and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Changes in Household Work
Alemani, C. (2004). Domestic workers: Their female employers'
anxieties and desires. Polis, 18(1), 137-164.
Drawing on the results of research carried out in Milan and focusing on
women's productive and reproductive work in Italy, family transformation,
organization of social services, and migration from Eastern Europe & the
South, this paper attempts to answer the following questions: Is it simply
a meeting between "rich" women working away from home & "poor" women
driven back into homes to perform low status tasks? Or can women open a
dialogue, since they are all familiar with & suffer from the harshness,
difficulties, & contradictions of the labor market? Can cultural & social
aphasia about care work transform itself into the challenge of building
Domestics; Immigrants; Italy; Housework; Childrearing
Practices; Sexual Division of Labor; Women’s Roles; Sex Roles; Working
2. Alenezi, M., & Walden, M. L. (2004).
A new look at husbands' and
wives' time allocation. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 38(1), 81-106.
13 years of data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, this paper
addresses the direct estimation of effects on time allocation from changes
in the prices of market-produced goods and input goods in household
production. While many limitations in earlier studies are addressed,
numerous findings of earlier studies are reconfirmed. The article
concludes that husbands and wives respond alike in their time allocations
to changes in input goods prices, but their responses vary to the changes
in market goods prices.
Household Management; Husbands; Time Management; Wives;
Behavioral Economics; Time.
3. Anxo, D.
(2003). The sexual division of tasks. The French and Swedish experiences.
Futuribles, 285, 33-40.
article presents a comparative study of the sexual distribution of time
use (professional, domestic, parental) in France and Sweden. The author
argue that, even with some changes in recent years, in both countries the
division of tasks still has a strong sexual bias, with women spending more
time than men on domestic activities and parenting. Nevertheless, Swedish
couples appear to be more egalitarian in the sharing of tasks than their
French counterparts. The Swedish employment policy, which allows for a
"negotiated flexibility" throughout the life cycle, as well as child care
arrangements for infants is a plays a key role in this phenomenon. This
advantage of Sweden over France regarding the sexual division of
activities is also linked to the high level of education and salaries of
females in Sweden: total household income and wide differentials in pay
scales between men and women heighten the inequalities in this area. The
article concludes by suggesting some ways of reducing the highly unequal
division of labor between the sexes.
Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Childrearing
Practices; Labor Policy; Sexual Inequality; France; Sweden; Socioeconomic
Factors; Sociodemographic Factors; Household Work.
4. Apparala, M. L., Reifman, A., & Munsch, J. (2003).
Cross-national comparison of
attitudes toward fathers' and mothers' participation in household tasks
and childcare. Sex Roles, 48(5-6), 189-203.
from the Euro-barometer surveys, including over 10,000 respondents from 13
European countries, were used to explore attitudes toward the division of
fathers' and mothers' participation in child care /household tasks through
a multilevel modeling approach. This article reports respondent attitudes
related to several individual- and macrolevel factors. At the individual
level, it was determined that respondents were most likely to hold
egalitarian attitudes toward household work and child care when they were
younger, female, and politically liberal. At the macrolevel, countries'
United Nations ratings on women's empowerment, Gross National Product, and
cultural individualism were related to egalitarian attitudes. The article
concludes with suggestions for future research.
Mothers; Fathers; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework;
Childrearing Practices; Sex Role Attitudes; Europe; Crosscultural
Analysis; Household Work.
5. Appelbaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., & Kalleberg, A. (2002).
Shared work, valued
care: New norms for organizing market work and unpaid care work.
Washington. DC: Economic Policy Institute.
the 1970s, social norms dictated that women provided care for their
families and men were employed for pay. The rapid increase in paid work
for women has resulted in an untenable model of work and care in which all
employees are assumed to be unencumbered with family responsibilities and
women who care for their families are dismissed as 'just housewives'. a
review of practices in Australia, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands
and Sweden (based on interviews with government officials, academics,
managers, employees and representatives of unions and employers'
associations) suggested new ways for work and care responsibilities to be
reorganized. A new "shared work valued care" model might structure
behavior by tempering employers' demands and shaping the aspirations of
workers. 'Shared work' means sharing good jobs through reduced hours,
flexible hours, job sharing and sharing care duties between men and women;
'valued care' encompasses flexible scheduling and making day and elder
care a public-private responsibility. Policies that are needed in the
United states to facilitate such as change include: (1) hours-of-work
legislation; (2) adjustment-of-hours legislation (3) equal opportunity and
non-discrimination; (4) sharing of the cost of care; (5) untying of
benefits from individual employers; and (6) updating of income security
Adult Day Care; Behavior Standards; Caregivers; Child Care;
Employed Women; Employer Employee Relationship; Employment Opportunities;
Employment Practices; Family Caregivers; Family Role; Flexible Working
Hours; Foreign Countries; Fringe Benefits; Government Role; Homemakers;
Males; Occupational Aspiration; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Quality
of Life; Sex Role; Social Behavior; Social Services; Sociocultural
Patterns; Work Environment; Australia; Germany; Italy; Japan; Netherlands;
6. Arai, A.
B. (2000). Self-employment as a response to the double day for women and
men in Canada.
La Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie/The
Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 37(2),
Despite recent increases in domestic work by men, most household work is
still performed by women. Women's duties range from child care, cleaning,
& cooking to shopping, financial management, domestic discipline, &
counseling. Yet many of these women also have paid jobs. Data from
Statistics Canada's Survey of Work Arrangements (N = 11,828 female &
13,766 male respondents) shows that some women are turning to
self-employment as a way of coping with conflicts between family and work.
However, the same is not true for men.
Self Employment; Canada; Working Women; Working Men;
Housework; Family-Work Relationship; Sexual Division of Labor; Household
7. Arrighi, B. A., & Maume, D. J., Jr.
subordination and men's avoidance of housework. Journal of Family
Issues, 21(4), 464-487.
Increasingly, scholars argue that men's reluctance to do family work is
because they associate it with "women's work" & thus a threat to their
masculinity. This idea is extended by considering the link between
challenges to men's identities in the workplace & their behavior in the
home. Data from the 1980 Class Structure & Class Consciousness Survey for
385 US adults indicate that the extent of men's workplace subordination
was negatively related to their performance of "feminine" tasks in the
home. Moreover, this relationship was stronger in families in which wives'
earnings approached those of their husbands. Theoretical implications are
discussed, & a call is made for more longitudinal studies to understand
the complex & evolving relationship between work & family.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Masculinity;
Family-Work Relationship; Family Power; Sex Role Identity; Sex Role
Attitudes; Subordination; Working Men; United States of America; Working
Women; Dual Career Family; Social Power; Household work.
8. Artis, J. E.,
& Pavalko, E. K. (2003). Explaining the decline in women's household
labor: Individual change and cohort differences. Journal of Marriage
and Family, 65(3), 746-761.
Women's hours of housework have declined, but does this change represent
shifts in the behavior of individuals or differences across cohorts? Using
data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, individual & cohort change in
housework are examined over a 13-year period. Responsibility for household
tasks declined 10% from 1974/75 to 1987/88. For individual women, changes
in housework are associated with life course shifts in time availability
as well as with changes in gender attitudes & marital status, but are not
related to changes in relative earnings. Cohort differences exist in
responsibility for housework in the mid-1970s & they persist over the
13-year period. Overall, these findings suggest that aggregate changes in
women's household labor reflect both individual change & cohort
Females; Housework; Social Change; Generational
Differences; Sexual Division of Labor; Family Roles; United States of
America; Household Work.
9. Auer, M.
(2002). The relationship between paid work and parenthood: A comparison of
structures, concepts and developments in the UK and Austria. Community,
Work & Family, 5(2), 203-218.
paper investigates the consequences of these policies by focusing on
working time and time away from employment, when children are very young,
and relates these aspects to currently introduced and changed regulatory
structures, such as working time regulations and statutory parental leave.
The labor market and family policy in Austria, generally, supports the
reconciliation of employment and parenthood. However, the male breadwinner
model in Austrian public support structures and low normative support of
employed mothers limits the work-family "system". In the UK, the cultural
barriers for a more equal distribution of the duties of combining
employment and parenthood seem to be lower. The market as the political
focus, in general, allows more equal opportunities for (qualified) women
in the labor market and within families. But the highly flexible and
polarized labor market, passive public policy, and weak legal protection
of employed parents creates a difficult relationship between paid work and
family life. This is particularly true for many low-skilled, low-paid
parents, and above all mothers. These analyses provide the basis for
public policy direction that aims at reconciliation of paid work and
Family-Work Relationship; Family Policy; Labor Policy;
United Kingdom; Austria; Employment; Parenthood; Household Work.
10. Batalova, J. A., & Cohen, P. N. (2002).
Premarital cohabitation and
housework: Couples in cross-national perspective. Journal of Marriage
and the Family, 64(3), 743-755.
article examines the effect of premarital cohabitation on the division of
household labor in 22 countries. Findings indicate that women do more
domestic work than men in all countries. Married couples that cohabited
before marriage have a more equal division of housework. Lastly, national
cohabitation rates have equalizing effects on couples despite of their own
cohabitation experience. However, the influence of cohabitation rates is
only observed in countries with higher levels of overall gender equality.
