Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

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Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli



2.4. Changes in Household Work [PDF]


1. Alemani, C. (2004). Domestic workers: Their female employers' anxieties and desires. Polis, 18(1), 137-164.


            Drawing on the results of research carried out in Milan and focusing on women's productive and reproductive work in Italy, family transformation, organization of social services, and migration from Eastern Europe & the South, this paper attempts to answer the following questions: Is it simply a meeting between "rich" women working away from home & "poor" women driven back into homes to perform low status tasks? Or can women open a dialogue, since they are all familiar with & suffer from the harshness, difficulties, & contradictions of the labor market? Can cultural & social aphasia about care work transform itself into the challenge of building gender solidarity?


            KEY WORDS: Domestics; Immigrants; Italy; Housework; Childrearing Practices; Sexual Division of Labor; Women’s Roles; Sex Roles; Working Women.


2. Alenezi, M., & Walden, M. L. (2004). A new look at husbands' and wives' time allocation. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 38(1), 81-106.


            Using 13 years of data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, this paper addresses the direct estimation of effects on time allocation from changes in the prices of market-produced goods and input goods in household production. While many limitations in earlier studies are addressed, numerous findings of earlier studies are reconfirmed. The article concludes that husbands and wives respond alike in their time allocations to changes in input goods prices, but their responses vary to the changes in market goods prices.


            KEY WORDS: Household Management; Husbands; Time Management; Wives; Behavioral Economics; Time.


3. Anxo, D. (2003). The sexual division of tasks. The French and Swedish experiences. Futuribles, 285, 33-40.


            This article presents a comparative study of the sexual distribution of time use (professional, domestic, parental) in France and Sweden. The author argue that, even with some changes in recent years, in both countries the division of tasks still has a strong sexual bias, with women spending more time than men on domestic activities and parenting. Nevertheless, Swedish couples appear to be more egalitarian in the sharing of tasks than their French counterparts. The Swedish employment policy, which allows for a "negotiated flexibility" throughout the life cycle, as well as child care arrangements for infants is a plays a key role in this phenomenon. This advantage of Sweden over France regarding the sexual division of activities is also linked to the high level of education and salaries of females in Sweden: total household income and wide differentials in pay scales between men and women heighten the inequalities in this area. The article concludes by suggesting some ways of reducing the highly unequal division of labor between the sexes.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Childrearing Practices; Labor Policy; Sexual Inequality; France; Sweden; Socioeconomic Factors; Sociodemographic Factors; Household Work.


4. Apparala, M. L., Reifman, A., & Munsch, J. (2003). Cross-national comparison of attitudes toward fathers' and mothers' participation in household tasks and childcare. Sex Roles, 48(5-6), 189-203.


            Data from the Euro-barometer surveys, including over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries, were used to explore attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in child care /household tasks through a multilevel modeling approach. This article reports respondent attitudes related to several individual- and macrolevel factors. At the individual level, it was determined that respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian attitudes toward household work and child care when they were younger, female, and politically liberal. At the macrolevel, countries' United Nations ratings on women's empowerment, Gross National Product, and cultural individualism were related to egalitarian attitudes. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.


            KEY WORDS: Mothers; Fathers; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Childrearing Practices; Sex Role Attitudes; Europe; Crosscultural Analysis; Household Work.


5. Appelbaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., & Kalleberg, A. (2002). Shared work, valued care: New norms for organizing market work and unpaid care work. Washington. DC: Economic Policy Institute.


            Until the 1970s, social norms dictated that women provided care for their families and men were employed for pay. The rapid increase in paid work for women has resulted in an untenable model of work and care in which all employees are assumed to be unencumbered with family responsibilities and women who care for their families are dismissed as 'just housewives'. a review of practices in Australia, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands and Sweden (based on interviews with government officials, academics, managers, employees and representatives of unions and employers' associations) suggested new ways for work and care responsibilities to be reorganized. A new "shared work valued care" model might structure behavior by tempering employers' demands and shaping the aspirations of workers. 'Shared work' means sharing good jobs through reduced hours, flexible hours, job sharing and sharing care duties between men and women; 'valued care' encompasses flexible scheduling and making day and elder care a public-private responsibility. Policies that are needed in the United states to facilitate such as change include: (1) hours-of-work legislation; (2) adjustment-of-hours legislation (3) equal opportunity and non-discrimination; (4) sharing of the cost of care; (5) untying of benefits from individual employers; and (6) updating of income security protections.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Day Care; Behavior Standards; Caregivers; Child Care; Employed Women; Employer Employee Relationship; Employment Opportunities; Employment Practices; Family Caregivers; Family Role; Flexible Working Hours; Foreign Countries; Fringe Benefits; Government Role; Homemakers; Males; Occupational Aspiration; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Quality of Life; Sex Role; Social Behavior; Social Services; Sociocultural Patterns; Work Environment; Australia; Germany; Italy; Japan; Netherlands; Household Work.


6. Arai, A. B. (2000). Self-employment as a response to the double day for women and men in Canada. La Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie/The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 37(2), 125-142.


            Despite recent increases in domestic work by men, most household work is still performed by women. Women's duties range from child care, cleaning, & cooking to shopping, financial management, domestic discipline, & counseling. Yet many of these women also have paid jobs. Data from Statistics Canada's Survey of Work Arrangements (N = 11,828 female & 13,766 male respondents) shows that some women are turning to self-employment as a way of coping with conflicts between family and work. However, the same is not true for men.


            KEY WORDS: Self Employment; Canada; Working Women; Working Men; Housework; Family-Work Relationship; Sexual Division of Labor; Household Work.


7. Arrighi, B. A., & Maume, D. J., Jr. (2000). Workplace subordination and men's avoidance of housework. Journal of Family Issues, 21(4), 464-487.


            Increasingly, scholars argue that men's reluctance to do family work is because they associate it with "women's work" & thus a threat to their masculinity. This idea is extended by considering the link between challenges to men's identities in the workplace & their behavior in the home. Data from the 1980 Class Structure & Class Consciousness Survey for 385 US adults indicate that the extent of men's workplace subordination was negatively related to their performance of "feminine" tasks in the home. Moreover, this relationship was stronger in families in which wives' earnings approached those of their husbands. Theoretical implications are discussed, & a call is made for more longitudinal studies to understand the complex & evolving relationship between work & family.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Masculinity; Family-Work Relationship; Family Power; Sex Role Identity; Sex Role Attitudes; Subordination; Working Men; United States of America; Working Women; Dual Career Family; Social Power; Household work.


8. Artis, J. E., & Pavalko, E. K. (2003). Explaining the decline in women's household labor: Individual change and cohort differences. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 746-761.


            Women's hours of housework have declined, but does this change represent shifts in the behavior of individuals or differences across cohorts? Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, individual & cohort change in housework are examined over a 13-year period. Responsibility for household tasks declined 10% from 1974/75 to 1987/88. For individual women, changes in housework are associated with life course shifts in time availability as well as with changes in gender attitudes & marital status, but are not related to changes in relative earnings. Cohort differences exist in responsibility for housework in the mid-1970s & they persist over the 13-year period. Overall, these findings suggest that aggregate changes in women's household labor reflect both individual change & cohort differences.


            KEY WORDS: Females; Housework; Social Change; Generational Differences; Sexual Division of Labor; Family Roles; United States of America; Household Work.


9. Auer, M. (2002). The relationship between paid work and parenthood: A comparison of structures, concepts and developments in the UK and Austria. Community, Work & Family, 5(2), 203-218.


            This paper investigates the consequences of these policies by focusing on working time and time away from employment, when children are very young, and relates these aspects to currently introduced and changed regulatory structures, such as working time regulations and statutory parental leave. The labor market and family policy in Austria, generally, supports the reconciliation of employment and parenthood. However, the male breadwinner model in Austrian public support structures and low normative support of employed mothers limits the work-family "system". In the UK, the cultural barriers for a more equal distribution of the duties of combining employment and parenthood seem to be lower. The market as the political focus, in general, allows more equal opportunities for (qualified) women in the labor market and within families. But the highly flexible and polarized labor market, passive public policy, and weak legal protection of employed parents creates a difficult relationship between paid work and family life. This is particularly true for many low-skilled, low-paid parents, and above all mothers. These analyses provide the basis for public policy direction that aims at reconciliation of paid work and parenthood.


            KEY WORDS: Family-Work Relationship; Family Policy; Labor Policy; United Kingdom; Austria; Employment; Parenthood; Household Work.


10. Batalova, J. A., & Cohen, P. N. (2002). Premarital cohabitation and housework: Couples in cross-national perspective. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64(3), 743-755.


            This article examines the effect of premarital cohabitation on the division of household labor in 22 countries. Findings indicate that women do more domestic work than men in all countries. Married couples that cohabited before marriage have a more equal division of housework. Lastly, national cohabitation rates have equalizing effects on couples despite of their own cohabitation experience. However, the influence of cohabitation rates is only observed in countries with higher levels of overall gender equality. In conclusion, the trend toward increasing cohabitation may be part of a broader social movement toward a more egalitarian division of housework.


            KEY WORDS: Family Roles; Single Persons; Cohabitation; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Opposite Sex Relations; Household Work.


