and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Community Volunteer Work
1. Becker, P. E., & Dhingra, P. H. (2001).
Religious involvement and volunteering: Implications for civil
society. Sociology of Religion, 62(3), 315-335.
paper examines the role of congregations in civil society by examining the
relationship between religious involvement and volunteering. We draw on a
survey and interviews with respondents from upstate New York to analyze a
set of inter-related questions: how does congregational involvement lead
people into volunteering and influence the meaning of volunteer activity?
How do church members choose a volunteer site? What role do congregations
play in generating civic engagement and social capital? We find no
liberal/conservative differences either in the likelihood of volunteering
or in choosing between secular and religious volunteer opportunities.
Rather, we find that social networks and impressions of organizational
identity draw people into volunteering and into particular organizations,
and that there is a competition between congregations and other civic
groups for members' time. We conclude that congregations foster both
"loose" and strong connections to civic life for members at different
stages of the life course.
Volunteers; Church Attendance; Social Networks; USA; New
York; Volunteer Work.
2. Blackstone, A.
(2004). "It's just about being fair": Activism and the politics of
volunteering in the breast cancer movement. Gender & Society, 18(3),
Constructions of women's activism as social service, volunteer, or charity
work contribute to the relative invisibility of these forms of activism.
The author did field research at an affiliate office of the Susan G. Komen
Breast Cancer Foundation. The author analyzed how these women volunteers
resist the label "activist" in conjunction with their engagement in
activities that resemble activism. She also examines the reasons for their
resistance to the term. Her analysis shows implicit connections between
constructions of activism and gender shape the extent to which volunteers
think of their work either as political or as activism. In light of
Komen's heteronormative gender ideology, she concludes by raising
questions about the relationships among gender, activism, and civic
Activism; Breast Cancer; Human Females; Prosocial Behavior;
3. Burden, J.
(2000). Community building, volunteering and action research. Loisir et
Societe/ Society and Leisure, 23(2), 353-370.
paper describes an action research project that took place in a small
community theater setting run by older volunteer women in Brisbane,
Australia. To assist with the study, a series of planning workshops were
facilitated by the researchers to assist the women in organizing and
managing the processes of their group. The overall findings pointed to the
significance of a development perspective in theorizing volunteering.
While personal change and growth is important in sustaining volunteering
as a leisure activity, of equal significance is the maintenance of the
self-directing community. The author argues that it is the element of
personal and community self-direction that aligns volunteering with
leisure rather than work. The article concludes that to maintain the
social connections that build healthy communities and social capital,
governments must support both economic and social infrastructures that
enable volunteers to experience their volunteer work as freely chosen.
Volunteers; Social Networks; Leisure; Brisbane, Australia;
Elderly Women; Community Organizations; Cultural Capital; Organizational
Development; Volunteer Work.
4. Camino, L., &
Zeldin, S. (2002). From periphery to center: Pathways for youth civic
engagement in the day-to-day life of communities. Applied Developmental
Science, 6(4), 213-220.
article presents 5 modern pathways for youth civic engagement. These
pathways are described as: public policy/consultation, community coalition
involvement, youth in organizational decision making, youth organizing and
activism, and school-based service learning. Three overarching qualities
found with all pathways are also discussed: youth ownership, youth-adult
partnership, and facilitative policies and structures.
Citizenship; Political Participation; Prosocial Behavior;
Age Differences; Civic Engagement.
5. Chau-wai Yan, E., & So-kum Tang, C. (2003).
The role of individual,
interpersonal, and organizational factors in mitigating burnout among
elderly Chinese volunteers. International Journal of Geriatric
Psychiatry, 18(9), 795-802.
exploratory factor analysis was performed to find out the underlying
dimensions of burnout. Correlation analyses were then conducted to explore
links among the major variables. Lastly, hierarchical regression analyses
were executed to uncover the relative contribution of various factors in
predicting burnout among elderly volunteers. The results indicated that a
2-factor structure of burnout, namely lack of personal accomplishment and
emotional depletion, was found.
Demographic Characteristics; Emotional Content;
Gerontology; Self Efficacy; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
6. Choi, L. H.
(2003). Factors affecting volunteerism among older adults. The Journal
of Applied Gerontology, 22(2), 179-196.
study explores whether employment status has an effect on a person's
decision to volunteer and the number of hours volunteered. The data are
from the 1993 Asset & Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study.
As fewer people remain in the workforce among the older population,
demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are used to determine the
rate of volunteering in relation to employment status. A logistic
regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between
respondents who did or did not volunteer within the past 12 months.
Results from a regression analysis suggested that part-time work, age,
education, importance of religion, and health status are significantly
related to volunteer hours. Although only a small number of respondents
are currently working, the number of volunteer hours contributed is higher
in comparison to past studies.
Elderly; Volunteers; Employment; Volunteer Work; Employment
7. Chou, K.-L.,
Chow, N. W. S., & Chi, I. (2003). Volunteering aspirations of Hong Kong
Chinese soon-to-be-old adults. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 27(3-4),
a representative randomized sample of 1,866 adults aged between 45 and 59,
this paper attempts to assess the volunteering aspiration of these adults
after their retirement or when they become 60 years old. Also this study
explored reasons why they planned or did not plan to be volunteers and
attempted to identify socio-economic characteristics of these adults who
planned to be volunteers. Approximately 38% of these respondents planned
to be volunteers after retirement. In addition, lack of knowledge as well
as relevant skills were cited as barriers to volunteerism. Results showed
that soon-to-be-old adults who intended to do volunteer work were more
likely to have higher levels of education, have higher income level, and
be protected by a retirement plan, and less likely to be financially
supported by their adult children and receive welfare than those who did
Aspirations; Retirement; Volunteers; Aging; Socioeconomic
Status; Volunteer Work; China; Hong Kong.
8. Cockram, J.
(2003). The impact of compulsory community participation on the not for
profit sector in Western Australia. Australian Journal on Volunteering,
Australia's Voluntary Work Initiative is designed to assist welfare
recipients who were required to perform volunteer work. 32 volunteer
program administrators were interviewed. Findings from the interview
analysis indicated that although volunteering helped overcome isolation
and develop job skills, low levels of commitment and short stays
(especially among younger participants) and potential exploitation were
Adults; Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Nonprofit
Organizations; Unemployment; Volunteers; Welfare Recipients; Volunteer
9. Colby, A.,
Sippola, L., & Phelps, E. (2001). Social responsibility and paid work in
contemporary American life. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Caring and doing for
others (pp. 463-505). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
chapter presents the attempts to map out various patterns of social
responsibility exhibited in a representative group of middle-aged American
women and men. A mid US sub-sample of 94 people (aged 34-65 yrs) were
interviewed. These participants were asked to talk about their life
histories and what they do for their families, friends, and communities;
about their paid work and volunteer work; and their financial
contributions to charities and directly to other people. Results indicated
that numerous people's paid employment interfered with their social
responsibility and it is suggested that jobs should provide employees with
some means of forming a moral engagement with their work.