In conclusion, the trend toward increasing cohabitation may be part of a
broader social movement toward a more egalitarian division of housework.
Family Roles; Single Persons; Cohabitation; Housework;
Sexual Division of Labor; Opposite Sex Relations; Household Work.
11. Baxter, J.
(2000). The joys and justice of housework. Sociology, 34(4),
paper explores husbands' and wives' perceptions of fairness of division of
domestic labor. Data from a recent national Australian survey indicate
that 59% of women report that the division of labor in the home is fair
even though they also report responsibility for the bulk of the work. 68%
of men report that the division of household labor is fair. Drawing on
Thompson's distributive justice framework, the paper analyses the factors
underlying these patterns in relation to perceptions of fairness of child
care and housework. The results indicate that, for both men and women, the
major factor determining perceptions of fairness is the division of tasks
between men and women. The amount of time spent on domestic labor is also
significant, but is less important than who does what around the home.
There is insufficient support for other hypotheses relating to gender-role
attitudes, time spent in paid work, and financial power. The article
concludes by examining these findings with regards to the distributive
justice framework and considers their implications for understanding
perceptions of fairness in households.
Sexual Division of Labor; Australia; Equality; Distributive
Justice; Housework; Husbands; Wives; Household Work.
12. Baxter, J.
(2001). The links between paid and unpaid work: Australia and Sweden in
the 1980s and 1990s. In J. Baxter & M. Western (Eds.), Reconfigurations
of class and gender. (pp. 81-104). Stanford, CA: Stanford University
analysis of links between paid/unpaid work in Australia and Sweden during
the 1980s and 1990s builds upon 1990 research by Arne L. Kalleberg and
Rachel A. Rosenfeld on the reciprocal interrelationship between the labor
market and domestic work to argue that there is a zero-sum relationship
between paid and domestic work. Data were obtained from a total of 3,131
surveys conducted in Australia (1986 and 1993) and Sweden (1980 and 1995)
as part of the Comparative Project on Class Structure and Class
Consciousness. The results showed women in both countries continued to be
primarily responsible for domestic labor and changing policies had little
impact on these arrangements. Men in both nations consistently spent an
average of 43-46 hours/week in paid employment, but the hours Swedish
women spent in paid work increased in the 1990s from 31 to 37 hours/week,
while Australian women decreased their hours from 36 to 30/week. The
gendered nature of the reciprocal links between paid and unpaid work is
discussed, noting no significant cross-national differences.
Australia; Sweden; Labor Market; Housework; Social Class;
Working Women; Labor Force Participation; Sexual Division of Labor;
13. Baxter, J.
(2002). Patterns of change and stability in the gender division of
household labour in Australia, 1986-1997. Journal of Sociology, 38(4),
Current research in Australia and overseas suggests that we are witnessing
the convergence of domestic labor activities for men and women's time on
task. Disagreement exists however as to whether this is due to women
reducing their time on housework or men increasing their time on
housework. Addressed are these issues using national survey data collected
in Australia in 1986, 1993 & 1997. Findings show some changes in the
proportional responsibilities of men and women in the home with men
reporting a greater share of traditional indoor activities. But overall
both men and women are spending less time on housework. In particular,
women's time on housework has declined by 6 hours weekly since 1986.
Hence, while the gender gap between men's & women's involvement in the
home is getting smaller, it is not the result of men increasing their
share of the load, but is due to the large decline in women's time spent
on domestic labor. There is also evidence of change in the relationship
between paid and unpaid work for women. Paid labor for women had a greater
impact on their involvement in domestic labor in 1997 compared with 10
years earlier. In conclusion, women's increased labor force involvement in
combination with changing patterns and styles of consumption is leading to
some changes in the gender division of household labor, but not in the
direction as previously anticipated.
Family Roles; Sexual Inequality; Housework; Sexual Division
of Labor; Labor Force Participation; Women’s Roles; Working Women; Dual
Career Family; Australia; Household Work.
14. Baxter, J. H., Belinda; Western, Mark.
(2005). Post-familial families
and the domestic division of labour. Journal of Comparative Family
Studies, 36(4), 583-600.
starting point, recent claims by Beck-Gernsheim (2002) that we are living
in an era of "post-familial families." Beck-Gernsheim (2002) argues that
our lives are no longer structured as they once were by tradition, class,
religion and kin. Rather the family has become a transitional phase as
people strive for fulfillment of personal goals and personal life
projects. The demographic evidence to support these claims is clear in
relation to changing patterns of family formation and dissolution, as well
as the movement of married women into paid employment. Less evident is a
decline in traditional patterns of gender stratification within families.
Recent national data from Australia is used to examine the relationship
between post-familial status, as indicated by marital status and
employment, and time spent on housework. Findings show gender to be a
clear predictor of time spent on housework, but there is evidence that
gender inequality may be declining in non-traditional households.
Family Life; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Social
Change; Sex Roles; Australia; Household Work.
15. Beneria, L.
(1999). The enduring debate over unpaid labour. International Labour
Review, 138(3), 287-309.
paper summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the
under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national
accounting statistics. It responds to the continuing criticism that
women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated
the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided.
Employment Statistics; Females; Labor Force; Salary Wage;
Differentials; Statistical Bias; Household Work.
16. Berg, C. A.,
Johnson, M. M. S., Meegan, S. P., & Strough, J. (2003). Collaborative
problem-solving interactions in young and old married couples.
Discourse Processes, 35(1), 33-58.
Explores the importance of conversational processes for understanding
collaborative cognitive performance by examining interactions of married
couples that facilitate performance on 2 everyday cognitive tasks.
Twenty-four adults, 6 young (M age = 29.7 years) and 6 older (M = 70.8
years) married couples, completed a vacation decision-making task and an
errand-running task. Couples were asked to speak as they performed the
tasks and speech acts were coded as to whether they involved
high-affiliation exchanges (between-partner sequences of cooperative and
obliging speech acts) or low-affiliation exchanges (between-partner
sequences of controlling and withdrawing speech acts). Interactions
characterized by high affiliation were associated with greater use of
information and the use of feature based search strategies on the
decision-making task and shorter routes on the errand-running task.
Open-ended interviews show the importance of division of labor and
delegating during daily life collaborations. Findings illustrate the
diversity present in couples' interactive patterns and approaches to
collaboration. Further, the results demonstrate the potential of
integrating work on collaborative cognition and conversational processes.
Conversation; Marriage Attitudes; Oral Communication;
Problem Solving; Spouses; Household Work.
17. Bhatti, M., &
Church, A. (2000). "I never promised you a rose garden": Gender, leisure
and home-making. Leisure Studies, 19(3), 183-197.
paper investigates the importance of contemporary gardens as leisure
locations and argues that leisure in general, and the garden in
particular, plays an important role in the process of homemaking.
Consideration is given as to how the contemporary garden reflects wider
social relations by examining how gender relations permeate gardens and
gardening. Particularly, how gender power relations are played out in
relation to the gendered meanings of gardens and the garden is highly
significant in the social construction of 'home'. Findings show that there
are conflicting uses and meanings of gardens.
Leisure; Sex; Gardening; Housework; Opposite Sex Relations;
Social Power; Social Constructionism; Housing; Household Work.
18. Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000).
Is anyone doing
the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor. Social
Forces, 79, 191-228.
diary data from representative samples of US adults (total N = 6,740) show
that the number of overall hours of domestic labor (excluding child care &
shopping) has continued to decline steadily & predictably since 1965. This
finding is mainly due to dramatic declines among women (both in & out of
the paid labor market), who have cut their housework hours by almost 50%
since the 1960s: about half of women's 12-hour-per-week decline can be
accounted for by compositional shifts - such as increased labor force
participation, later marriage, & fewer children. In contrast, men's
housework time has almost doubled during this period (to the point where
men were responsible for 33% of housework in the 1990s), & only about 15%
of their five-hour-per-week increase can be attributed to compositional
factors. Parallel results on gender differences in housework were obtained
from the National Survey of Families & Households estimate data, even
though these produce figures 50% higher than diary data. Regression
results examining factors related to wives' & husbands' housework hours
show more support for the time-availability & relative-resource models of
household production than for the gender perspective, although there is
some support for the latter perspective as well.
Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Sex Differences; Time
Utilization; Males; Females; United States of America.
19. Bittman, M.
(2000). Now it's 2000: Trends in doing and being in the new millennium.