11. Baxter, J. (2000). The joys and justice of housework. Sociology, 34(4), 609-631.


            This paper explores husbands' and wives' perceptions of fairness of division of domestic labor. Data from a recent national Australian survey indicate that 59% of women report that the division of labor in the home is fair even though they also report responsibility for the bulk of the work. 68% of men report that the division of household labor is fair. Drawing on Thompson's distributive justice framework, the paper analyses the factors underlying these patterns in relation to perceptions of fairness of child care and housework. The results indicate that, for both men and women, the major factor determining perceptions of fairness is the division of tasks between men and women. The amount of time spent on domestic labor is also significant, but is less important than who does what around the home. There is insufficient support for other hypotheses relating to gender-role attitudes, time spent in paid work, and financial power. The article concludes by examining these findings with regards to the distributive justice framework and considers their implications for understanding perceptions of fairness in households.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Australia; Equality; Distributive Justice; Housework; Husbands; Wives; Household Work.


12. Baxter, J. (2001). The links between paid and unpaid work: Australia and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. In J. Baxter & M. Western (Eds.), Reconfigurations of class and gender. (pp. 81-104). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


            An analysis of links between paid/unpaid work in Australia and Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s builds upon 1990 research by Arne L. Kalleberg and Rachel A. Rosenfeld on the reciprocal interrelationship between the labor market and domestic work to argue that there is a zero-sum relationship between paid and domestic work. Data were obtained from a total of 3,131 surveys conducted in Australia (1986 and 1993) and Sweden (1980 and 1995) as part of the Comparative Project on Class Structure and Class Consciousness. The results showed women in both countries continued to be primarily responsible for domestic labor and changing policies had little impact on these arrangements. Men in both nations consistently spent an average of 43-46 hours/week in paid employment, but the hours Swedish women spent in paid work increased in the 1990s from 31 to 37 hours/week, while Australian women decreased their hours from 36 to 30/week. The gendered nature of the reciprocal links between paid and unpaid work is discussed, noting no significant cross-national differences.


            KEY WORDS: Australia; Sweden; Labor Market; Housework; Social Class; Working Women; Labor Force Participation; Sexual Division of Labor; Household Work.


13. Baxter, J. (2002). Patterns of change and stability in the gender division of household labour in Australia, 1986-1997. Journal of Sociology, 38(4), 399-424.


            Current research in Australia and overseas suggests that we are witnessing the convergence of domestic labor activities for men and women's time on task. Disagreement exists however as to whether this is due to women reducing their time on housework or men increasing their time on housework. Addressed are these issues using national survey data collected in Australia in 1986, 1993 & 1997. Findings show some changes in the proportional responsibilities of men and women in the home with men reporting a greater share of traditional indoor activities. But overall both men and women are spending less time on housework. In particular, women's time on housework has declined by 6 hours weekly since 1986. Hence, while the gender gap between men's & women's involvement in the home is getting smaller, it is not the result of men increasing their share of the load, but is due to the large decline in women's time spent on domestic labor. There is also evidence of change in the relationship between paid and unpaid work for women. Paid labor for women had a greater impact on their involvement in domestic labor in 1997 compared with 10 years earlier. In conclusion, women's increased labor force involvement in combination with changing patterns and styles of consumption is leading to some changes in the gender division of household labor, but not in the direction as previously anticipated.


            KEY WORDS: Family Roles; Sexual Inequality; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Labor Force Participation; Women’s Roles; Working Women; Dual Career Family; Australia; Household Work.


14. Baxter, J. H., Belinda; Western, Mark. (2005). Post-familial families and the domestic division of labour. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(4), 583-600.


            As a starting point, recent claims by Beck-Gernsheim (2002) that we are living in an era of "post-familial families." Beck-Gernsheim (2002) argues that our lives are no longer structured as they once were by tradition, class, religion and kin. Rather the family has become a transitional phase as people strive for fulfillment of personal goals and personal life projects. The demographic evidence to support these claims is clear in relation to changing patterns of family formation and dissolution, as well as the movement of married women into paid employment. Less evident is a decline in traditional patterns of gender stratification within families. Recent national data from Australia is used to examine the relationship between post-familial status, as indicated by marital status and employment, and time spent on housework. Findings show gender to be a clear predictor of time spent on housework, but there is evidence that gender inequality may be declining in non-traditional households.


            KEY WORDS: Family Life; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Social Change; Sex Roles; Australia; Household Work.


15. Beneria, L. (1999). The enduring debate over unpaid labour. International Labour Review, 138(3), 287-309.


            This paper summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national accounting statistics. It responds to the continuing criticism that women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Statistics; Females; Labor Force; Salary Wage; Differentials; Statistical Bias; Household Work.


16. Berg, C. A., Johnson, M. M. S., Meegan, S. P., & Strough, J. (2003). Collaborative problem-solving interactions in young and old married couples. Discourse Processes, 35(1), 33-58.


            Explores the importance of conversational processes for understanding collaborative cognitive performance by examining interactions of married couples that facilitate performance on 2 everyday cognitive tasks. Twenty-four adults, 6 young (M age = 29.7 years) and 6 older (M = 70.8 years) married couples, completed a vacation decision-making task and an errand-running task. Couples were asked to speak as they performed the tasks and speech acts were coded as to whether they involved high-affiliation exchanges (between-partner sequences of cooperative and obliging speech acts) or low-affiliation exchanges (between-partner sequences of controlling and withdrawing speech acts). Interactions characterized by high affiliation were associated with greater use of information and the use of feature based search strategies on the decision-making task and shorter routes on the errand-running task. Open-ended interviews show the importance of division of labor and delegating during daily life collaborations. Findings illustrate the diversity present in couples' interactive patterns and approaches to collaboration. Further, the results demonstrate the potential of integrating work on collaborative cognition and conversational processes.


            KEY WORDS: Conversation; Marriage Attitudes; Oral Communication; Problem Solving; Spouses; Household Work.


17. Bhatti, M., & Church, A. (2000). "I never promised you a rose garden": Gender, leisure and home-making. Leisure Studies, 19(3), 183-197.


            This paper investigates the importance of contemporary gardens as leisure locations and argues that leisure in general, and the garden in particular, plays an important role in the process of homemaking. Consideration is given as to how the contemporary garden reflects wider social relations by examining how gender relations permeate gardens and gardening. Particularly, how gender power relations are played out in relation to the gendered meanings of gardens and the garden is highly significant in the social construction of 'home'. Findings show that there are conflicting uses and meanings of gardens.


            KEY WORDS: Leisure; Sex; Gardening; Housework; Opposite Sex Relations; Social Power; Social Constructionism; Housing; Household Work.


18. Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor. Social Forces, 79, 191-228.


            Time diary data from representative samples of US adults (total N = 6,740) show that the number of overall hours of domestic labor (excluding child care & shopping) has continued to decline steadily & predictably since 1965. This finding is mainly due to dramatic declines among women (both in & out of the paid labor market), who have cut their housework hours by almost 50% since the 1960s: about half of women's 12-hour-per-week decline can be accounted for by compositional shifts - such as increased labor force participation, later marriage, & fewer children. In contrast, men's housework time has almost doubled during this period (to the point where men were responsible for 33% of housework in the 1990s), & only about 15% of their five-hour-per-week increase can be attributed to compositional factors. Parallel results on gender differences in housework were obtained from the National Survey of Families & Households estimate data, even though these produce figures 50% higher than diary data. Regression results examining factors related to wives' & husbands' housework hours show more support for the time-availability & relative-resource models of household production than for the gender perspective, although there is some support for the latter perspective as well.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Sex Differences; Time Utilization; Males; Females; United States of America.


19. Bittman, M. (2000). Now it's 2000: Trends in doing and being in the new millennium. Journal of Occupational Science, 7(3), 108-117.


            This paper uses information from Australian time use surveys to examine the predictions made in 1983 by Jonathon Gershuny. Gershuny proposes that households have a hierarchy of needs & wants that they wish to satisfy. As societies get richer, they devote a smaller proportion of their national incomes to satisfying the more basic needs & a larger share to the more sophisticated, luxury categories. However, over time, there is an increasing gap in the relative market prices of durable goods & luxury final services. This means that final services bought on the market (eg, opera tickets, theater tickets, even movie tickets) become more expensive compared to the cost of producing these services at home using relatively inexpensive appliances (eg, stereo sound systems, video recorders, & so on). In other words, households turn to "self-service." On this basis, Gershuny predicts a decline in time devoted to paid work & an increase in time spent in unpaid work & in leisure consumption. Fortunately, however, time spent in unpaid work is itself reduced by the increasing productivity of domestic appliance (durables) & an increasingly equitable division of domestic labor. The net result is a society of greater leisure. This paper argues that Gershuny's predictions have gone astray because of two key weaknesses - his failure to consider the effect of labor demand on the distribution of hours of paid work & his neglect of bargaining over the domestic division of labor.


            KEY WORDS: Social Change; Work; Leisure; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Time Utilization; Australia; Household Work.