Charitable Behavior; Job Characteristics; Money;
Responsibility; Social Behavior; Volunteer Work.
10. Curtis, J.
E., Baer, D. E., & Grabb, E. G. (2001). Nations of joiners: Explaining
voluntary association membership in democratic societies. American
Sociological Review, 66(6), 783-805.
data from surveys of nationally representative samples of adults from the
1990s in the US, this article compares the levels of voluntary association
membership for 33 democratic countries. Four explanations of national
differences in association involvement are identified and tested: economic
development, religious composition, type of polity, and years of
continuous democracy. The analysis includes total working association
memberships, both including and excluding unions and religious
associations. Americans volunteer at rates above the average for all
nations on each measure, but they are often matched and exceeded by those
of several other countries, notably the Netherlands, Canada, and a number
of Nordic nations, including Iceland, Sweden, and Norway. Hierarchical
linear models indicate that voluntarism tends to be particularly high in
nations that have: (1) multidimensional Christian or predominantly
Protestant religious organizations, (2) prolonged and continuous
experience with democratic institutions, (3) social democratic or liberal
democratic political systems, and (4) high levels of economic development.
With some exceptions for working memberships, these factors, both
separately and in combination, are clearly important predictors of
cross-national variation in voluntary association membership.
Political Systems; Membership; Associations; Economic
Development; Democracy; Crosscultural Differences; Religions; Volunteer
11. Erbaugh, E.
B. (2002). Women's community organizing and identity transformation.
Race, Gender & Class, 9(1), 8-32.
paper documents how women's community organizing alters participants'
relationships to dominant social and political institutions. Utilizing
participant observation and interviews, the study was conducted in a
multiethnic, working-class organization that combines two community
organizing models. Findings indicated that members of the organization
critiqued dominant ideologies and public policies about welfare and
engaged in dialogue with political authorities about economic issues.
Members' political motivation and sense of empowerment was increased
through their experiences of collective identity formation and personal
identity transformation. The article contends that identity formation and
transformation are important in evaluating the success of community
Females; Mobilization; Working Class; Group Identity;
Ideological Struggle; Dominant Ideologies; Community Organizations; Class
Identity; New Mexico; Community Work.
M. (2000). Unemployment and volunteer work in longitudinal perspective. An
analysis of the West German subsample from the German Socioeconomic Panels
[SOEP] for the Years 1992 and 1996. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie
und Sozialpsychologie, 52(2), 291-310.
study utilizes longitudinal data on the West German subsample of the
German Socioeconomic Panel for 1992 & 1996 to investigate the effects of
unemployment on the probability to volunteer. Logistic regression analyses
offer no evidence for the likelihood of taking up or maintaining volunteer
work among the unemployed. On the other hand, the prospect of volunteering
increases with a higher educational degree or secure family circumstances.
Educational qualifications are in demand, and they also enable successful
participation in the regular labor market. Among the homeless,
particularly those who have little education, volunteering is not
considered an adequate activity.
Federal Republic of Germany; Unemployment; Volunteers;
Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Homelessness; Work
Orientations; Economic Crises; Volunteer Work.
M. (2003). The individual returns of volunteer work. A contribution to a
theory of unpaid and nondomestic private production. Kolner Zeitschrift
fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 55(4), 737-757.
debate on the future of voluntary work & honorary appointments, the
question of the individual benefits assumes a special interest. It is
obvious that an unpaid voluntary activity has to be regarded as work
because of the expectation to yield a personal gain. Combining a
sociological & a microeconomic perspective, this article shows that
volunteering is part of the production process within the private
household. Volunteers acquire benefits by reducing transaction costs in
economies of scale & economies of scope.
Volunteers; Benefits; Social Participation; Private Sphere;
Labor Process; Volunteer Work.
M. M. (2001). The influence of community service/volunteer work on
perceptions of job satisfaction, job motivation, and organizational
commitment on employees in a manufacturing plant. Dissertation
Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 61(12-A),
study explores the relationship between community service/volunteer work
and perceptions of job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational
commitment. The research focused on employees in a manufacturing firm in
central Pennsylvania that sponsors a corporate volunteer program. Results
support previous research which points to the effect these programs have
on worker productivity issues of job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, and motivation. Findings also extend previous findings
associated with the attraction and retention of workers and building work
force skills and attitudes that foster organizational commitment, company
loyalty and job satisfaction. Also, it was found that volunteer activities
provide employees with personal and professional growth.
Community Services; Job Satisfaction; Motivation;
Organizational Commitment; Volunteers; Business and Industrial Personnel;
15. Fuertes, F. C., & Jimenez, M. V. (2000).
Motivation and burnout in
volunteerism. Psychology in Spain, 4(1), 75-81.
study explores motivation in Spanish voluntary workers in the fields of
AIDS and cancer. Results indicate the importance of other-oriented
motivations for the permanence of volunteers in organizations. Data also
show that the degree of burnout in volunteers in work is low.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Motivation; Cancer;
Occupational Stress; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
16. Gagnon, E., &
Sevigny, A. (2000). Permanence and changes in voluntarism. Recherches
Sociographiques, 41(3), 529-544.
Voluntarism can take many forms. Public policy influences the nature &
mode of its organization. However, a definition of voluntarism must also
take into account the meaning that volunteers ascribe to their work and
how their aspirations may be fulfilled through their activity. From this
perspective, such elements as freedom to undertake the commitment,
meaningful experience, and proximity between volunteers and those whom
they assist are central in today's volunteer movement. This view give rise
to a definition of volunteer work as a privileged moment for recognition
of oneself and of others, and through the valuing of a situation or a form
Work Attitudes; Work Orientations; Volunteers; Volunteer
17. Gottlieb, B.
(2002). Older volunteers: A precious resource under pressure. Canadian
Journal on Aging, 21(1), 5-9.
the literature on the extensive investment older adults make in
volunteering, and on the findings of a study of 19 not-for-profit agencies
that rely heavily on older adults to provide a variety of community
services, This paper identifies several significant changes in the
character of the clients who are served by elder volunteers in
not-for-profit agencies and in government health policies affecting the
delivery of community services. It offers suggestions for research and
policy development that look to optimize the contribution that older
volunteers make to society and the contribution that volunteering makes to
the health and well-being of older adults.
Aging; Behavior Change; Clients; Community Services;
Volunteers; Policy Making; Volunteer Work.