Journal of Occupational Science, 7(3), 108-117.
paper uses information from Australian time use surveys to examine the
predictions made in 1983 by Jonathon Gershuny. Gershuny proposes that
households have a hierarchy of needs & wants that they wish to satisfy. As
societies get richer, they devote a smaller proportion of their national
incomes to satisfying the more basic needs & a larger share to the more
sophisticated, luxury categories. However, over time, there is an
increasing gap in the relative market prices of durable goods & luxury
final services. This means that final services bought on the market (eg,
opera tickets, theater tickets, even movie tickets) become more expensive
compared to the cost of producing these services at home using relatively
inexpensive appliances (eg, stereo sound systems, video recorders, & so
on). In other words, households turn to "self-service." On this basis,
Gershuny predicts a decline in time devoted to paid work & an increase in
time spent in unpaid work & in leisure consumption. Fortunately, however,
time spent in unpaid work is itself reduced by the increasing productivity
of domestic appliance (durables) & an increasingly equitable division of
domestic labor. The net result is a society of greater leisure. This paper
argues that Gershuny's predictions have gone astray because of two key
weaknesses - his failure to consider the effect of labor demand on the
distribution of hours of paid work & his neglect of bargaining over the
domestic division of labor.
Social Change; Work; Leisure; Housework; Sexual Division of
Labor; Time Utilization; Australia; Household Work.
20. Bittman, M.,
& Goodin, R. E. (2000). An equivalence scale for time. Social
Indicators Research, 52(3), 291-311.
article reports on analyses of time-use surveys involving 99,137
respondents from 28 surveys in 13 Western countries. Specifically, it
proposes an "equivalence scale for time" where information about total
working time in both paid and unpaid labor can be derived from information
about paid working time and household structure. Different scales are
offered for men and women, and an adjustment according to year is also
Family Structure; Working Hours; Income; Labor; Housework;
Scales; Household Work.
21. Bjonberg, U.
(2004). Making agreements and managing conflicts: Swedish dual-earner
couples in theory and practice. Current Sociology, 52(1), 33-52.
Equality means that individuals have a balance between the articulation of
their individual selves & their norms & moral concerns about mutuality.
Strategies for balancing mutuality & autonomy in relationships are vital
to the process of accomplishing equality. Negotiation styles and conflict
management are involved in this process. The author discusses how styles
of conflict management maintain inequality or promote gender equality.
Drawing on a qualitative study of twenty-two couples in Sweden. Both men
and women were interviewed separately to talk about how they share
household labour, dispose of and allocate material resources, and relate
Dual Career Family; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor;
Parent-Child Relations; Sexual Inequality; Conflict Resolution; Marital
Relations; Family Power; Sweden; Household Work.
22. Blane, D.,
Berney, L., & Montgomery, S. M. (2001). Domestic labour, paid employment
and women's health: Analysis of life course data. Social Science and
Medicine, 52(6), 959-965.
paper reports examines the relationship between the amount of domestic
labor performed by a woman during her lifetime and a variety of
self-reported and objective measures of her health in early old age.
Findings are based on female members (n=155) of a data set which contained
considerable life course information, including full household,
residential, and occupational histories. Domestic labor, on its own,
proved a weak predictor of health. However, the relationship strengthened
when domestic labor was combined with the hazards of the formal paid
employment that the woman had performed. This finding suggests that it is
the combination of domestic labor in addition to paid employment that
influences women's health. This finding is supported by its agreement with
other studies that reached the same conclusion through an analysis of data
with markedly different characteristics.
Housework; Health; Working Women; Employment; Women’s
Health Care; Elderly; United Kingdom; Household Work.
23. Borrell, C., Muntaner, C., Benach, J., & Artazcoz, L. (2004).
Social class and
self-reported health status among men and women: What Is the role of work
organisation, household material standards and household labour? Social
Science & Medicine, 58(10), 1869-1887.
objectives of this study are to analyse the association between
self-reported health status & social class & to examine the role of work
organisation, material standards & household labour as potential mediating
factors in explaining this association. Using the Barcelona Health
Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 10,000 residents of the
city's non-institutionalised population in 2000. This was a stratified
sample, strata being the 10 districts of the city. The present study was
conducted on the working population, aged 16-64 years (2,345 men & 1,874
women). Social class position was measured with Erik Olin Wright's
indicators according to ownership & control over productive assets. Work
organisation & household material standards were associated with poor
health status with the exception of number of hours worked per week. Work
organisation variables were the main explanatory variables of social class
inequalities in health, although material standards also contributed.
Among women, only unskilled workers had poorer health status than the
referent category of manager & skilled supervisors (aOR: 3.25; 95%CI:
1.37-7.74). Indicators of work organisation & household material standards
reached statistical significance, excepting the number of hours worked
weekly. Among women, compared with men, the number of hours weekly of
household labour was associated with poor health status (aOR: 1.02; 95%
CI: 1.01-1.03). Showing a different pattern from men in the full model,
household material deprivation & hours of household labour weekly were
associated with poor health status among women. Results suggest that among
men, part of the association between social class positions and poor
health can be accounted for psychosocial, physical working conditions &
job insecurity. Among women, the association between the worker
(non-owner, non-managerial, & un-credentiated) class positions and health
is substantially explained by working conditions, material well being at
home and amount of household labour.
Health; Social Class; Social Inequality; Work Environment;
Sex Differences; Work Organization; Housework; Barcelona and Spain;
24. Burns, D.
(2000). Practices of citizenship: Inter-linking community, work and family
in a national single parent organisation. Community, Work & Family, 3(3),
Currently, notions of community, work, and family are enmeshing with
concepts of citizenship to reconstruct contexts and foundations for
welfare reform in the UK. Within debates about welfare reform, paid work
has become central to notions of "good" citizenship, "good" parenting, and
"strong" communities. Evolving notions are redefining parenting as a
nonworking activity. Single mothers claiming welfare benefits are in
danger of being positioned as "partial" citizens. Daily practices of
citizenship by single mothers lie outside of those recognized by the
state, could be rendered invisible. The author exemplifies ways in which
the members of a national single parent organization are constructing
their own relationships between community, work, and family, and through
this process are engaging in building citizenship practices.
Citizenship; Welfare Reform; Single Mothers; Organizations
(Social); Communities; Family; Work; Welfare Recipients; Family-Work
Relationship; United Kingdom; Wages; Household Work.
25. Cameron, J., & Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2003).
Feminising the economy:
Metaphors, strategies, politics. Gender, Place and Culture, 10(2),
contemporary feminism, common approaches to feminizing the economy involve
adding a sphere or sector or attributing a monetary value to women's
unpaid labor. Each of these approaches is interested in creating an
accurate representation of the real or 'whole' economy. But these
representations are in the same lineage as mainstream economic
conceptions; the economy remains a bounded entity that can be known by
enumerating its parts. The 'adding on' and 'counting in' strategies
employed by feminists complete the picture of what is needed to produce
social well-being but do not necessarily help us think differently about
how goods and services are or might be produced. In this article, the
authors ask how feminist economic theory might contribute to envisioning
or enacting alternative economies. They find answers to this question
through reading feminist interventions for glimmers of a deconstructive
project that opens 'the economy' to difference. Pursuing these glimmers,
they attempt to insert the possibility of non-capitalist forms of economy,
including economies of generosity, nonprofit businesses, worker
collectives, and alternative capitalist enterprises impelled by a social
or environmental ethic. In place of the view of the economy as a whole
comprised of a pre-established number of parts or sectors, it can begin to
be seen as a discursive construct that can be reconstructed to contribute
to social transformation.
Feminism; Economics; Economic Theories; Theoretical
Problems; Household Work.
26. Chronholm, A.
(2002). Which fathers use their rights? Swedish fathers who take parental
leave. Community, Work & Family, 5(3), 365-370.
research project focuses on fathers who have taken a relatively large
share of the total parental leave period available to families in Sweden.
Based on a questionnaire to fathers who took at least 120 days of leave in
Gothenburg between 1992 & 1999, the study revealed that most of these
fathers were the main caregivers of their children during their leave
period. Some fathers, though, reported that they had not been the primary
caregivers during the leave period. Immigrant fathers were well
represented in the sample. Comparison with Swedish-born fathers revealed
high levels of unemployment among the partners of the immigrant fathers:
most partners of Swedish-born fathers were earning in 1999. Swedish-born
fathers were also more likely to report doing more domestic work, in
addition to child care, while on leave. This may have occurred because
more mothers with Swedish-born partners were working during the time that
fathers were taking leave. Majority of fathers in both groups reported the
relationship with their child as the primary reason for taking leave.
Fathers; Family-Work Relationship; Family Roles; Sweden;
Personnel Policy; Public Policy; Immigrants; Household Work.
T. (2004). Cohabitation and housework: The effects of marital intentions.
Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(1), 118-125.
study asks how cohabiters' housework patterns vary by their marital
intentions. I draw on interactionist theories that view housework as an
activity that produces gender & family to hypothesize that cohabiters who
are more invested in their relationships will spend more time on
housework. Analyzing the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families &
Households (N = 348), I find that, controlling for sociodemographic &
household differences, men who are least committed to their relationships
spend the least time on housework, whereas women's housework time is not
affected by marital intentions.
Housework; Cohabitation; Sexual Division of Labor; Sexual
Inequality; Household Work.