20. Bittman, M., & Goodin, R. E. (2000). An equivalence scale for time. Social Indicators Research, 52(3), 291-311.


            This article reports on analyses of time-use surveys involving 99,137 respondents from 28 surveys in 13 Western countries. Specifically, it proposes an "equivalence scale for time" where information about total working time in both paid and unpaid labor can be derived from information about paid working time and household structure. Different scales are offered for men and women, and an adjustment according to year is also provided.


            KEY WORDS: Family Structure; Working Hours; Income; Labor; Housework; Scales; Household Work.


21. Bjonberg, U. (2004). Making agreements and managing conflicts: Swedish dual-earner couples in theory and practice. Current Sociology, 52(1), 33-52.


            Equality means that individuals have a balance between the articulation of their individual selves & their norms & moral concerns about mutuality. Strategies for balancing mutuality & autonomy in relationships are vital to the process of accomplishing equality. Negotiation styles and conflict management are involved in this process. The author discusses how styles of conflict management maintain inequality or promote gender equality. Drawing on a qualitative study of twenty-two couples in Sweden. Both men and women were interviewed separately to talk about how they share household labour, dispose of and allocate material resources, and relate to youngsters.


            KEY WORDS: Dual Career Family; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Parent-Child Relations; Sexual Inequality; Conflict Resolution; Marital Relations; Family Power; Sweden; Household Work.


22. Blane, D., Berney, L., & Montgomery, S. M. (2001). Domestic labour, paid employment and women's health: Analysis of life course data. Social Science and Medicine, 52(6), 959-965.


            This paper reports examines the relationship between the amount of domestic labor performed by a woman during her lifetime and a variety of self-reported and objective measures of her health in early old age. Findings are based on female members (n=155) of a data set which contained considerable life course information, including full household, residential, and occupational histories. Domestic labor, on its own, proved a weak predictor of health. However, the relationship strengthened when domestic labor was combined with the hazards of the formal paid employment that the woman had performed. This finding suggests that it is the combination of domestic labor in addition to paid employment that influences women's health. This finding is supported by its agreement with other studies that reached the same conclusion through an analysis of data with markedly different characteristics.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Health; Working Women; Employment; Women’s Health Care; Elderly; United Kingdom; Household Work.


23. Borrell, C., Muntaner, C., Benach, J., & Artazcoz, L. (2004). Social class and self-reported health status among men and women: What Is the role of work organisation, household material standards and household labour? Social Science & Medicine, 58(10), 1869-1887.


            The objectives of this study are to analyse the association between self-reported health status & social class & to examine the role of work organisation, material standards & household labour as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Using the Barcelona Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 10,000 residents of the city's non-institutionalised population in 2000. This was a stratified sample, strata being the 10 districts of the city. The present study was conducted on the working population, aged 16-64 years (2,345 men & 1,874 women). Social class position was measured with Erik Olin Wright's indicators according to ownership & control over productive assets. Work organisation & household material standards were associated with poor health status with the exception of number of hours worked per week. Work organisation variables were the main explanatory variables of social class inequalities in health, although material standards also contributed. Among women, only unskilled workers had poorer health status than the referent category of manager & skilled supervisors (aOR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.37-7.74). Indicators of work organisation & household material standards reached statistical significance, excepting the number of hours worked weekly. Among women, compared with men, the number of hours weekly of household labour was associated with poor health status (aOR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Showing a different pattern from men in the full model, household material deprivation & hours of household labour weekly were associated with poor health status among women. Results suggest that among men, part of the association between social class positions and poor health can be accounted for psychosocial, physical working conditions & job insecurity. Among women, the association between the worker (non-owner, non-managerial, & un-credentiated) class positions and health is substantially explained by working conditions, material well being at home and amount of household labour.


            KEY WORDS: Health; Social Class; Social Inequality; Work Environment; Sex Differences; Work Organization; Housework; Barcelona and Spain; Household Work.


24. Burns, D. (2000). Practices of citizenship: Inter-linking community, work and family in a national single parent organisation. Community, Work & Family, 3(3), 261-277.


            Currently, notions of community, work, and family are enmeshing with concepts of citizenship to reconstruct contexts and foundations for welfare reform in the UK. Within debates about welfare reform, paid work has become central to notions of "good" citizenship, "good" parenting, and "strong" communities. Evolving notions are redefining parenting as a nonworking activity. Single mothers claiming welfare benefits are in danger of being positioned as "partial" citizens. Daily practices of citizenship by single mothers lie outside of those recognized by the state, could be rendered invisible. The author exemplifies ways in which the members of a national single parent organization are constructing their own relationships between community, work, and family, and through this process are engaging in building citizenship practices.


            KEY WORDS: Citizenship; Welfare Reform; Single Mothers; Organizations (Social); Communities; Family; Work; Welfare Recipients; Family-Work Relationship; United Kingdom; Wages; Household Work.


25. Cameron, J., & Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2003). Feminising the economy: Metaphors, strategies, politics. Gender, Place and Culture, 10(2), 145-157.


            Within contemporary feminism, common approaches to feminizing the economy involve adding a sphere or sector or attributing a monetary value to women's unpaid labor. Each of these approaches is interested in creating an accurate representation of the real or 'whole' economy. But these representations are in the same lineage as mainstream economic conceptions; the economy remains a bounded entity that can be known by enumerating its parts. The 'adding on' and 'counting in' strategies employed by feminists complete the picture of what is needed to produce social well-being but do not necessarily help us think differently about how goods and services are or might be produced. In this article, the authors ask how feminist economic theory might contribute to envisioning or enacting alternative economies. They find answers to this question through reading feminist interventions for glimmers of a deconstructive project that opens 'the economy' to difference. Pursuing these glimmers, they attempt to insert the possibility of non-capitalist forms of economy, including economies of generosity, nonprofit businesses, worker collectives, and alternative capitalist enterprises impelled by a social or environmental ethic. In place of the view of the economy as a whole comprised of a pre-established number of parts or sectors, it can begin to be seen as a discursive construct that can be reconstructed to contribute to social transformation.


            KEY WORDS: Feminism; Economics; Economic Theories; Theoretical Problems; Household Work.


26. Chronholm, A. (2002). Which fathers use their rights? Swedish fathers who take parental leave. Community, Work & Family, 5(3), 365-370.


            This research project focuses on fathers who have taken a relatively large share of the total parental leave period available to families in Sweden. Based on a questionnaire to fathers who took at least 120 days of leave in Gothenburg between 1992 & 1999, the study revealed that most of these fathers were the main caregivers of their children during their leave period. Some fathers, though, reported that they had not been the primary caregivers during the leave period. Immigrant fathers were well represented in the sample. Comparison with Swedish-born fathers revealed high levels of unemployment among the partners of the immigrant fathers: most partners of Swedish-born fathers were earning in 1999. Swedish-born fathers were also more likely to report doing more domestic work, in addition to child care, while on leave. This may have occurred because more mothers with Swedish-born partners were working during the time that fathers were taking leave. Majority of fathers in both groups reported the relationship with their child as the primary reason for taking leave.


            KEY WORDS: Fathers; Family-Work Relationship; Family Roles; Sweden; Personnel Policy; Public Policy; Immigrants; Household Work.


27. Ciabattari, T. (2004). Cohabitation and housework: The effects of marital intentions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(1), 118-125.


            This study asks how cohabiters' housework patterns vary by their marital intentions. I draw on interactionist theories that view housework as an activity that produces gender & family to hypothesize that cohabiters who are more invested in their relationships will spend more time on housework. Analyzing the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families & Households (N = 348), I find that, controlling for sociodemographic & household differences, men who are least committed to their relationships spend the least time on housework, whereas women's housework time is not affected by marital intentions.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Cohabitation; Sexual Division of Labor; Sexual Inequality; Household Work.


28. Clark, S. C. (2002). Communicating across the work/home border. Community, Work & Family, 5(1), 23-48.


            This article considers how individuals enact their work and home environments to create balance, by communicating with family about work and with work associates about family. Using a focus group and questionnaire data from a sample of 179 individuals who work and have family responsibilities, factors that influence the amount of communication and the effect of communication on work/family balance were examined. Results indicate that communication with family about work and communication at work about family varies depending on the permeability of the work and home borders. Individuals who engage in these types of communication demonstrate greater work satisfaction, higher work functioning, higher satisfaction with home & family activities.


            KEY WORDS: Family-Work Relationship; Home Environment; Work Environment; Interpersonal Communication; Job Satisfaction; Family Life; Family Stability; Household Work.


29. Cunningham, M. H., Jr. (2000). Housework, gender, and the life course: Intergenerational and longitudinal influences on the allocation of household labor. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 61(2), 782-A.


            Utilizing data from a panel study of mothers and children that spans the thirty-one years from 1962 to 1993 (the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children), this dissertation examines the gendered division of household labor in an attempt to identify the effects of socialization throughout the life course on attitudes and behaviors with regard to housework and gender. Findings indicate that parental housework allocation, maternal labor force participation, and maternal gender ideology are important factors in the shaping of adult children's housework allocation patterns. Results also show that parental characteristics measured both early in the children's lives (age 1) and during the children's mid-adolescence (age 15) have lasting effects on the children's attitudes and behaviors. Finally, analyses indicate that there are gender differences in socialization processes. Sons' housework allocation is related to parents' housework allocation and maternal gender role attitudes, while housework allocation among daughters is related to maternal labor force participation.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Cultural Transmission; Socialization; Sex; Household Work.


