implications for the Delivery of Learning Materials" (John Holford and Tom Black); "Implications for Including the Socially Excluded in the Learning Age" (Julia Preece); "The Public Recognition of Learning" (Peter Jarvis); "Questioning the Learning Society" (Peter Jarvis); "Civil Society and Citizenship in a Learning Age" (John Holford); and "Future Directions for the Learning Society" (Peter Jarvis and Julia Preece).

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Learning; Citizenship Education; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Educational Finance; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Technology; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning.

 

38. Kahlert, M. (2000). Lifelong learning - A public library perspective. Paper presented at the ALIA 2000, Capitalising on knowledge the information profession in the 21st century, 24-26 October 2000, Canberra. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from http://conferences.alia.org.au/alia2000/ proceedings/maureen.kahlert.html.

 

            This report presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the issue of the public library as a lifelong learning institution, including the diversity of clientele, and Derbyshire (Australia) Learning and Technology Access services. The third section presents a lifelong learning project, titled "Lifelong Learning - The Key to Knowledge," that was organized by the City of Swan Public Libraries (Australia) for the International Year of Older Persons, including: anticipated outcomes; lecture series topics; and program evaluation, covering demographics, value of the program, awareness of aging and seniors, overall evaluation of the program, and effectiveness of promotional material and advertising. A program of events is appended.

 

 

            KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Library Services; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys; Older Adults; Public Libraries; Users (Information); Australia.

 

39. Kearns, P. (1999). Lifelong learning: Implications for VET. A discussion paper. Kensington Park, SA: The National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

 

            Lifelong learning should be seen as both an educational and a social practice in which learning occurs throughout individuals' lives and throughout society in a wide range of contexts (including the workplace), involves both formal and informal learning, and is facilitated by an extensive range of partnerships and networks. Vocational education and training (VET) must acquire a new humanism with a focus on people as a way of investing in human intellect, imagination, and creativity. Five key dimensions for achieving lifelong learning that can serve as a coherent and integrated template for thinking about how lifelong learning might be achieved are as follows: (1) establish the foundations for lifelong learning; (2) strengthen and develop pathways, bridges, and transitions; (3) foster learning organizations and institutions; (4) extend the role of information and learning technologies; and (5) develop lifelong learning communities. In Australia and elsewhere, a convergence of VET and general education would potentially address the needs of a knowledge-based economy, lead to a more integrated system with stronger linkages to other sectors, and build on current VET reforms.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational Needs; Educational Objectives; Educational Technology; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.

 

 

40. Kilpatrick, S., Field, J., & Falk, I. (2003). Social capital: An analytical tool for exploring lifelong learning and community development. British Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 417-433.

 

            The possibility of using the concept of social capital as an analytical tool for exploring lifelong learning and community development was examined. The following were among the topics considered: (1) differences between definitions of the concept of social capital that are based on collective benefit and those that define social capital as a resource used for the benefit of those individuals with access to it; (2) community development and community division; (3) the role of the concept of social capital in theories of community development; (4) the role of the concept of social capital in research into community development education; and (5) social capital and social cohesion. A social capital framework for analyzing community development was proposed. The framework called for considering the following items when analyzing community development, including adult education: (1) the balance between internal and external networks; (2) the presence and diversity of brokers who are able to operationalize the bridging and linking of networks; (3) the levels of self-confidence and self-esteem of community members and skills in working together, including conflict resolution; (4) norms present in the community (especially norms of inclusion/exclusion and reciprocity); and (5) the extent to which the community of analysis has shared visions for its future.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Community Attitudes; Community Characteristics; Community Development; Community Education; Community Resources; Definitions; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Linking Agents; Models; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Research Methodology; Social Capital; Social Integration; Social Networks; Social Support Groups; Social Values; Theory Practice Relationship; Australia; Europe.

 

 

41. Lechner, D. (2001). The dangerous right to human education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 20(3), 279-281.

 

            Uses the theories of Michel Foucault to support the contention that the educational system normalizes and disciplines the individual rather than stimulates the development of personal potential. Argues that children should be allowed to co-author the contracts they have with their educators; in this way education can serve to empower the child.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Children’s Rights; Educational Change; Educational Theories; Elementary Education; Institutional Environment; Institutional Role; Role of Education; Student Rights; Foucault, Michel.