28. Clark, S. C.
(2002). Communicating across the work/home border. Community, Work &
Family, 5(1), 23-48.
article considers how individuals enact their work and home environments
to create balance, by communicating with family about work and with work
associates about family. Using a focus group and questionnaire data from a
sample of 179 individuals who work and have family responsibilities,
factors that influence the amount of communication and the effect of
communication on work/family balance were examined. Results indicate that
communication with family about work and communication at work about
family varies depending on the permeability of the work and home borders.
Individuals who engage in these types of communication demonstrate greater
work satisfaction, higher work functioning, higher satisfaction with home
& family activities.
Family-Work Relationship; Home Environment; Work
Environment; Interpersonal Communication; Job Satisfaction; Family Life;
Family Stability; Household Work.
M. H., Jr. (2000). Housework, gender, and the life course:
Intergenerational and longitudinal influences on the allocation of
household labor. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The
Humanities and Social Sciences, 61(2), 782-A.
Utilizing data from a panel study of mothers and children that spans the
thirty-one years from 1962 to 1993 (the Intergenerational Panel Study of
Parents and Children), this dissertation examines the gendered division of
household labor in an attempt to identify the effects of socialization
throughout the life course on attitudes and behaviors with regard to
housework and gender. Findings indicate that parental housework
allocation, maternal labor force participation, and maternal gender
ideology are important factors in the shaping of adult children's
housework allocation patterns. Results also show that parental
characteristics measured both early in the children's lives (age 1) and
during the children's mid-adolescence (age 15) have lasting effects on the
children's attitudes and behaviors. Finally, analyses indicate that there
are gender differences in socialization processes. Sons' housework
allocation is related to parents' housework allocation and maternal gender
role attitudes, while housework allocation among daughters is related to
maternal labor force participation.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Cultural Transmission;
Socialization; Sex; Household Work.
30. Daly, K. J.
(2002). Time, gender, and the negotiation of family schedules. Symbolic
Interaction, 25(3), 323-342.
paper examines the interactive processes by which women and men negotiate
family time schedules. Based on 50 interviews with 17 dual-earner couples,
it focuses on the ways men and women define time in gendered ways, exert
different controls over the way time is used, and align their time
strategies in the course of managing everyday family life. The results
indicate that there are both continuities and discontinuities with the
past: women continue to exert more control over the organization of time
in families, but time negotiation itself has become a more complex and
demanding activity. The way that couples carry out these negotiations
reflects a variety of adaptive strategies, with some couples being very
reactive in contending with present demands and others being highly
structured and seeking to anticipate and control the future. Although some
couples worked to negotiate balance in their time responsibilities, it was
wives who maintained control over time and, ultimately, the orchestration
of family activity.
Family Life; Time; Time Utilization; Sex Differences; Dual
Career Family; Working Men; Working Women; Family-Work Relationship;
Working Mothers; Household Work.
31. Davies, L., & Carrier, P. J. (1999).
The importance of power
relations for the division of household labour. Canadian Journal of
Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 24(1), 35-51.
data from 2,577 adults representative of the Canadian labor force in 1982
are drawn on to examine the division of housework in dual-earner
households. The hypothesis is that power relations affect household work
performed by both women and men. Analysis suggest that paid work hours,
sex composition of one's occupation, and decision-making power predict
one's contribution to housework. Findings differ depending on whether
wives or husbands, and male or female tasks are examined. Findings are
interpreted in a framework that recognizes that power relations are
implicated in the gendered nature of social life at both the structural
and individual levels.
Housework; Family Power; Sexual Division of Labor; Dual
Career Family; Canada; Working Women; Working Men; Household Work.
32. Dempsey, K.
C. (2000). Men and women's power relationships and the persisting
inequitable division of housework. Journal of Family Studies, 6(1),
attempting to exercise power by getting their husbands to do more
housework & the degree of success they experience is examined. The authors
draw on 1998 scale data from 66 women residing in Victoria, Australia.
Although all the wives were engaged in paid work, they were contributing
66+% of the total time to housework. It was predicted that women would be
reluctant to ask their husbands to increase their participation in
housework either for fear of jeopardizing their access to valued resources
the husbands provided or because they believed in the legitimacy of the
existing division of tasks. Also predicted was men using their superior
resource and definitional power to resist any overtures their wives made.
Predictions were only partially confirmed. Women were more willing to ask
their husbands to increase their participation in housework and, although
men were often resistant, 40+% of women experienced some success. They
were more likely to gain help with tasks rather than for husbands to agree
to accept responsibility for some of the inside tasks. Results only
partially corroborate the claims of those feminists who say men use their
superior power to resist as much change as possible to a traditional
division of labor. Also suggested is that women's ambivalence about
handing over tasks can result in an impediment to change.
Family Power; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Sexual
Inequality; Australia; Household Work.
M. (2003). Gender inequity in the division of labor: From parents to
children. Mens en Maatschappij, 78(4), 355-378.
obvious gap in the literature of domestic labor concerns the participation
of children in family chores. While children do have a significant
contribution in family chores, surprisingly little research focuses on the
role of gender on division of labor. This study examines if there is
similarity between the gender equity in the housework allocation of
parents and that of their children. The findings indicate that the
role-behavior of parents concerning the division of labor influences the
way their children divide chores along gender lines. The article concludes
that there is an intergenerational transfer of gender inequity in the
division of labor.
Sexual Division of Labor; Family Roles; Opposite Sex
Relations; Parent-Child Relations; Housework; Sexual Inequality; Children;
34. Dilworth, J.
E. L. (2004). Predictors of negative spillover from family to work.
Journal of Family Issues, 25(2), 241-261.
research has inconsistently documented the gendered nature of negative
spillover between the domains of home & work. Little is known about
predictors of negative spillover for employed mothers & fathers. Using the
1997 wave of the National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study's
purpose was twofold: to determine if a difference exists in negative
spillover for working mothers & fathers & to identify shared & unique
predictors of spillover for both groups. Findings reveal that more working
mothers than fathers in the sample experienced negative family-to-work
spillover. Time spent performing household chores & caring for children by
respondent & spouse did not predict negative spillover for mothers,
although caring for a sick child was a significant predictor for fathers.
Marital satisfaction was not a significant predictor of spillover, whereas
family life satisfaction was one of the strongest predictors for both
mothers & fathers.
Family-Work Relationship; Role Conflict; Dual Career
Family; Housework; Working Mothers; Working Men; Fathers; Marital
Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Household Work.
35. Dixon, J., &
Wetherell, M. (2004). On discourse and dirty nappies: Gender, the division
of household labour and the social psychology of distributive justice.
Theory & Psychology, 14(2), 167-189.
authors evaluate recent developments in research on the domestic division
of labour with a focus on the Distributive Justice Framework developed by
Thompson (1991) in an extension of Major's (1987) work on the psychology
of entitlement. This framework states that in order to explain the
persistence of gender inequalities in domestic labour, researchers must
consider the factors that determine women's sense of fairness in close
relationships. Whilst recognizing its contribution to the field, the
article argues that existing work on the Distributive Justice Framework
has misconceived important aspects of the social psychology of
distributive justice. By way of contrast, an approach is advanced that is
grounded in the analysis of everyday discursive practices in the home -
the practices through which couples define their contributions to
household labour and negotiate ideological dilemmas about gender,
entitlement and fair shares. Argued are the investigations of gender
inequalities in domestic labour can benefit from the new directions
provided by social constructionism, as well as the more complex views of
subjectivity, power and social interaction that are now emerging in
Division of Labor; Household Management; Human Sex
Differences; Justice; Social Psychology; Household Work.
36. Dodson, L., &
Dickert, J. (2004). Girls' family labor in low-income households: A decade
of qualitative research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2),
article analyzes a decade of qualitative research to identify & explore an
overlooked survival strategy used in low-income families: children's
family labor. Defined as physical duties, caregiving, & household
management responsibilities, children's - most often girls' - family labor
is posited as a critical source of support where low wages & absent adult
caregivers leave children to take over essential, complex, &
time-consuming family demands. We argue that there are lost opportunities
when children are detoured from childhood to do family labor & that an
intergenerational transfer of poverty is associated with those losses.
Children; Females; Housework; Caregivers; Low Income
Groups; Household Work.
37. Dolfsma, W.,
& Hoppe, H. (2003). On feminist economics. Feminist Review, 75,
Feminist economics draws increasing attention from professional mainstream
economists. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues, some
theoretical developments - notably on the household - and issues of
economic policy. We point to parallels between feminist economics and
institutional economics, and argue that these relations might be
strengthened to the benefit of both.
Economics; Feminist Theory; Economic Policy; Households;
38. Doucet, A.
(2000). 'There's a huge gulf between me as a male carer and women':
Gender, domestic responsibility, and the community as an institutional
arena. Community, Work & Family, 3(2), 163-184.