18. Grossman, J.
B., & Rhodes, J. E. (2002). The test of time: Predictors and effects of
duration in youth mentoring relationships. American Journal of
Community Psychology, 30(2), 199-219.
study examines the effects and predictors of duration in youth mentor
relations. Participants include 1,138 young, urban adolescents (10-16 yrs
old), who have all applied to Big Brothers Big Sisters programs. They were
randomly assigned to the treatment or control group, and given questions
at baseline and 18 months later. Findings indicate that hose in
relationships that lasted one year or longer reported the largest number
of improvements. Those with progressively fewer effects emerged among
youth who were in relationships that ended earlier. Those adolescents who
were in short term relationships reported decrements in several indicators
of functioning. Older adolescents, those who had been referred for
services, and those who had sustained emotional, sexual or physical abuse
were most likely to be in early terminating relationships. So were married
volunteers between the ages of 26 and 30 and those with lower incomes.
Others factors including race, gender and relationship quality were also
found to be related to earlier terminations.
Interpersonal Interaction; Mentor; Prediction; Program
Evaluation; Volunteer Work.
19. Hall, M.,
McKeown, L. E., & Roberts, K. (2001). Caring Canadians, involved
Canadians: Highlights from the 2000 National Survey of Giving,
Volunteering and Participating. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating (NSGVP) provides a
‘snapshot’ of the state of voluntary and civic action in Canada and offers
a means of tracking changes in giving, volunteering and participating over
time. Every three years, the NSGVP lets us assess the extent to which
individual Canadians are moved to support their fellow citizens, their
communities and their environment with voluntary contributions of time and
money. The 2000 NSGVP shows that the support Canadians provide is dynamic
and has been changing since the first benchmark NSGVP survey in 1997.
Voluntarism; Canada; Statistics; Charities; Social
Participation; Volunteer Work.
20. Hopkins, S.
(2000). VET and the voluntary sector: Dealing with ambiguities. Working
Paper. Australia; Victoria: Australian National Training Authority,
from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 1994-95 survey indicate that
about one-fifth of the adult population volunteers and an estimated value
of their work is 3% of the gross national product, $12.5 billion. Because
volunteer training is neglected in the National Strategy for Vocational
Education and Training (VET), a seminar was conducted to identify
volunteer training issues. Participants presented a number of insights
such as, ideally, organizations should have a mix of volunteers and paid
personnel and that volunteer experience is a valuable indicator of
employability. It was also indicated that better delivery of training
would improve satisfaction. Constraints around volunteer training include
cost, loss of investment when volunteers leave, tensions between paid and
unpaid workers, and lack of capacity. Lastly, there was strong anecdotal
support found for volunteer work as a significant path to paid work.
Participants demonstrated a support for national Training Packages, if
used selectively and sensitively. The choice of undergoing formal
assessments involved in the Training Packages should be left to the
Access to Education; Employment Potential; Foreign
Countries; Government Role; Job Training; Personnel Management; Policy
Formation; Public Service; Service Learning; Student Evaluation;
Vocational Education; Volunteer Training; Volunteers; Work Experience;
21. Huang, Y.-Y.
(2001). Women's contradictory roles in the community: A case study of the
Community Development Project in Taiwan. International Social Work, 44(3),
article explores women's positioning in the Taiwanese Community
Development Project. It examines the qualitative changes in styles of
women's community involvement from the 1960s to present-day. In
particular, it analyses how the state uses community work as a means of
social control. For example, community involvement can be used to
reinforce patriarchal family relations, and to manipulate women as a
reserve army of labor intended to meet the need for cheap labor in the
export-oriented industrialization process of the 1970s.
Community Development; Human Females; Sex Roles; Social
Control; Trends; Volunteer Work.
22. Hustinx, L.,
& Lammertyn, F. (2003). Collective and reflexive styles of volunteering: A
sociological modernization perspective. Voluntas: International Journal
of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 14(2), 167-187.
paper examines the changing nature of volunteering through the lens of
sociological modernization theories. It is argued that volunteer
involvement should be recognized as a biographically embedded reality, and
a new analytical framework of collective and reflexive styles of
volunteering can be constructed along the lines of the ideal-typical
biographical models that are outlined by modernization theorists.
Approaches of volunteering can be understood as basically
multidimensional, multiform, and multilevel in nature. Both
structural-behavioral and motivational-attitudinal volunteering
characteristics are explored with regard to six different dimensions: the
biographical frame of reference, the motivational structure, the course
and intensity of commitment, the organizational environment, the choice of
(field of) activity, and the relation to paid work.
Changing Nature of Volunteering; Voluntarism; Styles of
Volunteering; Volunteer Work.
23. Itzhaky, H.,
& York, A. S. (2002). Showing results in community organization. Social
Work, 47(2), 125-131.
article begins by describing a community organization program that lasted
for 6 years in a stigmatized neighborhood in the center of Israel. The
program focused on increasing the autonomy of the community, empowering
its residents, and collaborating among the human services workers and
between them and the resident leaders. Results indicated a large increase
in community activists; strong and statistically significant increases in
self-esteem and mastery of surroundings; increase in family, service
delivery, and community empowerment among the activists, and the
participation of residents and outsiders to build their own homes.
Communities; Community Services; Cooperation; Empowerment;
Program Evaluation; Community Work.
24. Kim, S., & Feldman, D. C. (2000).
Working in retirement: The
antecedents of bridge employment and its consequences for quality of life
in retirement. Academy of Management Journal, 43(6), 1195-1210.
a continuity theory of aging, this article utilizes survey responses from
371 (mean age 59 yrs) retiring professors to examine bridge employment.
The acceptance of bridge employment was positively associated with
excellent health, organizational tenure, and having working spouses and
dependent children. Findings indicated that age and salary were inversely
related to accepting bridge employment. Bridge employment was strongly
linked to retirement satisfaction and overall life satisfaction. Volunteer
work and leisure activity complemented bridge employment in assisting with
the transition to retirement.
Occupations; Quality of Life; Retirement; Volunteer Work.
25. Lam, P.-Y.
(2002). As the flocks gather: How religion affects voluntary association
participation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(3),
data from Queen's U's (1996) "God & Society in North America" survey, this
study investigates the relationship between different dimensions of
religiosity & voluntary association participation. It explores the
participatory, devotional, affiliative, & theological dimensions of
religiosity & examines the affects on voluntary association participation
at three different levels: membership, volunteering, & serving on a
committee. The findings demonstrate that all four religious dimensions
have distinctive influences on secular voluntary association
Religiosity; Volunteers; Associations; Social
Participation; Membership; Committees; Volunteer Work.
26. Lamoureux, H.
(2002). The danger of a diversion of meaning. The scope and the limits of
volunteer work. Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales, 15(2), 77-86.
this article, the author attempts to evaluate the meaning that we give to
voluntary help when this practice is subjected to a double tension. On the
one hand, in a context of market globalization and investments, the
liberal state restructures its spheres of intervention: it is "less
providential." On the other hand, in mass consumption societies, the
family tends not to be the first source of aid in times of difficulties.