30. Daly, K. J. (2002). Time, gender, and the negotiation of family schedules. Symbolic Interaction, 25(3), 323-342.


            This paper examines the interactive processes by which women and men negotiate family time schedules. Based on 50 interviews with 17 dual-earner couples, it focuses on the ways men and women define time in gendered ways, exert different controls over the way time is used, and align their time strategies in the course of managing everyday family life. The results indicate that there are both continuities and discontinuities with the past: women continue to exert more control over the organization of time in families, but time negotiation itself has become a more complex and demanding activity. The way that couples carry out these negotiations reflects a variety of adaptive strategies, with some couples being very reactive in contending with present demands and others being highly structured and seeking to anticipate and control the future. Although some couples worked to negotiate balance in their time responsibilities, it was wives who maintained control over time and, ultimately, the orchestration of family activity.


            KEY WORDS: Family Life; Time; Time Utilization; Sex Differences; Dual Career Family; Working Men; Working Women; Family-Work Relationship; Working Mothers; Household Work.


31. Davies, L., & Carrier, P. J. (1999). The importance of power relations for the division of household labour. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 24(1), 35-51.


            Survey data from 2,577 adults representative of the Canadian labor force in 1982 are drawn on to examine the division of housework in dual-earner households. The hypothesis is that power relations affect household work performed by both women and men. Analysis suggest that paid work hours, sex composition of one's occupation, and decision-making power predict one's contribution to housework. Findings differ depending on whether wives or husbands, and male or female tasks are examined. Findings are interpreted in a framework that recognizes that power relations are implicated in the gendered nature of social life at both the structural and individual levels.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Family Power; Sexual Division of Labor; Dual Career Family; Canada; Working Women; Working Men; Household Work.


32. Dempsey, K. C. (2000). Men and women's power relationships and the persisting inequitable division of housework. Journal of Family Studies, 6(1), 7-24.


            Wives attempting to exercise power by getting their husbands to do more housework & the degree of success they experience is examined. The authors draw on 1998 scale data from 66 women residing in Victoria, Australia. Although all the wives were engaged in paid work, they were contributing 66+% of the total time to housework. It was predicted that women would be reluctant to ask their husbands to increase their participation in housework either for fear of jeopardizing their access to valued resources the husbands provided or because they believed in the legitimacy of the existing division of tasks. Also predicted was men using their superior resource and definitional power to resist any overtures their wives made. Predictions were only partially confirmed. Women were more willing to ask their husbands to increase their participation in housework and, although men were often resistant, 40+% of women experienced some success. They were more likely to gain help with tasks rather than for husbands to agree to accept responsibility for some of the inside tasks. Results only partially corroborate the claims of those feminists who say men use their superior power to resist as much change as possible to a traditional division of labor. Also suggested is that women's ambivalence about handing over tasks can result in an impediment to change.


            KEY WORDS: Family Power; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Sexual Inequality; Australia; Household Work.


33. Denuwelaere, M. (2003). Gender inequity in the division of labor: From parents to children. Mens en Maatschappij, 78(4), 355-378.


            One obvious gap in the literature of domestic labor concerns the participation of children in family chores. While children do have a significant contribution in family chores, surprisingly little research focuses on the role of gender on division of labor. This study examines if there is similarity between the gender equity in the housework allocation of parents and that of their children. The findings indicate that the role-behavior of parents concerning the division of labor influences the way their children divide chores along gender lines. The article concludes that there is an intergenerational transfer of gender inequity in the division of labor.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Family Roles; Opposite Sex Relations; Parent-Child Relations; Housework; Sexual Inequality; Children; Household Work.


34. Dilworth, J. E. L. (2004). Predictors of negative spillover from family to work. Journal of Family Issues, 25(2), 241-261.


            Prior research has inconsistently documented the gendered nature of negative spillover between the domains of home & work. Little is known about predictors of negative spillover for employed mothers & fathers. Using the 1997 wave of the National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study's purpose was twofold: to determine if a difference exists in negative spillover for working mothers & fathers & to identify shared & unique predictors of spillover for both groups. Findings reveal that more working mothers than fathers in the sample experienced negative family-to-work spillover. Time spent performing household chores & caring for children by respondent & spouse did not predict negative spillover for mothers, although caring for a sick child was a significant predictor for fathers. Marital satisfaction was not a significant predictor of spillover, whereas family life satisfaction was one of the strongest predictors for both mothers & fathers.


            KEY WORDS: Family-Work Relationship; Role Conflict; Dual Career Family; Housework; Working Mothers; Working Men; Fathers; Marital Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Household Work.


35. Dixon, J., & Wetherell, M. (2004). On discourse and dirty nappies: Gender, the division of household labour and the social psychology of distributive justice. Theory & Psychology, 14(2), 167-189.


            The authors evaluate recent developments in research on the domestic division of labour with a focus on the Distributive Justice Framework developed by Thompson (1991) in an extension of Major's (1987) work on the psychology of entitlement. This framework states that in order to explain the persistence of gender inequalities in domestic labour, researchers must consider the factors that determine women's sense of fairness in close relationships. Whilst recognizing its contribution to the field, the article argues that existing work on the Distributive Justice Framework has misconceived important aspects of the social psychology of distributive justice. By way of contrast, an approach is advanced that is grounded in the analysis of everyday discursive practices in the home - the practices through which couples define their contributions to household labour and negotiate ideological dilemmas about gender, entitlement and fair shares. Argued are the investigations of gender inequalities in domestic labour can benefit from the new directions provided by social constructionism, as well as the more complex views of subjectivity, power and social interaction that are now emerging in psychology.


            KEY WORDS: Division of Labor; Household Management; Human Sex Differences; Justice; Social Psychology; Household Work.


36. Dodson, L., & Dickert, J. (2004). Girls' family labor in low-income households: A decade of qualitative research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 318-332.


            This article analyzes a decade of qualitative research to identify & explore an overlooked survival strategy used in low-income families: children's family labor. Defined as physical duties, caregiving, & household management responsibilities, children's - most often girls' - family labor is posited as a critical source of support where low wages & absent adult caregivers leave children to take over essential, complex, & time-consuming family demands. We argue that there are lost opportunities when children are detoured from childhood to do family labor & that an intergenerational transfer of poverty is associated with those losses.


            KEY WORDS: Children; Females; Housework; Caregivers; Low Income Groups; Household Work.


37. Dolfsma, W., & Hoppe, H. (2003). On feminist economics. Feminist Review, 75, 118-128.


            Feminist economics draws increasing attention from professional mainstream economists. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues, some theoretical developments - notably on the household - and issues of economic policy. We point to parallels between feminist economics and institutional economics, and argue that these relations might be strengthened to the benefit of both.


            KEY WORDS: Economics; Feminist Theory; Economic Policy; Households; Household Work.



38. Doucet, A. (2000). 'There's a huge gulf between me as a male carer and women': Gender, domestic responsibility, and the community as an institutional arena. Community, Work & Family, 3(2), 163-184.


            Explored is the persistent link between women and domestic responsibility, a heavily documented link and not often theorized. Drawing on a qualitative research project with a "critical case" study sample of couples trying to share housework & childcare in GB in the early 1990s, the author argues that part of this puzzle linking women & domestic responsibility can be addressed by adopting wider definitions of domestic responsibility and community. Domestic responsibility is often conceived as family labor that occurs within families /households, it also has inter-household, inter-institutional, and community dimensions. With regard to a wider conceptualization of the community, argued is that the community is more than a social institution; it is an institutional arena within which families/households, inter-household relations, community-based social networks, and a wide array of community activities occur. Overall findings and implications of the research presented are threefold. First, gendered socially constructed norms and gendered community-based social networks are highlighted as important factors that help to account for the persistent link between women and domestic responsibility. Second, taking cues from research carried out in Third World & low-income Western communities, it is important to shift research agendas on domestic divisions of labor to focus not only on intro-household divisions, but also inter-household & intra-community relations. Third, the need is highlighted for greater attention to the links between socially constructed norms on masculinities, men's friendships & domestic responsibility.


            KEY WORDS: Childrearing Practices; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Communities; Social Institutions; Social Constructionism; Social Networks; Norms; Family Roles; Couples; England; Sex Roles; Women’s Roles; Household Work.



39. Gazso-Windle, A., & McMullin, J. A. (2003). Doing domestic labour: Strategising in a gendered domain. Canadian Journal of Sociology/ Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 28(3), 341-366.


            The authors ask how pragmatic strategies (time availability, time demands, & resources) and patriarchal dynamics (sex & gender ideology [McFarland, Beaujot & Haddad, 2000]) affect the time that men and women spend doing domestic labor. Data from the 1995 General Social Survey show that women spend more time doing domestic labor then men and that pragmatic strategies & patriarchal dynamics are associated with time spent doing housework and child care. Gender ideology is a complex, multidimensional factor that affects the time women & men spend in housework & child care. Results point to the importance of including pragmatic strategies and patriarchal dynamics in assessments of domestic labor. Findings provide compelling evidence of how the relationships among individual agency, broader ideological assumptions, and time spent doing domestic labor are intricately interwoven.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Childrearing Practices; Sex Role Attitudes; Time Utilization; Canada; Household Work.