Explored is the persistent link between women and domestic responsibility,
a heavily documented link and not often theorized. Drawing on a
qualitative research project with a "critical case" study sample of
couples trying to share housework & childcare in GB in the early 1990s,
the author argues that part of this puzzle linking women & domestic
responsibility can be addressed by adopting wider definitions of domestic
responsibility and community. Domestic responsibility is often conceived
as family labor that occurs within families /households, it also has
inter-household, inter-institutional, and community dimensions. With
regard to a wider conceptualization of the community, argued is that the
community is more than a social institution; it is an institutional arena
within which families/households, inter-household relations,
community-based social networks, and a wide array of community activities
occur. Overall findings and implications of the research presented are
threefold. First, gendered socially constructed norms and gendered
community-based social networks are highlighted as important factors that
help to account for the persistent link between women and domestic
responsibility. Second, taking cues from research carried out in Third
World & low-income Western communities, it is important to shift research
agendas on domestic divisions of labor to focus not only on
intro-household divisions, but also inter-household & intra-community
relations. Third, the need is highlighted for greater attention to the
links between socially constructed norms on masculinities, men's
friendships & domestic responsibility.
Childrearing Practices; Sexual Division of Labor;
Housework; Communities; Social Institutions; Social Constructionism;
Social Networks; Norms; Family Roles; Couples; England; Sex Roles; Women’s
Roles; Household Work.
A., & McMullin, J. A. (2003). Doing domestic labour: Strategising in a
gendered domain. Canadian Journal of Sociology/ Cahiers Canadiens de
Sociologie, 28(3), 341-366.
authors ask how pragmatic strategies (time availability, time demands, &
resources) and patriarchal dynamics (sex & gender ideology [McFarland,
Beaujot & Haddad, 2000]) affect the time that men and women spend doing
domestic labor. Data from the 1995 General Social Survey show that women
spend more time doing domestic labor then men and that pragmatic
strategies & patriarchal dynamics are associated with time spent doing
housework and child care. Gender ideology is a complex, multidimensional
factor that affects the time women & men spend in housework & child care.
Results point to the importance of including pragmatic strategies and
patriarchal dynamics in assessments of domestic labor. Findings provide
compelling evidence of how the relationships among individual agency,
broader ideological assumptions, and time spent doing domestic labor are
Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Childrearing
Practices; Sex Role Attitudes; Time Utilization; Canada; Household Work.
40. Henthorn, C.
L. (2000). The emblematic kitchen: Labor-saving technology as national
propaganda, the United States, 1939-1959. Knowledge and Society, 12,
Chronicles how household technology became a fresh battlefield for social
dominance between communism & "commercialized" democracy. This is
demonstrated in the analysis of the promotion of new labor-saving devices
& technologies in the US home as a means for great social change &
housewife liberation from the drudgery of domestic chores. Mass media
advertising images of the time portray the middle-class housewife as an
emblem of glamour and leisure, attesting to the superiority of US
technology & a revolutionized & liberated domesticity. Images also
functioned, by extension, as propaganda to demonstrate the country's
superior military strength. Beneath this utopian picture, however, a
sexual division of progress is evident that relegated women to the
domestic sphere while perpetrating myths about how happy and lucky they
were to be the recipients of such advanced technology (created by men).
Traditional gender roles were reinforced, and women's participation in
spheres other than the domestic severely curtailed, following a period
during the war when they had dared to work outside the home.
Women’s Roles; Post World War II Period; United States of
America; Cold War; Technological Innovations; Housework; Sexual Division
of Labor; Mass Media Images; Propaganda; Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics; International Conflict; Technological Progress; Social
Reproduction; Sex Roles; Household Work.
41. Heymann, S.
J., & Earle, A. (2001). The impact of parental working conditions on
school-age children: The case of evening work. Community, Work &
Family, 4(3), 305-325.
non-standard shifts in weekly work schedules, the evening shift is one of
the most common. Low-income parents are more likely to be required to work
non-standard schedules. Little work has been done to examine the effect of
parental evening work on school-age children. Data collected in the US in
the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) was used to examine
effects of parental evening work on the home environment for 1,133 school
children, aged 5-10 years. The Home Observation Measurement of the
Environment (HOME) score used has been shown to predict children's school,
developmental & health outcomes. Even only one parent working in the
evening had a significantly negative effect on the home environment for
families living in poverty and those not living in poverty. The effect
size, an 11% decrease in HOME scores when mothers worked evenings & an 8%
decrease in HOME scores when fathers worked evenings, was of the same
order of magnitude as living in poverty. The increase in US and other
countries functioning as a 24-hour economy created the demand for evening
work. Without changes in public or industrial policies, parents have no
choice but to work evenings, whether quality substitute care is available
for their children or not, and whether they believe that the benefits of
evening work outweigh the costs. Policies that provide parents with a way
to see their children after school are important for all families, and are
especially important for working parents and children living in poverty.
Parents living in poverty often have the least choice about working
conditions & the least resources available for finding quality substitute
care for their children in the evenings.
Working Hours; Family-Work Relationship; Parents; Children;
Home Environment; Child Development; United States of America; Household
42. Himsel, A.
J., & Goldberg, W. A. (2003). Social comparisons and satisfaction with the
division of housework: Implications for men's and women's role strain.
Journal of Family Issues, 24(7), 843-866.
Contemporary parents lack clear guidelines for the fair & equitable
allocation of family work. According to social comparison theory, under
conditions of uncertainty, individuals often compare themselves to others
to gain a sense of what is "normal." The authors applied social comparison
theory to the examination of satisfaction with the division of housework &
the experience of role strain. Results of covariance structure analysis
indicated that women reported higher levels of satisfaction when they did
less housework than their female friends & greater satisfaction & less
role strain when their husbands did more than other male comparison
referents. In contrast, men were more satisfied when their wives did more
housework than their own mothers did. Satisfaction mediated the link
between social comparisons & role strain. Interviews with 25 fathers
revealed that some men invoke an image of the "generalized other" to make
their own contributions to housework seem more noteworthy.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Wives; Husbands; Role
Conflict; Social Comparison; Dual Career Family; California; Household
Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2000). The international division of caring and
cleaning work: Transnational connections or apartheid exclusions? New
that women from developing countries who work as nannies or housekeepers
in the US, and who leave their children, have reshaped the global economy.
An international division of labor fulfills reproductive labor in the US
while neglecting it in the immigrants' countries of origin and
disenfranchises the mostly Caribbean & Latina immigrants by race, class,
gender, and citizenship. Data from historical sources, research on Latina
domestic workers in Los Angeles, a survey questionnaire completed by 153
Latina immigrant domestic workers, & in-depth interviews with 23 domestic
workers, 37 employers, 3 attorneys specializing in issues related to
domestic work, and 5 individuals that owned or worked in domestic
employment agencies. The emotional costs of transnational motherhood are
explored and is contrasted with patterns of contract labor that were
common in the Western US in earlier historical periods. Demographic,
cultural, and political implications are discussed.
Domestics; Child Care Services; Immigrants; Mothers; Latin
American Cultural Groups; United States of America; Housework;
International Division of Labor; Caribbean Cultural Groups; Household
T., & King, J. E. (2001). "Never intended to be a theory of everything":
Domestic labor in Neoclassical and Marxian economics. Feminist
Economics, 7(3), 71-101.
article is a comparative study of the treatment of domestic labor by
neoclassical and Marxian economists. Before 1960, mainstream economics
concentrated on production for the market. Serious analysis of housework
was confined to a handful of economists, many of whom were marginalized by
economics departments but supported by departments of home economics.
Later domestic labour was culminated in Gary Becker's "new household
economics", yet neglected by Marxist thinkers, who argued that housework
was being socialized under capitalism and would disappear altogether under
socialism. However, it was rediscovered again by Marxist-feminists in the
late 1960s. Housework continues to pose serious analytical difficulties
for both neoclassical & Marxian economists.
Housework; Marxist Economics; Economic Theories;
Intellectual History; Home Economics; Household Work.
45. Kemmer, D.
(2000). Tradition and change in domestic roles and food preparation.
Sociology, 34(2), 323-333.
paper provides a discussion on the gendering of domestic food preparation.
It argues that findings from research carried out in the late 1970s and
early 1980s must be seen in its historical context which outlines
structural changes and its impact on women's roles. In addition, the
tendency of sociology of food research to focus on the cultural norm of
the nuclear family with dependent children ignores more common household
structures currently present in Great Britain.
Housework; Food Preparation; Women’s Roles; Great Britain;
Sexual Division of Labor; Family Structure; Norms; Cultural Change; Family
Roles; Nuclear Family; Households; Household Work.
46. Kirchler, E.,
& Venus, M. (2000). Between job and family: Justice and satisfaction with
the distribution of housework. Zeitschrift fur Sozial Psychologie, 31(2),
total of 109 couples, employed women and men, answered a questionnaire on
their contributions to work in the home and the amount of time spent on
their paid job. Perceived justice and satisfaction with the division of
labor within the household were also indicated. In addition, satisfaction
with the partnership, role orientation, and reference point in comparisons
of one's own contributions to work in the home and the partner
contributions, and sociodemographic data were measured. The results
indicate that women and men spend different amounts of time on housework,
and they perceive the distribution as just. Women, however, were less
satisfied with the distribution than men. Subjective justice for women
depends on perceived discrepancies between actual time spent on housework
and desired time, partnership satisfaction, role orientation and
opportunities to compensate for lower contributions to housework. Men's
perception of justice depends only on the presence of children in the
household. Satisfaction with the distribution of housework depends mainly
on perception of justice.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Family-Work
Relationship; Working Hours; Distributive Justice; Sex Differences;
Perceptions; Working Men; Working Women; Household Work.