In such a context, is it possible to think of voluntary commitment as the
object of a diversion of meaning?
Volunteers; Meaning; State Society Relationship; Welfare
State; Volunteer Work.
27. Lichter, D. T., Shanahan, M. J., & Gardner, E. L. (2002).
Helping others? The
effects of childhood poverty and family instability of prosocial behavior.
Youth and Society, 34(1), 89-119.
article explores the relationship between poverty and family instability
during childhood on prosocial behavior - volunteerism - during late
adolescence. Because the 1996 Young Adult supplements of the National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are linked to mother and family
records from the 1979-1996 the main NLSY sample was used. Specifically,
life history records spanning childhood and adolescence were utilized.
Findings indicate that adolescent males from single-parent households are
less likely than those growing up in married-couple households to be
involved in volunteer work. Volunteerism is more strongly linked to time
spent in poverty among females than males. The results support a
mediational model, where negative effects of childhood social and economic
disadvantages on later prosocial behavior occur indirectly through effects
on socioemotional development and life experiences during adolescence.
These findings inform current concerns about putative declines in a civil
society and the elevation of individualism over communalism among today's
Poverty; Volunteers; Adolescents; Childhood Factors; Family
Stability; Social Background; Adolescent Development; Disadvantaged;
United States of America; Volunteer Work.
28. Luoh, M.-C.,
& Herzog, A. R. (2002). Individual consequences of volunteer and paid work
in old age: Health and mortality. Journal of Health and Social
Behavior, 43(4), 490-509.
paper employs data from Waves 3 & 4 of the Asset & Health Dynamics among
the Oldest Old (AHEAD) Study to (1) investigate the impact on health
measured as self-reported health & activities of daily living (ADL)
functioning limitations & to (2) explore possible causes. Using
multinomial logistic regression analysis, volunteer & paid work over at
Wave 3 were related to poor health & death, controlling for health
measured at Wave 2 & for other predictors of poor health & death. Findings
indicate that performing more than 100 annual hours of volunteer and paid
work have significant protective effects against subsequent poor health &
death. Subsequent analyses also suggest that volunteer and paid work over
100 annual hours is not related to health outcomes. Moreover, physical
exercise and mental health measured explain not entirely overlapping parts
of the relationship between productive activities & health.
Elderly; Volunteers; Employment; Health; Activities of
Daily Living; Volunteer Work.
29. MacLeod, M.
W. (2000). Quiet power: Women volunteer leaders. Dissertation Abstracts
International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 61(5), 2064-A.
study explores power and gender in the lives of women leaders of elite
nonprofits in Boston during the mid 1980's. This was a period
characterized by great transition, changing definitions of acceptable
female behavior, and financial pressure on those nonprofit organizations
dependent on fundraising from traditional upper class sources. Alternate
definitions of power were derived from the attitudes and practices of the
older generation of volunteers. An effective leadership style referred to
as "quiet power" emerges because it encourages high levels of
participation and consensus building. Employing this leadership style,
upper class and upper middle class leaders were able to both reinforce and
make flexible the boundaries of class. At the same time, their private
family lives reveal the power inherent in the caring activities of the
dependent and deferential in these settings. Serious volunteer work
provides these women with the means and opportunity to play out a kind of
integrative form of power which is foundational to both familial and
community life. Extensive interview and observation data illustrate the
range of apparently contradictory perspectives that are ultimately
resolved by making visible the quiet forms of power.
Volunteers; Females; Leadership; Social Power; Nonprofit
Organizations; Boston, Massachusetts; Volunteer Work.
30. Martin, F.
(2003). The changing configurations of inequality in post-industrial
society: Volunteering as a case study. Alternate Routes, 19,
paper explores the relationship between volunteer work and postindustrial
society focusing on a homeless assistance program in Melbourne, Australia.
The influence of structural adjustment on welfare policy is evaluated,
bringing attention to the emergence of nongovernmental organizations.
Reasons for volunteering and perspectives on the assistance program are
surveyed. The transition of the welfare state from one of state
responsibility to one that emphasizes individualism is examined with
examples of Australia's policy reforms.
Welfare Reform; Volunteers; Nongovernmental Organizations;
Social Programs; Homelessness; Postindustrial Societies; Australia;
31. Mattis, J.
S., Jagers, R. J., Hatcher, C. A., Lawhon, G. D., Murphy, E. J., & Murray,
Y. F. (2000). Religiosity, volunteerism, and community involvement among
African American men: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Community
Psychology, 28(4), 391-406.
activists contend that African American males must play a prominent role
as volunteers in social programs that affect the African American
community. One hundred and seventy-one African American men aged 17-79 yrs
participated in this study. This paper examined the relative effectiveness
of social capital, communalism, and religiosity variables as predictors of
volunteerism, membership in community-based as well as political and
social justice organizations, and the number of hours males were dedicated
to volunteer work each year. Church involvement was linked to a greater
likelihood of volunteering and a greater likelihood to be a member of a
community-based organization. Men scoring higher on communalism, and men
who were more involved in church life dedicated more time to volunteering
in each year. A multifaceted relationship emerged between age, education,
and the various participation outcomes.
Blacks; Communities; Human Males; Religiosity; Volunteers;
Activism; Involvement; Prosocial Behavior; Volunteer Work.
32. Mattis, J.
S., Beckham, W. P., Saunders, B. A., Williams, J. E., McAllister, D. Y.,
Myers, V., et al. (2004). Who will volunteer? Religiosity, everyday
racism, and social participation among African American Men. Journal of
Adult Development, 11(4), 261-272.
article investigated the relative importance of everyday racism, empathic
concern, communalism, and religiosity as predictors of pro-social
involvement of a sample of African American men (N=151). Findings
indicated that Involvement in church was a positive predictor that African
American men were involved in volunteer work as well as the number of
hours that they devoted to volunteer work. Communalism positively
predicted the amount of time (in hours per year) that men were engaged in
volunteer work. Subjective religiosity and the stress of everyday racism
were associated with a greater probability of being a member of a
political-social justice organization.
Blacks; Human Males; Political Participation; Racism;
Religiosity; Community Involvement; Empathy; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
33. Merkes, M., &
Wells, Y. (2003). Women of the Baby Boom generation and unpaid work: What
are the indications for the future? Australasian Journal on Ageing, 22(4),
article explores the indications for changes in the provision of unpaid
work in the future, in particular, the potential future contribution of
unpaid work carried out by women of the baby boom generation. Data from
the Healthy Retirement Project were used to assess the views of 1,359
women from the baby boom generation concerning voluntary work in
retirement. Focus groups explored in more depth the views of female baby
boomers regarding paid and unpaid work after the age of 65. A large
proportion of female baby boomers plan to provide unpaid caring and
community work after their retirement. Women in the baby boom generation
were just as likely as their predecessors to be volunteers and to be
looking forward to having more time for voluntary work in retirement.