 

42. Lindstrom, C. (2000). Lifelong learning at European level - The past, the present and the new Grundtvig action. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 5(1), 31-34.

 

            A new wave of European Union programs on lifelong learning focuses on transnational cooperation and improved access. Aims are to increase adults' capacity to play active social roles, develop intercultural awareness, improve employability, and access formal education systems.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Development; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning.

 

43. Longworth, N. (2006). Learning cities, learning regions, learning communities: Lifelong learning and local government. New York: Routledge.

 

            The author explores the mental and social landscape of the city of today and tomorrow; the way in which people think, interact, work together, learn and live with and among each other. Written to address the urgent need for a guide to the principles and practices of lifelong learning, the author examines: the idea of Learning Cities; policies and strategies for the Learning City, including examples form around the world; how to activate learning, involve stakeholders and encourage citizen participation in a Learning City or Region.

 

            KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Government; Work.

 

44. Lundmark, C. (2002). Lifelong learning. Bioscience, 52(4), 325.

 

            Argues that one essential resource for continued lifelong learning is the vast network of organizations and media that support the public's burgeoning demand for 'free choice' learning - learning that is often voluntary and guided by a person's needs and interests.

 

            KEY WORDS: Cognitive Style; Distance Education; General Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Science Education; Secondary Education.

 

45. Martin, I. (2001). Lifelong learning - For earning, yawning, or yearning? Adults Learning (England), 13(2), 14-17.

 

            Examined are 3 factors that contribute to the shifting roles of adult educators from normative practitioners and agents of social change to enacters of the dominant discourse of lifelong learning: professionalization, technicist pedagogy, and policies of economic determinism.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Educators; Lifelong Learning; Public Policy; Role of Education; Social Change; Professionalization.

 

46. Medel-Anonuevo, C., Ohsako, T., & Mauch, W. (2001). Revisiting lifelong learning for the 21st Century. Hamburg: Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

 

            Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong learning encompasses both continuity (stability) and discontinuity (change) in learned capacities over time as a result of interactions with the manmade environment - in other words, culture. The following strategies may help facilitate lifelong learning, effective cultural exchange, and interactions: (1) starting from the formative years, expose learners to diverse cultural information and experiences; (2) combine foreign language learning programs with culture learning; (3) develop culture learning programs with culture relativity as a main theme; and (4) develop learning indicators for individual learners' cross-cultural competencies. Lifelong learning should appeal to the totality of a person - heart, body, and brain - and more importantly, to our existential values and emotions. Lifelong learning can also deal with the uncertainty and contradictions of life. Lifelong learning should aim to promote the art of human maturity, which is a prerequisite for becoming a good citizen who is actively involved in local, national, and international issues and problems.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Students; Citizenship Education; Cross Cultural Training; Cultural Exchange; Cultural Interrelationships; Cultural Pluralism; Definitions; Educational Environment; Educational Objectives; Educational Principles; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Humanistic Education; Individual Differences; Intergroup Education; Learning Motivation; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Position Papers; Role of Education; Second Language Instruction; Self Actualization; Social Change; Student Characteristics.

 

47. Medel-Anonuevo, C. E. (2002). Integrating lifelong learning perspectives. Hamburg: Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

 

            In postindustrial society, the importance of education for the life course of young people is still important but much more unclear & unspecific than before & therefore sometimes questioned. The school function of qualifying young people for work is shrinking as a result of the vanishing of traditional occupations in favor of more broadly defined functions & such rapid changes in the structure of occupations that the learning of extrafunctional qualifications is of growing importance. For students, all of this implies that the significance of learning mostly abstract school knowledge in an overwhelmingly reproductive manner is being questioned. Students are no longer able to construct a meaningful connection between their education, work, & life course. The educational paths offered by the traditional curriculum lack significance for their life plans & future directions. The need to equip young people with a career identity is shown here, but it is also suggested that the educational setting must be altered as well. Recent developments in Dutch educational policy are used as an illustration.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Literacy; Citizenship; Citizenship Education; Cultural Awareness; Democracy; Distance Education; Economic Development; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Global Education; Illiteracy; Indigenous Populations; Intergenerational Programs; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Multicultural Education; Nondiscriminatory Education; Partnerships in Education; Sex Fairness; Teacher Education; Women’s Education.