47. Klute, M. M., Crouter, A. C., Sayer, A. G., & McHale, S. M. (2002).
self-direction, values, and egalitarian relationships: A study of
dual-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64(1),
study examines the associations between husbands' & wives' experiences at
work & their attitudes about & behaviors in marriage, using a framework
informed by the ideas of Kohn (1969, 1977). Specifically, it was
hypothesized that experiences of self-direction at work would be
associated with greater endorsement of values associated with
self-direction. Further, it was predicted that those who value
self-direction more would both prefer & adopt more egalitarian
arrangements in their marriages. These hypotheses were tested with a
sample of 167 dual-earner couples. Results supported the hypotheses &
suggested that values mediate the relationships between occupational
self-direction & both attitudes about marital roles & the division of
household labor. The pattern of results suggests that this framework is a
useful perspective for examining the construct of marital equality.
Marital Relations; Social Values; Sex Role Attitudes;
Family-Work Relationship; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Family
Roles; Dual Career Family; Work Values; Working Men; Working Women;
Husbands; Wives; Household Work.
48. Lee, C., & Owens, R. G. (2002).
Men, work and gender.
Australian Psychologist, 37(1), 13-19.
Contemporary analyses of work and unemployment need to place
psychological findings in the context of society, culture, and gender in
understanding the meanings of paid and unpaid work for men and for women.
The Australian Psychological Society discussion paper (in this issue)
takes a comprehensive view of the literature and places it in the
contemporary Australian social context, but fails to consider the extent
to which socially constructed gender roles affect individuals'
relationships with work. This paper complements the discussion paper by
examining men's relationships with work and unemployment from a gendered
perspective. Given the centrality of paid work to men's sense of self,
there is surprisingly little psychological research on the extent to which
patterns of paid and unpaid work, and discrepancies between desired and
actual patterns of employment, interact with gender roles and expectations
to affect men's physical and emotional wellbeing. This is particularly a
concern, given structural changes in patterns of employment. Increasingly,
men need to juggle the traditional view that a real man provides
financially for his family with contemporary definitions of masculinity
that emphasise egalitarianism and flexibility, in the context of rapid
changes to work and family structures. The challenge for men is to find
new ways of defining themselves and their sense of self-worth, other than
exclusively through paid work.
Employment Status; Health; Psychology; Society; Working
Conditions; Age Differences; Human Males; Human Sex Differences; Sex
Roles; Unemployment; Household Work.
49. Lee, Y.-S.
(2003). Housework and familial relationships. Dissertation Abstracts
International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63(7),
dissertation explores current developments of the literature on housework.
Specifically it addresses two research questions: (a) examining various
measures of household labor and (b) examining the role of specific
familial contexts in two empirical studies. The first study investigates
how the frequency of joint performance with parents moderates the effect
of time on housework on children's depression levels. The second study
explores the importance of time spent with spouses in the perceived
appreciation for housework. It identifies three factors - the amount of
time spent on housework, gender role attitudes, and options after marriage
- that influence recognition of efforts at home. The author concludes that
the moderating role of joint performance with parents may add to the
debate on the developmental and cognitive implications of household labor
Housework; Family Relations; Sexual Division of Labor;
Family Roles; Depression (Psychology); Children; Childrearing Practices;
Parents; Parent-Child Relations; Marital Relations; Household Work.
50. Levold, N., &
Aune, M. (2003). "Cooking gender": Home, gender and technology.
Sosiologisk Tidsskrift, 11(3), 273-299.
special focus on the construction of gender relations, this article
analyses the domestication of a home. In traditional studies of home,
material and technological aspects are often ignored. In this article
'domestication,' is used as a metaphor to illuminate the mutual shaping
processes of consumption of technology, negotiations of work routines, and
construction of gender relations. The study focuses on two cases. A
picture is drawn of different ways of negotiating gender in interaction
with life at home as well as life at work. The stories told illustrate the
ambivalence and paradoxes in a modern woman's life: What is "freedom" for
women today? What type of work is demanding? The article, rather than
answer these questions, contributes theoretically and empirically to the
ongoing discussion within both technology studies and labor studies.
Housework; Sex; Opposite Sex Relations; Everyday Life;
Family-Work Relationship; Technology; Households; Females; Household Work.
51. Looker, E.
D., & Thiessen, V. (1999). Images of work: Women's work, men's work,
housework. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de
Sociologie, 24(2), 225-254.
Interview data gathered from approximately 1,200 17-year-olds in Hamilton,
Ontario, and Halifax and rural Nova Scotia were used to discover their
attitudes to (1) male- & female-dominated jobs; (2) their mother's job,
their father's job, and being a full-time homemaker; and (3) their own
expected job, their father's and mother's job, and housework. Findings
show that women's work was reported as less desirable than men's work;
domestic work was seen as women's work and as less desirable (to all but
working-class females) than paid work. Jobs of middle-class fathers were
both desirable and described in many ways similar to jobs expected by
their sons and middle-class daughters. Working-class females tended to
describe their mother's work in positive terms and defined housework as a
Adolescents; Work Attitudes; Sexual Division of Labor;
Housework; Parents; Class Differences; Canada; Life Plans; Ontario; Nova
Scotia; Working Mothers; Working Men; Household Work.
52. Maher, J., &
Singleton, A. (2003). "I wonder what he's saying": Investigating domestic
discourse in young cohabitating heterosexual couples. Gender Issues, 21(1),
narrative methodology, this article examines domestic labor in
heterosexual couple particularly with regard to how changing employment
patterns are interacting with domestic work and construction of domestic
life in contemporary Western societies. The study revealed the
disjunctions between what women and men say and what their descriptions
reveal that they do. It demonstrated that young women in heterosexual
cohabitating couples do more. They also worry more about how their
domestic lives appear and what it suggests about them and their male
partners. The narrative method of this study reveals complexity that would
not have been apparent in survey or short answer data, even if couple
responses had been compared. While both partners often talked of shared
domestic burdens, women bore the burden of domestic work. They also carry
the burden of the myths of shared involvement that are current in
contemporary Western accounts of domestic labor.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Working Men; Working
Women; Cohabitation; Couples; Narratives; Household Work.
53. Mattingly, M. J., & Bianchi, S. M. (2003).
Gender differences in the
quantity and quality of free time: The U.S. experience. Social Forces,
collected time diary data was used to assess gender differences in both
quantity and quality of free time. Measures of contamination of free time
by nonleisure activities such as household chores, the fragmentation of
free time, and how frequently children's needs must be accommodated during
free-time activities were also included. Findings suggested that men and
women do experience free time very differently. Men tend to have more of
it. Marriage and children exacerbate the gender gap and market work hours
erode men's and women's free time in different ways. Findings also
revealed that despite gains toward gender equality in other domains,
discrepancies persisted in the experience of free time.
Sex Differences; Time Utilization; Leisure; Sexual
Inequality; United States of America; Household Work.
54. Mortelmans, D., Ottoy, W., & Verstreken, M. (2003).
A longitudinal view on the
gendered division of household labor. Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, 24(2-3),
on empirical data from a panel study of Belgian Households (PSBH), this
article addresses the stability of the household-labor in
partner-relations over time from the viewpoint of "task load" of
individuals. The longitudinal database offers the opportunity to combine a
cross-sectional analysis with a longitudinal dimension. The results show
that at the end of the 1990's women were not only doing most of the
household labor, they were often predominantly, if not exclusively,
responsible for the household labor.
Belgium; Females; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor;
United States of America; France; Household Work.
55. Natalier, K.
(2003). 'I'm not his wife': Doing gender and doing housework in the
absence of women. Journal of Sociology, 39(3), 253-269.
households composed solely of men are a site in which masculine identities
in the home are disembedded from marital ideologies. This allows us to
unravel the connections between housework, power and what it means to be a
man. The study finds that the domestic labour practices of men who reside
with their peers reflect those traditionally associated with husbandhood,
although the bases for these interactions, and the associated play of
power, differ in the absence of a wife. It is evident that gender
continues to be an important organizing principle of domestic labour
outside marital homes.
Gender; Housework; Masculinity; Share Households; Household
M., & Nyman, C. (2003). Fair or unfair? Perceived fairness of household
division of labour and gender equality among women and men: The Swedish
case. The European Journal of Women's Studies, 10(2), 181-209.
study analysed how time use, individual resources, distributive justice
and gender ideology influenced perceptions of fairness concerning
housework and gender equality. Swedish couples were surveyed and
interviewed in the study. The quantitative results show that it is only
factors connected to time use that are significantly correlated to both
perceptions of fairness concerning division of household labour and gender
equality. In addition, the qualitative results illustrated the complexity
of concepts like fairness and equality.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Distributive Justice;
Sex Role Attitudes; Equity; Sexual Inequality; Leisure; Time Utilization;
Sweden; Household Work.