Women were more likely to anticipate having more time for voluntary work
in retirement if they were previously involved in voluntary work and in
good health. The provision of unpaid work in Australia is expected to
increase, as the proportion of older people in the population increases.
Females; Caregivers; Australia; Retirement; Volunteers;
Middle Aged Adults; Volunteer Work.
34. Miller, K. D., Schleien, S. J., Rider, C., Hall, C., Roche, M., &
Worsley, J. (2002).
Inclusive volunteering: Benefits to participants and
community. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 36(3), 247-259.
article examines the benefits of volunteerism for people with disabilities
as well as their non-disabled peers and the organization in which they
served. Participants in this study were college students who were matched
with adolescents from a local school for students with disabilities. After
two semesters of volunteer work for a local museum, participants reported
the benefits which were then evaluated. The article concludes by
highlighting the benefits for all participants.
College Students; Developmental Disabilities; Higher
Education; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; School Community
Relationship; Special Education; Student Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
35. Moen, P.,
Fields, V., Meador, R., & Rosenblatt, H. (2000). Fostering integration: A
case study of the Cornell Retirees Volunteering in Service (CRVIS)
program. In K. Pillemer (Ed.), Social integration in the second half or
life (pp. 247-265). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
chapter discusses the issues relating to the growing numbers of American
retirees who are spending more years in retirement and the need to design
more effective social opportunities and roles for this population. The
authors propose that, since retirees are now younger, healthier, and more
capable than ever in history, they are creating a new life stage. This
population represents an important untapped reserve of human capital that
can support community service. The authors recommend that fostering
integration in retirees in relation to volunteering is not only
advantageous to society, but also promotes the social integration of this
growing segment of the population. Challenges arise when considering how
to give volunteer work the same sense of purposive activity, collegiality,
and salience it accords to paid work. The chapter concludes by suggesting
corporate retiree volunteer programs, which offer strategies to move from
paid work for their company to volunteer services as they retire, may be
one solution to the problem.
Employee Assistance Programs; Retirement; Social
Integration; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
Morrow-Howell, N., Hinterlong, J., Rozario, P. A., & Tang, F. (2003).
Effects of volunteering on the well-being of older adults. Journals of
Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 58B(3),
article explores the effects of volunteering on the well-being of older
adults. Older adults who volunteer and who engage in more hours of
volunteering describe higher levels of well-being. This positive effect of
higher levels of well-being was not moderated by social integration, race,
or gender. Also, there was no effect on the number of organizations for
which the older adult volunteered, the type of organization, or the
perceived benefit of the work to others. The author's work contributes to
a knowledge base that supports the development of social programs and
policies that maximize the engagement of older adults in volunteer roles.
Results suggest that targeting efforts may not be needed, in that there
are not differential benefits according to personal characteristics of the
Adult Development; Psychosocial Factors; Volunteers;
Well-Being; Goals; Mental Health; Personality Traits; Volunteer Work.
37. Musick, M.
A., Wilson, J., & Bynum, W. B., Jr. (2000). Race and formal volunteering:
The differential effects of class and religion. Social Forces, 78(4),
survey data (initial N = 3,617 respondents, ages 25+) collected in 1986
and 1989 indicate that whites volunteer more than blacks. This article
explores whether this tendency is due to the way human capital is
distributed in the population. The authors develop a resource theory which
acknowledges that, besides human capital, social and cultural resources
play a role in making volunteer work possible. Findings suggest that Black
Americans tend to be better endowed with these kinds of resources than
whites, which partially compensates for their shortage of human capital.
However, blacks are less likely than whites to be asked to volunteer and
less likely to accept the invitation if offered. In considering racial
differences in pathways to volunteering, it is found that, for all kinds
of volunteering except the entirely secular, black volunteering is more
influenced by church attendance than is white volunteering. This can be a
reflection of the more prominent role of the black church in its
community, while socioeconomic differences have a smaller impact on black
volunteering. Among volunteers for secular activities, church attendance
has a negative effect on volunteering, but only for whites.
Black White Differences; Volunteers; Class Differences;
Human Capital; Sociocultural Factors; Human Resources; Black Americans;
Whites; Church Attendance; Black Community; United States of America;
38. Musick, M.
A., & Wilson, J. (2003). Volunteering and depression: The role of
psychological and social resources in different age groups. Social
Science and Medicine, 56(2), 259-269.
are a number of reasons why volunteering might yield mental health
benefits, especially in the elderly. For instance, volunteer work
increases access to social and psychological resources, which are known to
counter negative moods such as depression and anxiety. This article
reports on analysis of three waves of data from the Americans' Changing
Lives data set (1986, 1989, and 1994). It reveals that volunteering can
lower depression levels for those over 65, while prolonged exposure to
volunteering benefits both populations. Some of the effect of volunteering
on depression among the elderly is attributable to the increased social
integration, but the intervening effect of psychological resources is very
small. Volunteering for religious reasons is more beneficial for mental
health than volunteering for secular causes but, again, the effect is
confined to the elderly.
Volunteers; Depression (Psychology); Elderly; Mental
Health; United States of America; Volunteer Work.
39. Mustillo, S.,
Wilson, J., & Lynch, S. M. (2004). Legacy volunteering: A test of two
theories of intergenerational transmission. Journal of Marriage and
Family, 66(2), 530-541.
Sociological theory suggests two reasons why volunteering runs in
families. First, parents act as role models. Second, parents who volunteer
pass on the socioeconomic resources needed to do volunteer work. In this
study, panel data from two generations of women (N = 1,848) were analyzed
to determine the influence of family socioeconomic status & mother's
volunteering on daughter's volunteer careers. Findings indicate that more
highly educated women & women whose mothers volunteered more hours
initially, but only family socioeconomic status increases volunteering
over the life course.
Volunteers; Role Models; Parental Influence; Socioeconomic
Status; Mothers; Daughters; Volunteer Work.
40. Mutchler, J.
E., Burr, J. A., & Caro, F. G. (2003). From paid worker to volunteer:
Leaving the paid workforce and volunteering in later life. Social
Forces, 81(4), 1267-1293.
Numerous role shifts occur between the ages of 55 & 74 as individuals
typically relinquish paid work & some family roles & make choices about
how to use their expanding discretionary time. Using data from the first
two waves of the Americans' Changing Lives survey, this study examines the
association between paid work status & formal & informal volunteer
activity. It employs data from the first two waves of the Americans'
Changing Lives survey. Findings indicate that there is no relationship
between paid work status & informal volunteering. This suggests that
helping friends, neighbors, & relatives occurs independent of paid work.