 

48. Meijers, F., & Wesselingh, A. (1999). Career identity, education and new ways of learning. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 36(2), 229-251.

 

            In postindustrial society, the importance of education for the life course of young people is still important but much more unclear & unspecific than before & therefore sometimes questioned. The school function of qualifying young people for work is shrinking as a result of the vanishing of traditional occupations in favor of more broadly defined functions & such rapid changes in the structure of occupations that the learning of extrafunctional qualifications is of growing importance. For students, all of this implies that the significance of learning mostly abstract school knowledge in an overwhelmingly reproductive manner is being questioned. Students are no longer able to construct a meaningful connection between their education, work, & life course. The educational paths offered by the traditional curriculum lack significance for their life plans & future directions. The need to equip young people with a career identity is shown here, but it is also suggested that the educational setting must be altered as well. Recent developments in Dutch educational policy are used as an illustration.

 

            KEY WORDS: Educational Reform; Postindustrial Societies; Education Work Relationship; Occupational Structure; Life Plans; Youth; Educational Policy; Netherlands; Lifelong Learning.

 

49. Mojab, S., & Gorman, R. (2003). Women and consciousness in the "learning organization": Emancipation or exploitation? Adult Education Quarterly, 53(4), 228-241.

 

            This article attempts to uncover the contradictions inherent in the philosophy and practice of the learning organization. Through a Marxist-feminist analysis of current shifts in adult education and workplace structure, this study attempts to discover the function of the learning organization in the capitalist political economy, the location of workers in relation to the learning organization, and the role of learning rhetoric in maintaining the status quo. The authors argue that the learning organization model can be seen both as a mechanism for the removal of surplus value from workers and as a method of social control. The learning organization model is often related to progressive, even emancipatory, claims of inclusion and collaboration in the workplace. However, this study argues that the educational legacies of feminism, trade unionism, antiracism, and revolutionary struggle are superior spaces to seek the learning interests of the workers that make up the learning organization.

 

            KEY WORDS: Learning Organization; Workplace Learning; Women and Learning; Marxism; Feminism.

 

50. Murphy, M. (2000). Adult education, lifelong learning and the end of political economy. Studies in the Education of Adults, 32(2), 166-180.

 

            Uncritical acceptance of globalization and postindustrialism leads to acceptance of lifelong learning policy as a neutral reaction to inevitable technological transformation. A structural theory of power is needed in adult education in order to reclaim lifelong learning as a force for empowerment and social change.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Economic Change; Educational Policy; Lifelong Learning; Political Power; Technological Advancement; Globalization; Post-industrialism.

 

51. Oels, M. (2003). Lifelong learning for active citizenship. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 8(1), 44-49.

 

            To achieve its objectives, the European Union develops programs on learning for active citizenship and promotes lifelong learning policies that endeavor to move people from "local me" to "global me."

 

            KEY WORDS: Adults; Citizen Participation; Citizenship Education; Foreign; Countries; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; European Union.

 

52. Olesen, H. S. (2002). Lifelong learning - A political agenda! Also a research agenda? Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM8). 28-30 June 2001. Johansen, L., & Wedege, T. (Eds.) Numeracy for empowerment and democracy? Roskilde: Centre for Research in Learning Mathematics, Roskilde University. Retrieved December 28, 2006, from http://mmf.ruc.dk/~tiw/ PapersWEB/OlesenHS-ALM8.pdf.

 

            Adult and continuing education are undergoing simultaneous processes of institutionalization (adding schools for adults) and deinstitutionalization (broadening the scope of interventions and focusing on learning processes inside and outside schools). Lifelong learning assumes that learning takes place in all spheres of life, including the workplace, everyday life, and cultural activities. The new political awareness of the need for learning and education has necessitated that learning be studied in all its contexts, including in various life spheres (work, family, leisure and cultural activities, citizenship) and knowledge and competence domains (professions, skills, arts) defined by societal division of labor. Researching the subjectivity of learning and social structural and historical dynamics requires an interdisciplinary research strategy. Themes for research include the following: gender and wage labor; the role of self-regulation and sustainability in work life; and the relationship of knowledge and democracy to professional learning and professional identity. Like literacy and numeracy, learning for active citizenship must be given the status of an indispensable cultural technique. The following competencies should be considered competencies for a general social literacy: competence to create cohesion; ecological competence; competence for balancing a threatened or broken identity; historical competence; sensibility to experience expropriation; and technological competence.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Strategies; Citizenship Education; Continuing Education; Educational Change; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Principles; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Equal Education; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Numeracy; Policy Formation; Politics of Education; Research Needs; Role of Education; Social Integration.