M. (2004). Does gender ideology explain differences between countries
regarding the involvement of women and men in paid and unpaid work?
International Journal of Social Welfare, 13(3), 233-243.
spend more time doing household work than men, and men spend more time
working at paying jobs outside the home than women. But studies also show
that there are major differences between countries regarding the degree to
which women and men involve themselves in different kinds of labor
activity. The main aim of the article is to analyze the significance of
gender ideology when studying differences between countries regarding the
involvement of women and men in paid and unpaid work. The analysis is
based on national random samples from ten OECD countries that were
collected within the framework of ISSP 1994. The conclusions are: (a)
gender ideology has an impact in all the studied countries on the degree
to which women and men involve and engage themselves in labor and (b)
gender ideology partially explains the differences between countries
regarding women's and men's involvement in paid and unpaid work.
Sex; Sex Roles; Housework; Employment; Crosscultural
Differences; Sex Differences; Sexual Division of Labor; Household Work.
58. Pilcher, J.
(2000). Domestic divisions of labour in the Twentieth Century: 'Change
slow a-coming'. Work, Employment and Society, 14(4), 771-780.
review essay on books by (1) Rosalind Barnett & Caryl Rivers, She Works,
He Works, How Two-Income Families Are Healthy and Thriving (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard U Press, 1998); (2) Francine Deutsch, Halving It All. How Equally
Shared Parenting Works (Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press, 1999); & (3)
Richard Layte, Divided Time. Gender, Paid Employment and Domestic Labour
(Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999). These books focus on the distribution of
household/caring work among heterosexual couples in the UK. An examination
of pre-1990 research, as well as several nationally representative studies
of the early 1990s, revealed continuing gender inequality in the
distribution of domestic work in spite of the increasing number of women
employed outside the home. Layte uses SCELI data to demonstrate why many
women do not consider these unequal arrangements unfair. Barnett and
Rivers offer an academic study of 300 working, married couples with
children and a self-help manual for two-income families. Deutsch's study
of 150 dual-earner parents focuses on couples who have created truly equal
families. These books confirm the unequal distribution of
domestic/parenting work and suggest approaches couples can use to
negotiate their solutions for more equitable distribution of domestic
Sexual Division of Labor; Twentieth Century; Housework;
Dual Career Family; Sexual Inequality; Household Work.
59. Powers, R. S.
(2003). Doing the daily grind: The effects of domestic labor on
professional, managerial, and technical workers' earnings. Gender
Issues, 21(1), 3-23.
two data sets from the National Survey of Families and Households, this
paper examined how domestic labor tasks, including daily grind tasks,
female-type and male-type tasks, affected the earnings of workers in
professional, managerial, and technical occupations in both the short and
long term. Domestic labor explained an additional 19% of the gap between
the earnings of women and men in professional, managerial, and technical
occupations. These results suggest that despite having jobs that offer
higher pay and more autonomy, the time spent doing the daily domestic
labour negatively affects earnings, especially for women in professional,
managerial, and technical occupations.
Housework; Everyday Life; Working Men; Working Women;
Family-Work Relationship; Professional Workers; Income Inequality; Sexual
Division of Labor; United States of America; Household Work.
60. Riley, A. L.,
& Keith, V. M. (2003). Work and housework conditions and depressive
symptoms among married women: The importance of occupational status.
Women & Health, 38(4), 1-17.
the American Changing Lives Survey, this research examines housewives'
subjective evaluations of their housework and the subjective evaluations
of paid employment among three groups of married women: professionals,
sales-clerical, and service-blue collar wives. The research assessed the
usefulness of disaggregating employed women by occupational status.
Depressive symptoms were regressed on five work conditions - autonomy,
physical and time demands, boredom, and feeling appreciated - along with
sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate professional wives
report fewer symptoms of depression than homemakers, sales-clerical, and
service-blue collar wives. Differences between professionals and
homemakers are largely accounted for by professional women's more
advantaged economic position. Nonprofessional employed women are more
depressed than professionals even when their disadvantaged working
conditions are controlled. The findings are discussed in view of research
on the stress of combining full-time employment with homemaking and argue
that balancing these two roles may be more difficult for some employed
women than for others.
United States of America; Working Women; Homemakers;
Housework; Depression (Psychology); Occupational Status; Household Work.
L., & Leaper, C. (2004). The relation between mothers' and fathers'
parenting styles and their division of labor in the home: Young adults'
retrospective reports. Sex Roles, 50(3-4), 217-225.
authors report on an investigation into the relation between young adults'
retrospective reports of their mothers' and fathers' division of household
labor (egalitarian or traditional) and parenting styles (authoritative,
permissive, authoritarian, or disengaged). Participants' own gender
attitudes were also tested in relation to parents' division of labor and
parenting. The participants were 294 women and men (M =19-years old) who
were raised in 2-parent households and came from a range of ethnic
backgrounds. For the mothers' parenting, permissive parenting was more
likely among those from egalitarian households whereas authoritarian
parenting was more likely among those from traditional households. For the
fathers' parenting, authoritative parenting was more likely among
participants from egalitarian households and disengaged parenting was more
likely among those from traditional households. The association between
fathers' parenting style and division of labor was specific to the
division of childcare (rather than housework). Participants' gender
attitudes were not related to parents' division of labor or parenting
Childrearing Practices; Division of Labor; Household
Management; Parenting Style; Sex Role Attitudes; Child Care; Parental
Permissiveness; Household Work.
62. Sauve, R.
(2002). Connections: Tracking the links between jobs and family. Job,
family and stress among husbands, wives and lone-parents 15-64 from 1990
to 2000. Contemporary family trends. Ottawa: Vanier Institute of the
that most reports on work-family relationships are based on limited data,
this report attempts to establish a foundation for ongoing analysis of job
and family patterns in Canada based on both historical and current labor
force data and other sources. The report tracks and charts the connections
between paid work and family trends for husbands, wives, and lone or
single parents in Canada from 1990 to 2000. The focus of the report is on
three types of trends: (1) participation of husband, wives, and single
parents in the paid workforce; (2) how participation in the paid work
force relates to job and family responsibilities; and (3) levels of stress
reported by spouses and single parents. Part 1 of the report provides a
summary of the major findings and policy implications, a review of the
data sources, and an introduction to the topic. Data are derived from
Statistics Canada sources. Part 2 of the report has been constructed as a
chart book documenting 42 trends. Tables and charts provide a graphical or
tabular presentation of the more important topics with comments included
for each trend to help interpret the trend and to add additional insights.
Findings are presented for wives with children, husbands with or without
children, wives without children, and lone-parents. Among the main
findings is that spouses share in the responsibilities for paid work and
unpaid work. Husbands remain the main source of incomes from paid
employment. More wives now work at jobs outside the home but they also
retain the major responsibilities for child and family care, especially
when young children are present. Wives work more total hours than their
husbands do. The majority of spouses and single parents are not under
severe stress but many are.
Comparative Analysis; Family Environment; Family
Relationship; Family-Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; One Parent
Family; Public Policy; Spouses; Stress Variables; Trend Analysis; Canada;
63. Scott, D. B.
(2001). The costs and benefits of women's family ties in occupational
context: Women in corporate-government affairs management. Community,
Work & Family, 4(1), 5-27.
article explores gender differences in the family relationships of
corporate-government affairs managers. In particular, it looks at how
women's family status influences the context and character of their
interactions with key people in business and government. While women may
have made tremendous gains in corporate public affairs management in the
US, these positions call for employees to form successful networks with
clients, the public, other managers in the corporation, and other
professionals outside the corporation. There is little research that
documents the effects of family on work relations on women who occupy
positions where the potential for "personal" & "professional" overlap is
high. This research suggests that the family relations of women
corporate-government relations managers inhibit the development of certain
kinds of ties. However, the findings are not all negative. The research
revealed that while family relations may be burdensome, they can be also
be instrumental in extending women's connections and enhancing their
Sex Differences; Family-Work Relationship; Social Networks;
Public Sector Private Sector Relations; Professional Women; Managers;
Public Relations; Family Relations; Washington, DC; New York City;
Sikic-Micanovic, L. (2001). Some conceptualizations and meanings of
domestic labor. Drustvena Istrazivanja, 10(45(54-55)), 731-766.
article suggests that the definitions and conceptualizations of domestic
labor should emphasize that it is productive, involving many different
types of work, and that it is also about constructing "proper" and
"appropriate" gender relations. An overview of studies, show that unpaid
domestic labor is persistently segregated by gender and continues to be,
in practice, mainly "women's work." The implications, and consequences of
this are outlined in the paper. In addition, a number of explanations are
provided that elucidate why inequitable divisions of labor within the home
are considered to be fair. It is concluded that the gendered division of
domestic labor should be viewed as a way to "do gender" that also produces
appropriate gender relations, rather than based on a static agreement
between individuals. These relations as interpersonal processes in
combination with dominant discourses (in the media, community, &
government policies) constitute, maintain, and enhance a gendered division
of labor within a particular context. As household tasks convey social
meanings about masculinity and femininity, it is important to avoid
generalizations but rather, understand that conceptualizations, meanings,
and values vary according to historical, sociocultural contexts such that
a universalizing framework is inappropriate.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Women’s Roles;
Opposite Sex Relations; Social Reproduction; Sexual Inequality; Household
65. Sousa-Poza, A., & Widmer, R. (1998).
The determinants of the
allocation of time to paid and unpaid labour in Switzerland: A preliminary
empirical analysis. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Soziologie/Revue
Suisse de sociologie, 24(2), 269-289.
study discusses the role of gender and, to a lesser extent, cultural
differences in time allocation for paid and unpaid labor in the German-,
French-, and Italian-speaking areas of Switzerland, applying the economic
conceptual framework "new home economists," which recognizes the value of
unpaid labor, to explain individual behavior to 1995 survey data from
31,827 individuals, ages 18-65. It was found that employed individuals
reacted more to changes in socioeconomic variables, and effects of home
ownership, education levels, and the presence of children varied across
cultures. Future research concentrating on sociological explanations of
cross-cultural differences and extension of the empirical model to capture
joint decision problems is advocated.