There is a relationship with formal volunteering, however. Individuals who
were not volunteering for formal organizations at the time of the first
interview, part time workers, those who did not work in either wave, and
those who stopped work between interviews were significantly more involved
in volunteering than were full time workers.
Volunteers; Retirement; Middle Aged Adults; Elderly; Labor
Force Participation; Working Hours; Time Utilization; Volunteer Work.
41. Naples, N. A.
(2002). Activist mothering and community work: Fighting oppression in
low-income neighborhoods. In D. Kurz, F. Cancian, A. London, R. Reviere &
M. Tuominen (Eds.), Child care and inequity: Re-thinking carework for
children and youth (pp. 207-221). New York: Routledge.
chapter explores how community workers challenge conventional definitions
of mothering in the sense that community care work becomes "activist
mothering" to secure economic and social justice for community members.
While it focuses on the experiences of resident community workers many of
the nonresident community workers, especially the women of color and White
women from working-class backgrounds, also described many of these
patterns. The chapter goes on to outline key dimensions of the community
workers' activist mothering and explore how racism and class oppression
contributed to their community work and the strategies they developed to
fight against discrimination. The author also discusses the tensions
between family-based labor and community work, concluding that community
workers defied dominant definitions of mothering and politics through
their activist community care taking.
Caregivers; Communities; Justice; Social Issues; Activism;
42. Nunn, M. (2002).
Volunteering as a tool for building social capital. Journal of
Volunteer Administration, 20(4), 14-20.
article outlines strategies for volunteer administrators to strengthen
their commitment while building social capital. They include expanding
networking opportunities, increasing understanding of issues,
incorporating concepts of service learning, and bridging to civic and
Voluntarism; Volunteer Administrators; Networking;
Okun, M. A., & Schultz, A. (2003). Age and
motives for volunteering: Testing hypotheses derived from socioemotional
selectivity theory. Psychology & Aging, 18(2), 231-239.
Following a meta-analysis of the relations between age and volunteer
motives (career, understanding, enhancement, protective, making friends,
social, and values), this study tested hypotheses regarding the effects of
age on these volunteer motives. 523 volunteers from 2 affiliates of the
International Habitat for Humanity completed the Volunteer Functions
Inventory. Multiple regression analyses showed that as age increases,
career and understanding volunteer motivation decreases while social
volunteer motivation increases. Contrary to expectations, age was shown
not to predict enhancement, protective, and values volunteer motivations.
Also the relation between age and making friends volunteer motivation was
Aging; Hypothesis Testing; Motivation; Theories;
Volunteers; Volunteer Work.
44. Oliker, S. J. (2000).
Grassroots warriors: Activist mothering, community work, and the war on
Sociology, 29(1), 254-255.
Accounts of programs and activism during the War on Poverty have
predominantly highlighted grassroots male activism and leadership. The
author extends the historical record, emphasizing the roles of over two
million female volunteers and paid workers who led and staffed the efforts
of community-based organizations. Using in-depth interviews with 64 women
who had been longtime paid employees of organizations supported by the
federal Office of Economic Opportunity during the War on Poverty, Naples
explores experiences of community work and civic leadership, and the
identities and careers of the women workers. She pays particular attention
to the ways gender, class, and race-as well as policy-shaped those
Grass Roots Movement; Activism; Poverty; Community Service;
45. Payne, S. (2002). Dilemmas
in the use of volunteers to provide hospice bereavement support: Evidence
from New Zealand. Mortality, 7(2), 139-154.
study explored the tension between professionalization and volunteerism in
health care. It focused on the role of volunteers who provide bereavement
support and palliative care services within hospices. Data about the role
of bereavement support workers were generated from interviews with 34
female and 3 male co-ordinators, and questionnaires completed by 113
female and 8 male volunteers, from 26 hospices. Tensions revolved around
the differences in the perspectives of co-coordinators and volunteers and
professionalizing ethos and lay understandings of bereavement. Broader
social factors influence how bereavement support services are planned and
implemented. This paper recommends that a better conceptual understanding
of the role of volunteers in helping others deal with loss and grief is
Grief; Hospice; Palliative Care; Professional Personnel;
Volunteers; Social Support; Volunteer Work.
46. Perez Perez, G. (2000).
Volunteers between liberty and social need. Cuadernos de Relationes
Laborales, 17, 123-137.
growth of volunteering as a component of non-remunerated work is part of
an underlying debate focusing on the crisis in remunerated work as an
essential means of distributing income and status. Some estimates of the
volume of non-remunerated volunteer work are put forward as well as the
conditions of freedom for those receiving salaries. The need for this type
of work is also analyzed.
Volunteers; Work; Income Distribution; Volunteer Work.
47. Postigo, H. (2003).
Emerging sources of labor on the internet: The case of America online
volunteers. International Review of Social History, 48(supplement
Postigo draws on sociological literature addressing the post-industrial
shift and emerging kinds of work in the technologies of post-industrialism
to consider the result of Internet service provider AOL's response to
increased membership and a lawsuit filed by an ex-volunteer for back
wages. Postigo demonstrates how AOL manages to control the volunteer work
process helping to define volunteers as workers producing a valued
commodity. The revealing of non-remunerated work that is hidden behind the
rhetoric of hobby or leisure is viewed as a positive step in occupational
formation. It is concluded that AOL volunteers, in grasping the ephemeral
nature of cultural production, will reveal new sources of value in
post-industrial media through position and situation.
Internet; Volunteers; Labor Process; Labor Relations; Value
(Economics); Occupational Classifications; Postindustrial Societies;
48. Ramirez-Valles, J. (2001).
"I was not invited to be a [CHW]...I asked to be one": Motives for
community mobilization among women community health workers in Mexico.
Health Education & Behavior, 28(2), 150-165.
Despite health educators' renewed interest in community mobilization for
health, their motives have received minimal attention. Ramirez-Valles
analyzes the motivating of female health workers (CHWs) who are members of
a community-based organization in Mexico. Guided by critical feminist and
social-constructivist theories, the authors identify categories of motives
used by CHWs to realize how these motives are created. Analysis suggests
that mobilization for health may be improved by addressing both the
personal satisfaction of individuals and the accomplishments of public
goods. Understanding motive may be useful for the recruiting of
participants in community mobilization efforts.
Community Development; Health Education; Human Females;
Motivation; Participation; Community Work.
49. Reitsma-Street, M.,
Maczewski, M., & Neysmith, S. (2000). Promoting engagement: An
organizational study of volunteers in community resource centres for
children. Children & Youth Services Review, 22(8), 651-678.
authors discuss how people living in poor communities speak of their
volunteer experiences in multicultural-community-resource centers for
children and, how they understand the organizational conditions that
promote or discourage meaningful volunteer work. Experiences in community
resource centers geared to the development of children and neighborhoods
are explored in focus groups. Volunteer hours accumulated over 3 yrs
compliment the qualitative data along with participant observation and
documents. It is noted that volunteering is fostered through conscientious
finance, good building maintenance, and the maintaining of community
Attitudes; Child Welfare; Community Services; Volunteers;
Community Development; Poverty Areas; Multiculturalism; Volunteer Work.