 

53. Osborne, M. (2003). Policy and practice in widening participation: A six country comparative study of access as flexibility. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(1), 43-58.

 

            In this paper, a comparison of policies and practices in six countries focused on the concept of access to education as flexibility: systematic structural arrangements such as accreditation of prior learning, open and distance learning, and information/ communications technologies. Successful international experiences have implications for Scotland and other countries attempting to widen participation.

 

            KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Comparative Analysis; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Outreach Programs; Participation; Prior Learning.

 

54. Parrott, A. (2002). Determining the value of lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 13(8), 24-26.

 

            In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical.

 

            KEY WORDS: Economics; Lifelong Learning; Moral Values; Values; Value Added.

 

55. Payne, J. (1999). Perspectives on lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 10(8), 9-11.

 

            Explores the different meanings lifelong learning takes on when viewed from the following perspectives: training, personal development, unions, communities, institutions, and individuals.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Attitudes; Individual Development; Lifelong Learning; Training; Unions.

 

56. Pilkington, M., & Stuart, M. (2001). Science for active citizenship: The challenge for lifelong learning. Journal of Access and Credit Studies, 3(1), 4-16.

 

            Debates over the social purpose model of adult education have largely ignored science. A social citizenship dimension is crucial for adults' understanding of scientific research and issues. The example of a British ecology project illustrates that forcing all adult education into a credit system will hinder the goal of education for active citizenship.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizen Participation; Educational Certificates; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Role of Education; Science Education; Social Change; United Kingdom.

 

57. Preston, J. (2003). "Enrolling alone?" Lifelong learning and social capital in England. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(3), 235-248.

 

            Analysis of 120 biographical interviews of English adults established three types of relationships between education and civic participation that are influenced by class, gender, ethnicity, and institutional structures. For "atomists," learning resulted in paradoxically solitary engagement. "Networkers" were not formally engaged but formed networks through learning. "Altruists" sense of efficacy was enhanced by learning.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizen Participation; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Motivation; Networks; Social Capital; England.

 

58. Robinson, C. (2000). New directions in Australia's skill formation: Lifelong learning is the key. Adelaide; South Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

 

            The unparalleled changes in recent years mean that a continuing focus on the preparation of young people for entry to the work force as the keystone of post-compulsory education and training in Australia is no longer sufficient for two reasons. First, technological change and other changes stemming from globalization of economies are now having a profound impact on the nature of work, the way it is organized, and the skills it requires. Second, the work forces of most countries, including that of Australia, are aging. These developments have implications for changes in Australia's approach to skill formation. The historical focus on the young in post-compulsory education and training policy is inadequate. The more recent trends, both in Australia and overseas, that recognize that these policies now need also to embrace the concept of lifelong learning. Although about 77 percent of the "economically active" population aged 15-64 years undertake some kind of education or training, much of this education or training is unstructured, informal, spasmodic, and minor. Australia has a comparatively high level of investment in education and training, but it is not among the countries with the very highest levels of commitment. Future directions must focus on the development of new learning pathways and an increased national investment in skills and knowledge.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Aging (Individuals); Developed Nations; Educational Development; Educational Finance; Federal Aid; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Labor Needs; Labor Supply; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Role of Education; Skill Development; Technological Advancement; Australia.

 

59. Rogers, A. (2001). Lifeworlds and learning: Essays in the theory, philosophy and practice of lifelong learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 21(3), 288-289.