40. Henthorn, C. L. (2000). The emblematic kitchen: Labor-saving technology as national propaganda, the United States, 1939-1959. Knowledge and Society, 12, 153-187.


            Chronicles how household technology became a fresh battlefield for social dominance between communism & "commercialized" democracy. This is demonstrated in the analysis of the promotion of new labor-saving devices & technologies in the US home as a means for great social change & housewife liberation from the drudgery of domestic chores. Mass media advertising images of the time portray the middle-class housewife as an emblem of glamour and leisure, attesting to the superiority of US technology & a revolutionized & liberated domesticity. Images also functioned, by extension, as propaganda to demonstrate the country's superior military strength. Beneath this utopian picture, however, a sexual division of progress is evident that relegated women to the domestic sphere while perpetrating myths about how happy and lucky they were to be the recipients of such advanced technology (created by men). Traditional gender roles were reinforced, and women's participation in spheres other than the domestic severely curtailed, following a period during the war when they had dared to work outside the home.


            KEY WORDS: Women’s Roles; Post World War II Period; United States of America; Cold War; Technological Innovations; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Mass Media Images; Propaganda; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; International Conflict; Technological Progress; Social Reproduction; Sex Roles; Household Work.


41. Heymann, S. J., & Earle, A. (2001). The impact of parental working conditions on school-age children: The case of evening work. Community, Work & Family, 4(3), 305-325.


            Among non-standard shifts in weekly work schedules, the evening shift is one of the most common. Low-income parents are more likely to be required to work non-standard schedules. Little work has been done to examine the effect of parental evening work on school-age children. Data collected in the US in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) was used to examine effects of parental evening work on the home environment for 1,133 school children, aged 5-10 years. The Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME) score used has been shown to predict children's school, developmental & health outcomes. Even only one parent working in the evening had a significantly negative effect on the home environment for families living in poverty and those not living in poverty. The effect size, an 11% decrease in HOME scores when mothers worked evenings & an 8% decrease in HOME scores when fathers worked evenings, was of the same order of magnitude as living in poverty. The increase in US and other countries functioning as a 24-hour economy created the demand for evening work. Without changes in public or industrial policies, parents have no choice but to work evenings, whether quality substitute care is available for their children or not, and whether they believe that the benefits of evening work outweigh the costs. Policies that provide parents with a way to see their children after school are important for all families, and are especially important for working parents and children living in poverty. Parents living in poverty often have the least choice about working conditions & the least resources available for finding quality substitute care for their children in the evenings.


            KEY WORDS: Working Hours; Family-Work Relationship; Parents; Children; Home Environment; Child Development; United States of America; Household Work.


42. Himsel, A. J., & Goldberg, W. A. (2003). Social comparisons and satisfaction with the division of housework: Implications for men's and women's role strain. Journal of Family Issues, 24(7), 843-866.


            Contemporary parents lack clear guidelines for the fair & equitable allocation of family work. According to social comparison theory, under conditions of uncertainty, individuals often compare themselves to others to gain a sense of what is "normal." The authors applied social comparison theory to the examination of satisfaction with the division of housework & the experience of role strain. Results of covariance structure analysis indicated that women reported higher levels of satisfaction when they did less housework than their female friends & greater satisfaction & less role strain when their husbands did more than other male comparison referents. In contrast, men were more satisfied when their wives did more housework than their own mothers did. Satisfaction mediated the link between social comparisons & role strain. Interviews with 25 fathers revealed that some men invoke an image of the "generalized other" to make their own contributions to housework seem more noteworthy.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Wives; Husbands; Role Conflict; Social Comparison; Dual Career Family; California; Household Work.


43. Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2000). The international division of caring and cleaning work: Transnational connections or apartheid exclusions? New York: Routledge.


            Argues that women from developing countries who work as nannies or housekeepers in the US, and who leave their children, have reshaped the global economy. An international division of labor fulfills reproductive labor in the US while neglecting it in the immigrants' countries of origin and disenfranchises the mostly Caribbean & Latina immigrants by race, class, gender, and citizenship. Data from historical sources, research on Latina domestic workers in Los Angeles, a survey questionnaire completed by 153 Latina immigrant domestic workers, & in-depth interviews with 23 domestic workers, 37 employers, 3 attorneys specializing in issues related to domestic work, and 5 individuals that owned or worked in domestic employment agencies. The emotional costs of transnational motherhood are explored and is contrasted with patterns of contract labor that were common in the Western US in earlier historical periods. Demographic, cultural, and political implications are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Domestics; Child Care Services; Immigrants; Mothers; Latin American Cultural Groups; United States of America; Housework; International Division of Labor; Caribbean Cultural Groups; Household Work.


44. Jefferson, T., & King, J. E. (2001). "Never intended to be a theory of everything": Domestic labor in Neoclassical and Marxian economics. Feminist Economics, 7(3), 71-101.


            This article is a comparative study of the treatment of domestic labor by neoclassical and Marxian economists. Before 1960, mainstream economics concentrated on production for the market. Serious analysis of housework was confined to a handful of economists, many of whom were marginalized by economics departments but supported by departments of home economics. Later domestic labour was culminated in Gary Becker's "new household economics", yet neglected by Marxist thinkers, who argued that housework was being socialized under capitalism and would disappear altogether under socialism. However, it was rediscovered again by Marxist-feminists in the late 1960s. Housework continues to pose serious analytical difficulties for both neoclassical & Marxian economists.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Marxist Economics; Economic Theories; Intellectual History; Home Economics; Household Work.


45. Kemmer, D. (2000). Tradition and change in domestic roles and food preparation. Sociology, 34(2), 323-333.


            This paper provides a discussion on the gendering of domestic food preparation. It argues that findings from research carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s must be seen in its historical context which outlines structural changes and its impact on women's roles. In addition, the tendency of sociology of food research to focus on the cultural norm of the nuclear family with dependent children ignores more common household structures currently present in Great Britain.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Food Preparation; Women’s Roles; Great Britain; Sexual Division of Labor; Family Structure; Norms; Cultural Change; Family Roles; Nuclear Family; Households; Household Work.


46. Kirchler, E., & Venus, M. (2000). Between job and family: Justice and satisfaction with the distribution of housework. Zeitschrift fur Sozial Psychologie, 31(2), 113-123.


            A total of 109 couples, employed women and men, answered a questionnaire on their contributions to work in the home and the amount of time spent on their paid job. Perceived justice and satisfaction with the division of labor within the household were also indicated. In addition, satisfaction with the partnership, role orientation, and reference point in comparisons of one's own contributions to work in the home and the partner contributions, and sociodemographic data were measured. The results indicate that women and men spend different amounts of time on housework, and they perceive the distribution as just. Women, however, were less satisfied with the distribution than men. Subjective justice for women depends on perceived discrepancies between actual time spent on housework and desired time, partnership satisfaction, role orientation and opportunities to compensate for lower contributions to housework. Men's perception of justice depends only on the presence of children in the household. Satisfaction with the distribution of housework depends mainly on perception of justice.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Family-Work Relationship; Working Hours; Distributive Justice; Sex Differences; Perceptions; Working Men; Working Women; Household Work.


47. Klute, M. M., Crouter, A. C., Sayer, A. G., & McHale, S. M. (2002). Occupational self-direction, values, and egalitarian relationships: A study of dual-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64(1), 139-151.


            This study examines the associations between husbands' & wives' experiences at work & their attitudes about & behaviors in marriage, using a framework informed by the ideas of Kohn (1969, 1977). Specifically, it was hypothesized that experiences of self-direction at work would be associated with greater endorsement of values associated with self-direction. Further, it was predicted that those who value self-direction more would both prefer & adopt more egalitarian arrangements in their marriages. These hypotheses were tested with a sample of 167 dual-earner couples. Results supported the hypotheses & suggested that values mediate the relationships between occupational self-direction & both attitudes about marital roles & the division of household labor. The pattern of results suggests that this framework is a useful perspective for examining the construct of marital equality.


            KEY WORDS: Marital Relations; Social Values; Sex Role Attitudes; Family-Work Relationship; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Family Roles; Dual Career Family; Work Values; Working Men; Working Women; Husbands; Wives; Household Work.


48. Lee, C., & Owens, R. G. (2002). Men, work and gender. Australian Psychologist, 37(1), 13-19.


             Contemporary analyses of work and unemployment need to place psychological findings in the context of society, culture, and gender in understanding the meanings of paid and unpaid work for men and for women. The Australian Psychological Society discussion paper (in this issue) takes a comprehensive view of the literature and places it in the contemporary Australian social context, but fails to consider the extent to which socially constructed gender roles affect individuals' relationships with work. This paper complements the discussion paper by examining men's relationships with work and unemployment from a gendered perspective. Given the centrality of paid work to men's sense of self, there is surprisingly little psychological research on the extent to which patterns of paid and unpaid work, and discrepancies between desired and actual patterns of employment, interact with gender roles and expectations to affect men's physical and emotional wellbeing. This is particularly a concern, given structural changes in patterns of employment. Increasingly, men need to juggle the traditional view that a real man provides financially for his family with contemporary definitions of masculinity that emphasise egalitarianism and flexibility, in the context of rapid changes to work and family structures. The challenge for men is to find new ways of defining themselves and their sense of self-worth, other than exclusively through paid work.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Status; Health; Psychology; Society; Working Conditions; Age Differences; Human Males; Human Sex Differences; Sex Roles; Unemployment; Household Work.