50. Rossi, A. S. (Ed.) (2001).
Caring and doing for other: Social responsibility in the domains of
family, work, and community. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
explores the extent to which adults give their time to care-giving and
social support, the extent of their financial assistance to family
members, the time given to volunteer work, and financial contributions to
a variety of causes, charities, and organizations. Time and effort affect
these contributions. Based on a national survey of more than 3,000
Americans aged 25 to 74 yrs, this book is supplemented by interviews with
Blacks, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans in New York City. Also Included is
an eight-day time budget study devoted to daily contact and in-depth
interviews on what social responsibility means in respondents' lives.
Adult Attitudes; Charitable Behavior; Responsibility;
Social Behavior; Caregivers; Communities; Family; Money; Occupations;
Social Support; Volunteer Work.
51. Shaw, M., & Martin, I.
(2000). Community work, citizenship and democracy: Re-making the
connections. Community Development Journal, 35(4), 401-413.
paper attempts to do four things: first, to review key phases in the
post-war development of community work and to identify the discourses of
citizenship implicit within them (i.e. social democracy: the problem of
the inactive citizen; the structuralist critique: the problem of citizen
action; marketization: the problem of the citizen as customer; democratic
renewal: the challenge of active citizenship); second, to argue that the
contemporary context requires new ways of thinking about the relationship
between community work, citizenship, and democracy; third, to assess the
significance of the recent history of community work for this task;
finally, to consider the extent to which the current interest in
democratic renewal presents opportunities for reconstructing this
relationship. At a time when community work seems to be increasingly
incorporated within state policy, it is all the more important to reflect
upon and evaluate the efficacy of community work. The main elements of the
argument are brought together in a summary table at the end of the text.
Community Development; Citizen Participation; Democracy;
52. St John, C., & Fuchs, J.
(2002). The heartland responds to terror: Volunteering after the bombing
of the Murrah Federal Building. Social Science Quarterly, 83(2),
Volunteering is examined in the relief effort brought about by the bombing
of the Murrah Federal Building. Two issues are key: (1) the extent of the
volunteering and its forms; (2) whether or not Wilson & Musick's (1997a)
"integrated theory of volunteer work" helps to explain variation in
volunteering in this disaster situation. Data is used from the 1996
Oklahoma City Survey based on a random sample of the adult population of
Oklahoma City and was administered 10 months after the bombing. Nearly 75%
of the sample respondents volunteered to support the relief effort in
giving money and donating non-professional goods or services.
Socio-economic status, knowing someone killed or injured in the bombing,
belonging to voluntary organizations before the bombing, and being
affiliated with a religious denomination were predictors of volunteering,
depending on the type of volunteer activity considered. The magnitude of
volunteering after the Murrah Building bombing was in line with volunteer
efforts after other disasters. The integrated theory of volunteer work is
a useful framework for studying volunteering after disasters.
Volunteers; Terrorism; Oklahoma; Disaster Relief; Volunteer
53. Stefan, S. (2002). The
work experience of people with psychiatric disabilities. In S. Stefan
(Ed.), Hollow promises: Employment discrimination against people with
mental disabilities. Washington, DC: American Psychological
document describes the centrality of work to almost every American and the
significance of employment in dividing the two worlds of Americans with
psychiatric disabilities. The authors describe the discrimination faced by
Americans with severe emotional difficulties, psychiatric diagnoses, or
histories of treatment. Individuals who are successfully employed are
often compelled to keep their diagnoses secret and face discounting or
disbelief if they reveal their struggles. People who are publicly labeled
as mentally ill cannot get competitive jobs and are consigned to volunteer
work, part-time work, or work that makes little use of their skills and
strengths. Also summarized and critiqued is the existing research on the
relationship between work and psychiatric disabilities.
Employment Discrimination; Mental Disorders; Disability
Discrimination; Disabilities; Volunteer Work.
54. Tastsoglou, E., & Miedema,
B. (2003). Immigrant women and community development in the Canadian
Maritimes: Outsiders within? Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers
Canadiens de Sociologie, 28(2), 203-234.
paper argues that immigrant women make important contributions to
community development, thereby improving their own individual lives and
those of others in Canadian society. Forty semistructured interviews were
conducted in two major Maritime cities. Drawing from these interviews, the
authors define what community means for immigrant women from the
organizations in which they participate and the issues that they embrace.
Using a broad definition of community development to encompass not only
community-development-motivated actions but also other-motivated, nonpaid
organizational participation, our findings reveal that even if the
immigrant women's motives for organizing are individualistic, driven by
narrow, practical needs, their involvement with others in groups and
organizations has broader social consequences. Further, some Maritime
immigrant women's stories demonstrate that individualistic motives may,
over time, evolve into addressing gender, ethnic/race, class, and
immigrant status inequalities and collective organizing for social change.
Immigrants; Females; Community Development; Mobilization;
Political Participation; Canada; Community Work.
55. Taylor, R. F. (2003).
Rethinking voluntary work: Configurations of class, gender and career.
The Sociological Review, 53(s2), 219.
Sociological interpretations of voluntary work are based on definitions of
work that emphasizes a dichotomy between public employment and private
domestic labour. As a result, unpaid labour in the public sphere is seldom
examined within the sociology of work, and little research has analyzed
social class and gender differences in volunteering. This thesis
challenges these prevailing attitudes, and argues that voluntary work is
socially and historically constructed. Voluntary work by individuals must
be understood in the context of class and gender identities on the one
hand; and structures of the marketplace, families and welfare systems on
the other. Twelve case studies selected from qualitative interviews (n =
29) with paid workers and volunteers in two voluntary organisations are
explored. Findings indicate that individual's work practices are
circumscribed by the institutional hierarchies of power and authority
which structure the organisation of labour in the fields of healthcare and
community work. Through exploring both the individual's understanding of
their labour and the structural boundaries that define it, the research
develops a broader perspective on participation in voluntary work. Lastly,
attention is drawn to the different meanings voluntary work holds for
diverse social groups revealing its role both in reproducing social
inequalities, and effecting social change.
Volunteers; Public Sector Private Sector Relations; Work
Orientations; Nonprofit Organizations; Class Differences; Sex Differences;
Community Organizations; London, England; Volunteer Work.