 

            These 11 essays explore the promise of current models of lifelong learning. "The Sociology of Lifelong Learning" outlines the relevance of various movements to understanding learning in contemporary society. "Knowledge, Power, and Ignorance" contends that a new kind of society - the expert society - is emerging. "Knowing, Understanding, and Feeling" examines the view that understanding is best viewed as a social process nurtured most effectively through dialogue. "Lifeworlds and Learning" highlights the importance of the value people place on their own education and learning needs. "Class, Culture, and Adult Education" explores the ways in which personal attitudes, identities, and motives challenge and reflect the society in which they are nurtured from a historical perspective. "Education and Community Regeneration" expands on the view that the idea of community must be at the center of all political debate. "Institutions and Power: The Archaeology of Educational Organisations" concentrates on the problem of moving institutions to define a new future for themselves. "Learning and Creativity" explores the idea that we have an impoverished sense of the creative possibilities in every human life. "Moral Learning in the Moral Maze" outlines the moral contours of adulthood and examines how adults adjust to changes in life circumstances. "Personal Change in Adulthood" looks at the idea of lifelong learning as embracing self-knowledge. "Dialogue and Learning: Towards a New Model of Citizenship" contends that people learn through dialogue and in the process transform their understanding of themselves and their world.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Creativity; Dialogs (Language); Educational Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Empowerment; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Learning Theories; Life Events; Lifelong Learning; Moral Development; Social Psychology; Social Theories.

 

60. Rollings-Magnusson, S. (2001). Legislation and lifelong learning in Canada: Inconsistencies in implementation. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 31(3), 23-47.

 

            This review of Canadian government policy as expressed in legislation revealed inconsistencies between rhetorical and actual support for a lifelong learning agenda; the absence of the protection and sense of permanence that legislation provides to policy implementation means that any actions taken or programs created may be easily changed, ignored, or eliminated with little public scrutiny or debate.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Legislation; Lifelong Learning; Policy Analysis; Canada.

 

61. Schuller, T. (2002). Lifelong learning as the social construction of knowledge. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 7(1), 33-40.

 

            Distinguishes between human capital and social capital. Examines the social construction of knowledge at various levels: families, organizations, and communities.

 

            KEY WORDS: Constructivism (Learning); Development; Human Capital; Lifelong Learning; Social Capital.

 

62. Solomon, J. (2003). The passion to learn: An inquiry into autodidactism. London: Routledge-Falmer.

 

            Beginning and ending with comprehensive and stimulating discussions of learning theories, this book includes fourteen case studies of autodidactism in informal learning situations. These diverse case studies reflect the inherent diversity of autodidactism, yet four common themes emerge: emotional/ cognitive balance; learning environment; life mission; and ownership of learning. The final chapter examines the implications of autodidactism for educational theory, research, philosophy and psychology.

 

            KEY WORDS: Learning Theory; Lifelong Learning; Informal Learning.

 

 

63. Strawn, C. L. (2003). Social capital influences on lifelong learning among adults who did not finish high school. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(4), 1428-A.

 

            The primary goal of this study is to investigate how social capital influences the lifelong learning practices of adults. Data from the first wave of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning are analyzed. The study population is adults, age 18-44, who at the time of the interview had finish high school or received a GED, were proficient speakers of English and lived in a defined Portland metropolitan area. Lifelong learning for the study population is operationalized as Formal, participation in an Adult Basic Education or General Equivalency Degree preparation program, or Informal, involvement in informal learning strategies. The social capital of individual communities is measured by network structures, length of time known non-kin, social trust, civic participation and knowing someone that attended college. Networks are grouped as All-Family networks, Open networks, Dense networks, and Big networks compared to Small networks of less than two people. The study population was discovered to have a rich and diverse store of social capital. A logistic regression model was developed testing Social Position, Education Discourse and Social Capital indicators as predictors of participation in Formal education and involvement in Informal learning strategies. In both cases Social Capital predicts engagement over and above Social Position, Education Discourse, while controling for literacy proficiency, age and labor force attachment. The key finding is that participation in Formal education and engagement in Informal learning are influenced in nearly opposite ways by the available social capital. All network types predict at least twice the probability of engaging in Informal learning strategies as compared to Small networks.

 

            KEY WORDS: Cultural Capital; Adult Education; Learning; Social Networks; Educational Attainment; Portland; Oregon; Lifelong Learning.