49. Lee, Y.-S. (2003). Housework and familial relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63(7), 2709-A-2710-A.


            This dissertation explores current developments of the literature on housework. Specifically it addresses two research questions: (a) examining various measures of household labor and (b) examining the role of specific familial contexts in two empirical studies. The first study investigates how the frequency of joint performance with parents moderates the effect of time on housework on children's depression levels. The second study explores the importance of time spent with spouses in the perceived appreciation for housework. It identifies three factors - the amount of time spent on housework, gender role attitudes, and options after marriage - that influence recognition of efforts at home. The author concludes that the moderating role of joint performance with parents may add to the debate on the developmental and cognitive implications of household labor for children.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Family Relations; Sexual Division of Labor; Family Roles; Depression (Psychology); Children; Childrearing Practices; Parents; Parent-Child Relations; Marital Relations; Household Work.



50. Levold, N., & Aune, M. (2003). "Cooking gender": Home, gender and technology. Sosiologisk Tidsskrift, 11(3), 273-299.


            With a special focus on the construction of gender relations, this article analyses the domestication of a home. In traditional studies of home, material and technological aspects are often ignored. In this article 'domestication,' is used as a metaphor to illuminate the mutual shaping processes of consumption of technology, negotiations of work routines, and construction of gender relations. The study focuses on two cases. A picture is drawn of different ways of negotiating gender in interaction with life at home as well as life at work. The stories told illustrate the ambivalence and paradoxes in a modern woman's life: What is "freedom" for women today? What type of work is demanding? The article, rather than answer these questions, contributes theoretically and empirically to the ongoing discussion within both technology studies and labor studies.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sex; Opposite Sex Relations; Everyday Life; Family-Work Relationship; Technology; Households; Females; Household Work.


51. Looker, E. D., & Thiessen, V. (1999). Images of work: Women's work, men's work, housework. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 24(2), 225-254.


            Interview data gathered from approximately 1,200 17-year-olds in Hamilton, Ontario, and Halifax and rural Nova Scotia were used to discover their attitudes to (1) male- & female-dominated jobs; (2) their mother's job, their father's job, and being a full-time homemaker; and (3) their own expected job, their father's and mother's job, and housework. Findings show that women's work was reported as less desirable than men's work; domestic work was seen as women's work and as less desirable (to all but working-class females) than paid work. Jobs of middle-class fathers were both desirable and described in many ways similar to jobs expected by their sons and middle-class daughters. Working-class females tended to describe their mother's work in positive terms and defined housework as a practical option.


            KEY WORDS: Adolescents; Work Attitudes; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Parents; Class Differences; Canada; Life Plans; Ontario; Nova Scotia; Working Mothers; Working Men; Household Work.


52. Maher, J., & Singleton, A. (2003). "I wonder what he's saying": Investigating domestic discourse in young cohabitating heterosexual couples. Gender Issues, 21(1), 59-77.


            Using narrative methodology, this article examines domestic labor in heterosexual couple particularly with regard to how changing employment patterns are interacting with domestic work and construction of domestic life in contemporary Western societies. The study revealed the disjunctions between what women and men say and what their descriptions reveal that they do. It demonstrated that young women in heterosexual cohabitating couples do more. They also worry more about how their domestic lives appear and what it suggests about them and their male partners. The narrative method of this study reveals complexity that would not have been apparent in survey or short answer data, even if couple responses had been compared. While both partners often talked of shared domestic burdens, women bore the burden of domestic work. They also carry the burden of the myths of shared involvement that are current in contemporary Western accounts of domestic labor.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Working Men; Working Women; Cohabitation; Couples; Narratives; Household Work.


53. Mattingly, M. J., & Bianchi, S. M. (2003). Gender differences in the quantity and quality of free time: The U.S. experience. Social Forces, 81(3), 999-1030.


            Newly collected time diary data was used to assess gender differences in both quantity and quality of free time. Measures of contamination of free time by nonleisure activities such as household chores, the fragmentation of free time, and how frequently children's needs must be accommodated during free-time activities were also included. Findings suggested that men and women do experience free time very differently. Men tend to have more of it. Marriage and children exacerbate the gender gap and market work hours erode men's and women's free time in different ways. Findings also revealed that despite gains toward gender equality in other domains, discrepancies persisted in the experience of free time.


            KEY WORDS: Sex Differences; Time Utilization; Leisure; Sexual Inequality; United States of America; Household Work.


54. Mortelmans, D., Ottoy, W., & Verstreken, M. (2003). A longitudinal view on the gendered division of household labor. Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, 24(2-3), 237-260.


            Based on empirical data from a panel study of Belgian Households (PSBH), this article addresses the stability of the household-labor in partner-relations over time from the viewpoint of "task load" of individuals. The longitudinal database offers the opportunity to combine a cross-sectional analysis with a longitudinal dimension. The results show that at the end of the 1990's women were not only doing most of the household labor, they were often predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for the household labor.


            KEY WORDS: Belgium; Females; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; United States of America; France; Household Work.


55. Natalier, K. (2003). 'I'm not his wife': Doing gender and doing housework in the absence of women. Journal of Sociology, 39(3), 253-269.


            Share households composed solely of men are a site in which masculine identities in the home are disembedded from marital ideologies. This allows us to unravel the connections between housework, power and what it means to be a man. The study finds that the domestic labour practices of men who reside with their peers reflect those traditionally associated with husbandhood, although the bases for these interactions, and the associated play of power, differ in the absence of a wife. It is evident that gender continues to be an important organizing principle of domestic labour outside marital homes.


            KEY WORDS: Gender; Housework; Masculinity; Share Households; Household Work.


56. Nordenmark, M., & Nyman, C. (2003). Fair or unfair? Perceived fairness of household division of labour and gender equality among women and men: The Swedish case. The European Journal of Women's Studies, 10(2), 181-209.


            This study analysed how time use, individual resources, distributive justice and gender ideology influenced perceptions of fairness concerning housework and gender equality. Swedish couples were surveyed and interviewed in the study. The quantitative results show that it is only factors connected to time use that are significantly correlated to both perceptions of fairness concerning division of household labour and gender equality. In addition, the qualitative results illustrated the complexity of concepts like fairness and equality.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Distributive Justice; Sex Role Attitudes; Equity; Sexual Inequality; Leisure; Time Utilization; Sweden; Household Work.


57. Nordenmark, M. (2004). Does gender ideology explain differences between countries regarding the involvement of women and men in paid and unpaid work? International Journal of Social Welfare, 13(3), 233-243.


            Women spend more time doing household work than men, and men spend more time working at paying jobs outside the home than women. But studies also show that there are major differences between countries regarding the degree to which women and men involve themselves in different kinds of labor activity. The main aim of the article is to analyze the significance of gender ideology when studying differences between countries regarding the involvement of women and men in paid and unpaid work. The analysis is based on national random samples from ten OECD countries that were collected within the framework of ISSP 1994. The conclusions are: (a) gender ideology has an impact in all the studied countries on the degree to which women and men involve and engage themselves in labor and (b) gender ideology partially explains the differences between countries regarding women's and men's involvement in paid and unpaid work.


            KEY WORDS: Sex; Sex Roles; Housework; Employment; Crosscultural Differences; Sex Differences; Sexual Division of Labor; Household Work.


58. Pilcher, J. (2000). Domestic divisions of labour in the Twentieth Century: 'Change slow a-coming'. Work, Employment and Society, 14(4), 771-780.


            A review essay on books by (1) Rosalind Barnett & Caryl Rivers, She Works, He Works, How Two-Income Families Are Healthy and Thriving (Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press, 1998); (2) Francine Deutsch, Halving It All. How Equally Shared Parenting Works (Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press, 1999); & (3) Richard Layte, Divided Time. Gender, Paid Employment and Domestic Labour (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999). These books focus on the distribution of household/caring work among heterosexual couples in the UK. An examination of pre-1990 research, as well as several nationally representative studies of the early 1990s, revealed continuing gender inequality in the distribution of domestic work in spite of the increasing number of women employed outside the home. Layte uses SCELI data to demonstrate why many women do not consider these unequal arrangements unfair. Barnett and Rivers offer an academic study of 300 working, married couples with children and a self-help manual for two-income families. Deutsch's study of 150 dual-earner parents focuses on couples who have created truly equal families. These books confirm the unequal distribution of domestic/parenting work and suggest approaches couples can use to negotiate their solutions for more equitable distribution of domestic work.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Twentieth Century; Housework; Dual Career Family; Sexual Inequality; Household Work.


59. Powers, R. S. (2003). Doing the daily grind: The effects of domestic labor on professional, managerial, and technical workers' earnings. Gender Issues, 21(1), 3-23.