56. Theolis, M., & Thomas, D.
(2002). On the true worth of voluntary work. Nouvelles Pratiques
Sociales, 15(2), 17-24.
article summarizes the contributions to this journal issue that together
constitute a report of voluntary work in the world today. Interviews with
volunteers who support the necessity of volunteer work consistently
express the need to maintain quality connections between themselves and
those whom they help. Research demonstrates that volunteers do not engage
in their charitable efforts for profit or glory. The volunteer gives
without guarantee of results in order to maintain and, sometimes, renew
the social connection. The voluntary sector has existed in a fairly
autonomous arena with its own set of characteristics. Assessing the worth
of volunteering is not reduced to a single element; rather, volunteer work
shares common characteristics with the business, state, and domestic
sectors of society.
Volunteers; Charities; Volunteer Work.
57. Thoits, P. A., & Hewitt,
L. N. (2001). Volunteer work and well-being. Journal of Health and
Social Behavior, 42(2), 115-131.
two waves of panel data (N = 2,681) from Americans' Changing Lives (House
1995), this article examines the relationships between volunteer work in
the community and six aspects of personal well-being: happiness, life
satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of control over life, physical health,
and depression. Prior research has predominantly explored the effects of
voluntary memberships rather than volunteer work, has used cross-sectional
rather than longitudinal data, and, when longitudinal, has emphasized
social causation over selection effects. The antecedents of human agency
are overlooked when the focus is only on the consequences of volunteer
work. People with more personality resources and better physical and
mental health should be more likely to seek (or to be sought for)
community service. The authors examined both selection and social
causation effects. Results indicated that volunteer work indeed enhances
all six aspects of well-being and, conversely, people who have greater
well-being invest more hours in volunteer service. Explaining how positive
consequences flow from volunteering may offer a useful counterpoint to
stress theory, which has focused mainly on negative life experiences.
Volunteers; Well-Being; Happiness; Life Satisfaction; Self
Esteem; Locus of Control; Health; Depression (Psychology); United States
of America; Volunteer Work.
58. Uslaner, E. M. (2002).
Religion and civic engagement in Canada and the United States. Journal
for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(2), 239-254.
study examines the influence of different religious traditions on
volunteering - is examined. It draws on comparative 1996 survey data from
the US, Francophone Canada (Quebec), & Anglophone Canada (N = 3,023, 700,
& 2,700 respondents, respectively). Results indicate that fundamentalists
in both countries are most likely to volunteer for both religious &
secular causes. Catholics volunteer at the same rates as other
denominations, except in Anglophone Canada. Although church structures
differ in the two countries, conservative religious values have similar
effects on volunteering. Also assessed is the impact of generalized vs.
particularized trust on voluntarism. Results indicate only moderate
effects, which are compounded by religious conservatism. Generally, there
are more similarities than differences between Anglophone Canada & the US.
Even though Quebec appears to have a unique culture of voluntarism, this
cannot be definitely linked to the hierarchical structure of the Catholic
Volunteers; Citizen Participation; Religious Beliefs;
Religious Cultural Groups; United States of America; Canada; Church
Membership; Crosscultural Analysis; Volunteer Work.
de Vliert, E., Huang, X., & Levine, R. V. (2004).
National wealth and thermal climate as predictors of
motives for volunteer work. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(1),
Multilevel analyses of World Values Survey data from 13,584 inhabitants of
33 countries reveals a pattern of cross-cultural differences in balancing
self- and other-directed helping motivations. Voluntary workers'
self-serving and altruistic motivations are positively linked in higher
income countries with uncomfortably cold or hot climates. They are also
unrelated in higher and lower income countries with comfortable climates
and in lower income countries with uncomfortably hot climates. Finally,
they are negatively linked in lower income countries with uncomfortably
Cross Cultural Differences; Income (Economic); Motivation;
Temperature Effects; Volunteers; Prediction; Volunteer Work.
Emmerik, I. J. H., & Stone, T. H. (2002).
Engagement in high- and low-status volunteering. The Netherlands'
Journal of Social Sciences, 38(3), 239-251.
study examined the hypotheses that the engagement in high- & low-status
volunteering can be explained by the different goals of volunteers and
time and energy constraints. Data were generated from a Dutch sample of
455 volunteers. Correlations & regression analyses revealed that men spent
more hours in both high-status & low-status volunteering than women. The
results of this study showed that the different goals of the volunteers
are related to different kinds of behavior. This followed naturally from
the idea that it is important that an individual's ultimate goals are
matched with a particular volunteering situation.
Volunteers; Social Status; Netherlands; Goals; Constraints;
Sex Differences; Volunteer Work.
61. Van Willigen, M. (2000).
Differential benefits of volunteering across the life course. Journals
of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 55B(5),
nationally representative panel data, this study explored the long-term
impacts of volunteering on the life satisfaction and perceived health of
persons aged 60 yrs and over. It then compared ordinary least squares
regression results for seniors with those for younger adults (aged 25-59
yrs). Findings indicated that older volunteers experienced more life
satisfaction over time as a consequence of their volunteer hours than did
younger volunteers, especially at high rates of volunteering. Older adults
also experienced greater positive changes in their perceived health than
did younger adult volunteers. Part of the reason for this different may be
the type of volunteer work in which both older and younger adults engage.
The context in which older and younger adults volunteer and the meaning of
their voluntarism constitute more likely explanations. The author
encourages researchers to take into account volunteer commitment when
studying volunteering's effect on well-being.
Age Differences; Health; Life Satisfaction; Volunteers;
Well-Being; Volunteer Work.
62. Vromen, A. (2003).
Community-based activism and change: The cases of Sydney and Toronto.
City & Community, 2(1), 47-69.
article presents findings from case studies in two community development
organizations based in Sydney, Australia, & Toronto, Canada. 40 in-depth
interviews were conducted with activists in the late 1990s. The activists
describe the present realities for community development activism and what
they conceptualize as the future for political action. The author argues
that appreciating how activists substantiate the relevance of community
development activism in periods of economic, political, & social change,
we are able to build an inclusive notion of participation that is
supportive rather than critical of, everyday activist experiences.
Community Development; Activism; State Society
Relationship; Political Action; Community Organizations; Sydney,
Australia; Toronto; Ontario; Community Work.
63. Wilson, J., & Musick, M.
(2003). Doing well by doing good: Volunteering and occupational
achievement among American women. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(3),
study tests the popular assumption that volunteer work helps people get
good jobs. In doing so, it uses panel data from the Young Women's Module
of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience. Results
indicate that volunteering while a young adult has no effect on whether
women will be working for pay 18 years later. However, it has a positive
effect on the occupational status of those who do eventually work. The
length of time spent in the labor force between early adulthood & middle
age suppresses the positive effect of volunteering on occupational status.
The same positive effect of volunteer work on occupational status is
evident in a separate analysis of women who display more commitment to
working for pay by being in the labor force in both 1973 & 1991.
Volunteers; Labor Force Participation; Work Experience;
Working Women; Occupational Status; Employment Opportunities; Career
Patterns; Occupational Achievement; Volunteer Work.