 

64. Summers, J. (2000). Squaring the circle: Lifelong learning partnerships for better or for worse. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 5(3), 168-171.

 

            Partnerships work best when they are local, community based, understand adult learning, and are not dominated by external agendas. They require political understanding to translate national initiatives into local opportunities.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Community Development; Community Involvement; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Partnerships in Education; United Kingdom.

 

65. Thoman, E., & Jolls, T. (2004). Media literacy-A national priority for a changing world. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 18-29.

 

            Media and technology convergence in a global culture is changing the way we learn about the world and challenging the very foundations of education. It's not enough to be able to read the printed word, rather, needed is the ability to critically interpret the powerful images of a multimedia culture. Media literacy education provides a framework & a pedagogy for the new literacy needed for living, working, and citizenship in today's world. It paves the way to mastering the skills required for lifelong learning in today's society.

 

            KEY WORDS: Information Technology; Mass Media; Literacy; Teaching; Globalization; Lifelong Learning.

 

66. UNESCO. (2002). Learning throughout life: Challenges for the twenty-first century. Paris: UNESCO.

 

            This book reports on the main issues discussed at the follow-up conference on learning throughout life, organized in Lisbon in 1999 by UNESCO and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. First, the place of formal and non-formal education is still to be clearly defined. Second, there is an urgent need for the creation of educational structures with a global approach to lifelong education that take into consideration the multiple aspects influencing both teaching and learning within current economic and social context. This book is intended for educational planners and policy-makers concerned with ensuring the availability of formal and non-formal learning opportunities throughout life. It will also appeal to specialists in the social sciences who work in areas related to educational development in different socio-economic and cultural contexts.

 

            KEY WORDS: Education Aims and Objectives Congresses; Education Congresses; Learning Congresses; Adult Education Congresses; Continuing Education Congresses; Lifelong Learning.

 

67. Walshok, M. L. (2001). Thinking more strategically about funding lifelong learning programs. Continuing Higher Education Review, 65, 77-88.

 

            Recognizing that lifelong learning is broader than continuing education, providers must move to organizational and community models of learning and seek private and philanthropic funding sources for lifelong learning programs. Continuing education professionals should adopt a new orientation to their professional role.

 

            KEY WORDS: Continuing Education; Educational Change; Educational Finance; Fund Raising; Higher Education; Lifelong Learning.

 

68. Walters, S., & Watters, K. (2001). Lifelong learning, higher education and active citizenship: From rhetoric to action. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(6), 471-478.

 

            Explains how adult educators came to develop the Cape Town Statement on Characteristic Elements of a Lifelong Learning Higher Education Institution. Elaborates on the six essential characteristics of higher education institutions.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Educators; Citizen Participation; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Institutional Characteristics; Lifelong Learning; Position Papers; Universities.

 

69. Warford, L. J. (2002). Funding lifelong learning - A national priority. Community College Journal, 72(3), 15-23.

 

            Discusses a 50-state survey by the National Council for Continuing Education regarding the issue of funding for noncredit courses in community colleges. Reports that 17 states include noncredit courses for funding on an FTE basis, and that no states fund hobby, avocational, or recreation non-credit classes. Argues that lifelong learning is a crucial factor in American economics.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Continuing Education Units; Federal Aid; Financial Support; Full State Funding; Grants; Job Skills; Job Training; Lifelong Learning; Noncredit Courses; Skilled Workers; Student Financial Aid.

 

70. Welton, M. (2005). Designing the just learning society: A critical inquiry. Leicester: NIACE.

 

            Adult education is at the centre of the global discussion about the future of humankind. The ideal of the learning society, the learning organisation and the empowered citizen present a drastic reorientation for educators everywhere. This book rigorously examines this ideal – its historical origins in early modernity and rhetorical uses – in order to understand the cultural and institutional transformations needed to create a just learning society. This text speaks directly to an important body of professional and scholarly debate in adult education worldwide.

 

            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizenship; History; Lifelong Learning.

 

 

 

 

About the CFI Project

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3. Learning

   3.1 Lifelong Learning

   3.2 Formal Education

   3.3 Further Education

   3.4 Informal Education

   3.5 Informal Learning

   3.6 Learning Recognition

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