            Using two data sets from the National Survey of Families and Households, this paper examined how domestic labor tasks, including daily grind tasks, female-type and male-type tasks, affected the earnings of workers in professional, managerial, and technical occupations in both the short and long term. Domestic labor explained an additional 19% of the gap between the earnings of women and men in professional, managerial, and technical occupations. These results suggest that despite having jobs that offer higher pay and more autonomy, the time spent doing the daily domestic labour negatively affects earnings, especially for women in professional, managerial, and technical occupations.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Everyday Life; Working Men; Working Women; Family-Work Relationship; Professional Workers; Income Inequality; Sexual Division of Labor; United States of America; Household Work.


60. Riley, A. L., & Keith, V. M. (2003). Work and housework conditions and depressive symptoms among married women: The importance of occupational status. Women & Health, 38(4), 1-17.


            Using the American Changing Lives Survey, this research examines housewives' subjective evaluations of their housework and the subjective evaluations of paid employment among three groups of married women: professionals, sales-clerical, and service-blue collar wives. The research assessed the usefulness of disaggregating employed women by occupational status. Depressive symptoms were regressed on five work conditions - autonomy, physical and time demands, boredom, and feeling appreciated - along with sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate professional wives report fewer symptoms of depression than homemakers, sales-clerical, and service-blue collar wives. Differences between professionals and homemakers are largely accounted for by professional women's more advantaged economic position. Nonprofessional employed women are more depressed than professionals even when their disadvantaged working conditions are controlled. The findings are discussed in view of research on the stress of combining full-time employment with homemaking and argue that balancing these two roles may be more difficult for some employed women than for others.


            KEY WORDS: United States of America; Working Women; Homemakers; Housework; Depression (Psychology); Occupational Status; Household Work.


61. Sabattini, L., & Leaper, C. (2004). The relation between mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their division of labor in the home: Young adults' retrospective reports. Sex Roles, 50(3-4), 217-225.


            The authors report on an investigation into the relation between young adults' retrospective reports of their mothers' and fathers' division of household labor (egalitarian or traditional) and parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, or disengaged). Participants' own gender attitudes were also tested in relation to parents' division of labor and parenting. The participants were 294 women and men (M =19-years old) who were raised in 2-parent households and came from a range of ethnic backgrounds. For the mothers' parenting, permissive parenting was more likely among those from egalitarian households whereas authoritarian parenting was more likely among those from traditional households. For the fathers' parenting, authoritative parenting was more likely among participants from egalitarian households and disengaged parenting was more likely among those from traditional households. The association between fathers' parenting style and division of labor was specific to the division of childcare (rather than housework). Participants' gender attitudes were not related to parents' division of labor or parenting style.


            KEY WORDS: Childrearing Practices; Division of Labor; Household Management; Parenting Style; Sex Role Attitudes; Child Care; Parental Permissiveness; Household Work.


62. Sauve, R. (2002). Connections: Tracking the links between jobs and family. Job, family and stress among husbands, wives and lone-parents 15-64 from 1990 to 2000. Contemporary family trends. Ottawa: Vanier Institute of the Family.


            Noting that most reports on work-family relationships are based on limited data, this report attempts to establish a foundation for ongoing analysis of job and family patterns in Canada based on both historical and current labor force data and other sources. The report tracks and charts the connections between paid work and family trends for husbands, wives, and lone or single parents in Canada from 1990 to 2000. The focus of the report is on three types of trends: (1) participation of husband, wives, and single parents in the paid workforce; (2) how participation in the paid work force relates to job and family responsibilities; and (3) levels of stress reported by spouses and single parents. Part 1 of the report provides a summary of the major findings and policy implications, a review of the data sources, and an introduction to the topic. Data are derived from Statistics Canada sources. Part 2 of the report has been constructed as a chart book documenting 42 trends. Tables and charts provide a graphical or tabular presentation of the more important topics with comments included for each trend to help interpret the trend and to add additional insights. Findings are presented for wives with children, husbands with or without children, wives without children, and lone-parents. Among the main findings is that spouses share in the responsibilities for paid work and unpaid work. Husbands remain the main source of incomes from paid employment. More wives now work at jobs outside the home but they also retain the major responsibilities for child and family care, especially when young children are present. Wives work more total hours than their husbands do. The majority of spouses and single parents are not under severe stress but many are.


            KEY WORDS: Comparative Analysis; Family Environment; Family Relationship; Family-Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; One Parent Family; Public Policy; Spouses; Stress Variables; Trend Analysis; Canada; Household Work.


63. Scott, D. B. (2001). The costs and benefits of women's family ties in occupational context: Women in corporate-government affairs management. Community, Work & Family, 4(1), 5-27.


            This article explores gender differences in the family relationships of corporate-government affairs managers. In particular, it looks at how women's family status influences the context and character of their interactions with key people in business and government. While women may have made tremendous gains in corporate public affairs management in the US, these positions call for employees to form successful networks with clients, the public, other managers in the corporation, and other professionals outside the corporation. There is little research that documents the effects of family on work relations on women who occupy positions where the potential for "personal" & "professional" overlap is high. This research suggests that the family relations of women corporate-government relations managers inhibit the development of certain kinds of ties. However, the findings are not all negative. The research revealed that while family relations may be burdensome, they can be also be instrumental in extending women's connections and enhancing their opportunities.


            KEY WORDS: Sex Differences; Family-Work Relationship; Social Networks; Public Sector Private Sector Relations; Professional Women; Managers; Public Relations; Family Relations; Washington, DC; New York City; Household Work.


64. Sikic-Micanovic, L. (2001). Some conceptualizations and meanings of domestic labor. Drustvena Istrazivanja, 10(45(54-55)), 731-766.


            This article suggests that the definitions and conceptualizations of domestic labor should emphasize that it is productive, involving many different types of work, and that it is also about constructing "proper" and "appropriate" gender relations. An overview of studies, show that unpaid domestic labor is persistently segregated by gender and continues to be, in practice, mainly "women's work." The implications, and consequences of this are outlined in the paper. In addition, a number of explanations are provided that elucidate why inequitable divisions of labor within the home are considered to be fair. It is concluded that the gendered division of domestic labor should be viewed as a way to "do gender" that also produces appropriate gender relations, rather than based on a static agreement between individuals. These relations as interpersonal processes in combination with dominant discourses (in the media, community, & government policies) constitute, maintain, and enhance a gendered division of labor within a particular context. As household tasks convey social meanings about masculinity and femininity, it is important to avoid generalizations but rather, understand that conceptualizations, meanings, and values vary according to historical, sociocultural contexts such that a universalizing framework is inappropriate.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Women’s Roles; Opposite Sex Relations; Social Reproduction; Sexual Inequality; Household Work.


65. Sousa-Poza, A., & Widmer, R. (1998). The determinants of the allocation of time to paid and unpaid labour in Switzerland: A preliminary empirical analysis. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Soziologie/Revue Suisse de sociologie, 24(2), 269-289.


            This study discusses the role of gender and, to a lesser extent, cultural differences in time allocation for paid and unpaid labor in the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking areas of Switzerland, applying the economic conceptual framework "new home economists," which recognizes the value of unpaid labor, to explain individual behavior to 1995 survey data from 31,827 individuals, ages 18-65. It was found that employed individuals reacted more to changes in socioeconomic variables, and effects of home ownership, education levels, and the presence of children varied across cultures. Future research concentrating on sociological explanations of cross-cultural differences and extension of the empirical model to capture joint decision problems is advocated.


            KEY WORDS: Switzerland; Labor; Time Utilization; Crosscultural Analysis.


66. Spitze, G., & Loscocco, K. A. (2000). The labor of Sisyphus? Women's and men's reactions to housework. Social Science Quarterly, 81(4), 1087-1100.


            Considerable attention has been given to the division of household labor in male-female couple households & to assessments of its equity. While women's experience of housework has been characterized as either tedious & thankless or a more positive expression of love & care, there is very limited empirical evidence about how women (or men) actually experience the work. We assess these reactions & investigate how they are influenced by women's & men's household & paid work contexts & the content of the housework performed. Data are from married & cohabiting men & women respondents to the 1987/88 wave of the National Survey of Families & Households. Results show that while women's reactions to housework are slightly less positive than men's, both are similar & are more positive than negative. There is also similarity across gender in the factors explaining these attitudes. The unpleasantness of housework (especially for women) may be less a reflection of the qualities of the work itself than of the consequences of its allocation for women's ability to perform outside roles & for their sense of marital equity.


            KEY WORDS: Females; Males; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Marital Relations; Cohabitation; Household Work.


67. Strazdins, L., & Broom, D. H. (2004). Acts of love (and work): Gender imbalance in emotional work and women's psychological distress. Journal of Family Issues, 25(3), 356-378.


            Family members do work to meet people's emotional needs, improve their well-being, and maintain harmony. When emotional work is shared equally, both men and women have access to emotional resources in the family. However, like housework and child care, the distribution of emotional work is gendered. This study examines the psychological health consequences of gender divisions in emotional work. Quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of 102 couples with young children show that the gender imbalance affected women's, but not men's, experience of love and conflict in their marriage. Through this erosion of the marriage, the gender imbalance posed a health risk to women and helped explain gender differences in psychological distress. Couples preserved a sense of mutuality by accounting for the gender imbalance as something beyond men's choice or control, or in terms of women's excess emotional needs, thus entrenching gender differences in the performance and consequences of emotional work.


            KEY WORDS: Marriage; Females; Intimacy; Gender Differences; Gender Issues; Foreign Countries; Psychological Patterns; Emotional Response; Marital Instability; Spouses; Interpersonal Relationship; Household Work.


68. Stro, S. (2002). Unemployment and gendered divisions of domestic labor. Acta Sociologica, 45(2), 89-106.


            Using data from the Swedish Longitudinal Study among the Unemployed, 1992/93, and the Swedish Level of Living Survey, 1990, this study focuses on whether unemployment is associated with alterations in the gendered division of domestic labor among Swedish men and women. Levels of domestic labor activity during periods of unemployment are investigated, as well as the question of whether any associations persist after the individual reenters the workforce. The results indicate that although gender is the best predictor of levels of domestic labor activity, labor market status also has an effect. For instance, women are more active than men, but the unemployed are more active than the employed. The hypothesis that male unemployment is associated with a more equal division of domestic labor is supported. For women, the hypothesis that unemployment is related to an exacerbated unequal division of domestic labor is supported, although it is questionable whether unemployment has any permanent effects on activity in domestic labor, since the re-employed decrease their domestic labor activity.


            KEY WORDS: Unemployment; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Labor Force Participation; Sweden; Household Work.


69. Sullivan, C. (2000). Space and the intersection of work and family in homeworking households. Community, Work & Family, 3(2), 185-204.


            The introduction of paid work into the home challenges our conceptualizations of work and family as spatially distinct. Research specifically examining spatial experiences within homeworking households is limited and does not include family members' own accounts. This paper examines spatial arrangements in homeworking households, potential problems and conflicts, gendered patterns, and the link between space and the psychological work-family boundary. Interviews with homeworkers and their families reveal a range of consequences for the entire family. Conflicts can arise over entitlement to, and use of, space. A complex relationship between physical and psychological boundaries is uncovered.


            KEY WORDS: Home Workplaces; Space; Spatial Analysis; Family-Work Relationship; England; Family Relations; Household Work.


70. Sullivan, O. (2000). The division of domestic labour: Twenty years of change? Sociology, 34(3), 437-456.


            Using nationally represented time-use diary data for 1975, 1987, & 1997, 1,284 couples in Great Britain participated in a study that examined the nature and pattern of change in the domestic division of labor. Acknowledging that in 1997 women still performed the bulk of domestic work, it was found that, in relation to changes in time use in other areas of life, the increase in men's participation in domestic work (at least as measured in terms of time contributed) should be regarded as significant. In support of this, there had been (1) a reduction in gender inequality in the participation of some of the normatively feminine-associated household tasks; (2) a larger proportional increase in the time contributed to domestic work by men from lower socioeconomic status, to a position of near equality with men from higher socioeconomic positions; and (3) a substantial increase in egalitarian couples.


            KEY WORDS: Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Great Britain; Time Utilization; Sex Differences; Household Work.


71. Torr, B. M., & Short, S. E. (2004). Second births and the second shift: A research note on gender equity and fertility. Population and Development Review, 30(1), 109-130.


            It has been recently proposed that the decline from replacement-level fertility to low fertility is linked to a combination of high levels of gender equity in individual-oriented institutions, such as education and market employment, and low levels of gender equity in the family and family-oriented institutions. The "second shift," or the share of domestic work performed by formally employed women, forms a critical piece of current cross-national explanations for low fertility. The paper explores whether there is empirical evidence at the individual level for a relationship between gender equity at home, as indicated by the division of housework among working couples with one child, and the transition to a second birth. Results from a sample of US couples, indicate a U-shaped relationship between gender equity and fertility. Both the most modern and the most traditional housework arrangements are positively associated with fertility. This empirical test elaborates the family-fertility relationship and underscores the need to incorporate family context, including gender equity, into explanations for change in fertility.


            KEY WORDS: Fertility; Sexual Inequality; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Dual Career Family; Household Work.



72. Verma, S., & Larson, R. W. (2001). Indian women's experience of household labour: Oppression or personal fulfillment. The Indian Journal of Social Work, 62(1), 46-66.


            This article examines the time spent by urban middle-class women in household work with accompanying subjective states. Participants carried beeper watches for one week and reported their time spent in different activities with their subjective states, when signaled at random times. The findings reveal that women spend much more time doing household labor than their husbands, but they experience choice over these activities and do not experience them as aversive. Women often report feeling hurried, but do not feel less in control. Their emotional states neither suggest a high rate of distress, nor a high feeling of self-fulfillment while doing family work.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Females; Sex Stereotypes; Choices; Stress; Household Work.


73. Wallace, C. (2002). Household strategies: Their conceptual relevance and analytical scope in social research. Sociology, 36(2), 275-292.


            The article considers the idea of 'household strategies' as a concept that takes into account the motivations and agency of actors in society. In particular, it considers household strategies as a method of analysis through looking at the intersection of different economies in household behaviour and as a unit of analysis, with a focus on households rather than individuals. Although the concept of household strategies has limitations in each of these dimensions, it has nevertheless remained an important empirical tool of investigation. In fact, household strategies have become perhaps even more salient under conditions of social change such as post-Communism or post-Fordism. An over-emphasis on agency implied by this approach can be counteracted by considering structural factors that have emerged in empirical studies and which restrict the formation and deployment of household strategies. However, such restrictions are not just objective but also culturally defined. Viewed in this manner, household strategies can be used for comparative research and can help to elucidate the social factors underlying economic behaviour. The article concludes by suggesting certain conditions under which household strategies are likely to become especially important.


            KEY WORDS: Households; Strategies; Informal Sector; Housework; Household Work.


74. Warren, T. (2003). Class- and gender-based working time? Time poverty and the division of domestic labour. Sociology, 37(4), 733-752.


            Through an approach of class and gender, this article connects two major research themes; variation in time poverty & the organization of the domestic division of labour, to the study of couples' working time. Links are drawn between these two research themes through review of debates in key studies and an analysis of dual-earner couples from different classes in the British Household Panel Survey. In conclusion, the article suggests that a class-based analysis is necessary to reveal how the different dimensions of time poverty intermesh and play out on the daily lives of families, and the resulting ways in which families' caring and paid working lives are managed on a day-to-day basis.


            KEY WORDS: Time Utilization; Sexual Division of Labor; Sex; Housework; Dual Career Family; Family-Work Relationship; Class Differences; Social Class; United Kingdom; Household Work.


75. Wharton, A. S. (2000). Feminism at work. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 571, 167-182.


            This paper examines the contributions of feminist research to the study of work, occupations, and organizations. Three themes in the literature are investigated: (1) characteristics of housework and so-called women's work more generally; (2) economic inequality between men and women; & (3) structural and institutional bases of gender in the workplace. The direction of feminist research on these themes has been shaped by feminist activists. This research, in turn, has influenced feminist activists' strategies and orientations. The article concludes with a discussion of future challenges for feminist research on the study of work.


            KEY WORDS: Feminism; Work; Housework; Work Environment; Sex; Social Science Research; Sexual Inequality; Activism; Occupations; Organizational Research; Sociology of Work; Household Work.


76. Wheelock, J., Oughton, E., & Baines, S. (2003). Getting by with a little help from your family: Toward a policy-relevant model of the household. Feminist Economics, 9(1), 19-45.


            Recent decades have seen dramatic changes in the ways in which households in developed Western economies gain their livelihoods, with marked elements of a return to old ways of working. There has been a shift from reliance upon one family wage to the need for family employment as well as growing reliance on self-employment and small business. These changes mean that child care for working parents, and the promotion of new small enterprise, are key areas of policy concern. Drawing on original English empirical research around both these themes, this article shows the ways in which UK households draw on redistribution between the generations as a - generally decommodified - contribution to livelihoods and "getting by." We argue that these results confound widely utilized models of how people behave and take particular issue with how economists and policymakers model the household and its boundaries as the institutional context for individual decisions.


            KEY WORDS: Households; Economic Models; Family Businesses; Small Businesses; Family-Work Relationship; Labor Force Participation; Boundaries; Policy Analysis; Methodological Problems; Household Work.


77. Youm, Y., & Laumann, E. O. (2003). The effect of structural embeddedness on the division of household labor: A game-theoretic model using a network approach. Rationality and Society, 15(2), 243-280.


            This article proposes a game-theoretic model in which the structural embeddedness of the partners is the key concept predicting family members' behavior. Under the condition of strong embeddedness, partners behave as if they share a unitary utility function because they can safely assume their partners' gain will be their own gain. With weak embeddedness, however, partners can no longer assume a flow of future fair rewards and thus are in a bargaining situation. They try to decrease their share of housework by using their resources (options outside marriage/cohabitation) as threats in their bargaining with their partners. A representative sample from the Chicago Health & Social Life Survey is analyzed as illustrative evidence for this model.


            KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Game Theory; Network Analysis; Negotiation; Chicago, Illinois; Household Work.


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