Switzerland; Labor; Time Utilization; Crosscultural
66. Spitze, G., &
Loscocco, K. A. (2000). The labor of Sisyphus? Women's and men's reactions
to housework. Social Science Quarterly, 81(4), 1087-1100.
Considerable attention has been given to the division of household labor
in male-female couple households & to assessments of its equity. While
women's experience of housework has been characterized as either tedious &
thankless or a more positive expression of love & care, there is very
limited empirical evidence about how women (or men) actually experience
the work. We assess these reactions & investigate how they are influenced
by women's & men's household & paid work contexts & the content of the
housework performed. Data are from married & cohabiting men & women
respondents to the 1987/88 wave of the National Survey of Families &
Households. Results show that while women's reactions to housework are
slightly less positive than men's, both are similar & are more positive
than negative. There is also similarity across gender in the factors
explaining these attitudes. The unpleasantness of housework (especially
for women) may be less a reflection of the qualities of the work itself
than of the consequences of its allocation for women's ability to perform
outside roles & for their sense of marital equity.
Females; Males; Housework; Sexual Division of Labor;
Marital Relations; Cohabitation; Household Work.
L., & Broom, D. H. (2004). Acts of love (and work): Gender imbalance in
emotional work and women's psychological distress. Journal of Family
Issues, 25(3), 356-378.
members do work to meet people's emotional needs, improve their
well-being, and maintain harmony. When emotional work is shared equally,
both men and women have access to emotional resources in the family.
However, like housework and child care, the distribution of emotional work
is gendered. This study examines the psychological health consequences of
gender divisions in emotional work. Quantitative and qualitative data from
a sample of 102 couples with young children show that the gender imbalance
affected women's, but not men's, experience of love and conflict in their
marriage. Through this erosion of the marriage, the gender imbalance posed
a health risk to women and helped explain gender differences in
psychological distress. Couples preserved a sense of mutuality by
accounting for the gender imbalance as something beyond men's choice or
control, or in terms of women's excess emotional needs, thus entrenching
gender differences in the performance and consequences of emotional work.
Marriage; Females; Intimacy; Gender Differences; Gender
Issues; Foreign Countries; Psychological Patterns; Emotional Response;
Marital Instability; Spouses; Interpersonal Relationship; Household Work.
68. Stro, S.
(2002). Unemployment and gendered divisions of domestic labor. Acta
Sociologica, 45(2), 89-106.
data from the Swedish Longitudinal Study among the Unemployed, 1992/93,
and the Swedish Level of Living Survey, 1990, this study focuses on
whether unemployment is associated with alterations in the gendered
division of domestic labor among Swedish men and women. Levels of domestic
labor activity during periods of unemployment are investigated, as well as
the question of whether any associations persist after the individual
reenters the workforce. The results indicate that although gender is the
best predictor of levels of domestic labor activity, labor market status
also has an effect. For instance, women are more active than men, but the
unemployed are more active than the employed. The hypothesis that male
unemployment is associated with a more equal division of domestic labor is
supported. For women, the hypothesis that unemployment is related to an
exacerbated unequal division of domestic labor is supported, although it
is questionable whether unemployment has any permanent effects on activity
in domestic labor, since the re-employed decrease their domestic labor
Unemployment; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Labor
Force Participation; Sweden; Household Work.
69. Sullivan, C.
(2000). Space and the intersection of work and family in homeworking
households. Community, Work & Family, 3(2), 185-204.
introduction of paid work into the home challenges our conceptualizations
of work and family as spatially distinct. Research specifically examining
spatial experiences within homeworking households is limited and does not
include family members' own accounts. This paper examines spatial
arrangements in homeworking households, potential problems and conflicts,
gendered patterns, and the link between space and the psychological
work-family boundary. Interviews with homeworkers and their families
reveal a range of consequences for the entire family. Conflicts can arise
over entitlement to, and use of, space. A complex relationship between
physical and psychological boundaries is uncovered.
Home Workplaces; Space; Spatial Analysis; Family-Work
Relationship; England; Family Relations; Household Work.
70. Sullivan, O.
(2000). The division of domestic labour: Twenty years of change?
Sociology, 34(3), 437-456.
nationally represented time-use diary data for 1975, 1987, & 1997, 1,284
couples in Great Britain participated in a study that examined the nature
and pattern of change in the domestic division of labor. Acknowledging
that in 1997 women still performed the bulk of domestic work, it was found
that, in relation to changes in time use in other areas of life, the
increase in men's participation in domestic work (at least as measured in
terms of time contributed) should be regarded as significant. In support
of this, there had been (1) a reduction in gender inequality in the
participation of some of the normatively feminine-associated household
tasks; (2) a larger proportional increase in the time contributed to
domestic work by men from lower socioeconomic status, to a position of
near equality with men from higher socioeconomic positions; and (3) a
substantial increase in egalitarian couples.
Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Great Britain; Time
Utilization; Sex Differences; Household Work.
71. Torr, B. M.,
& Short, S. E. (2004). Second births and the second shift: A research note
on gender equity and fertility. Population and Development Review, 30(1),
been recently proposed that the decline from replacement-level fertility
to low fertility is linked to a combination of high levels of gender
equity in individual-oriented institutions, such as education and market
employment, and low levels of gender equity in the family and
family-oriented institutions. The "second shift," or the share of domestic
work performed by formally employed women, forms a critical piece of
current cross-national explanations for low fertility. The paper explores
whether there is empirical evidence at the individual level for a
relationship between gender equity at home, as indicated by the division
of housework among working couples with one child, and the transition to a
second birth. Results from a sample of US couples, indicate a U-shaped
relationship between gender equity and fertility. Both the most modern and
the most traditional housework arrangements are positively associated with
fertility. This empirical test elaborates the family-fertility
relationship and underscores the need to incorporate family context,
including gender equity, into explanations for change in fertility.
Fertility; Sexual Inequality; Sexual Division of Labor;
Housework; Dual Career Family; Household Work.
72. Verma, S., & Larson, R. W. (2001).
Indian women's experience of
household labour: Oppression or personal fulfillment. The Indian
Journal of Social Work, 62(1), 46-66.
article examines the time spent by urban middle-class women in household
work with accompanying subjective states. Participants carried beeper
watches for one week and reported their time spent in different activities
with their subjective states, when signaled at random times. The findings
reveal that women spend much more time doing household labor than their
husbands, but they experience choice over these activities and do not
experience them as aversive. Women often report feeling hurried, but do
not feel less in control. Their emotional states neither suggest a high
rate of distress, nor a high feeling of self-fulfillment while doing
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Females; Sex
Stereotypes; Choices; Stress; Household Work.
73. Wallace, C.
(2002). Household strategies: Their conceptual relevance and analytical
scope in social research. Sociology, 36(2), 275-292.
article considers the idea of 'household strategies' as a concept that
takes into account the motivations and agency of actors in society. In
particular, it considers household strategies as a method of analysis
through looking at the intersection of different economies in household
behaviour and as a unit of analysis, with a focus on households rather
than individuals. Although the concept of household strategies has
limitations in each of these dimensions, it has nevertheless remained an
important empirical tool of investigation. In fact, household strategies
have become perhaps even more salient under conditions of social change
such as post-Communism or post-Fordism. An over-emphasis on agency implied
by this approach can be counteracted by considering structural factors
that have emerged in empirical studies and which restrict the formation
and deployment of household strategies. However, such restrictions are not
just objective but also culturally defined. Viewed in this manner,
household strategies can be used for comparative research and can help to
elucidate the social factors underlying economic behaviour. The article
concludes by suggesting certain conditions under which household
strategies are likely to become especially important.
Households; Strategies; Informal Sector; Housework;
74. Warren, T.
(2003). Class- and gender-based working time? Time poverty and the
division of domestic labour. Sociology, 37(4), 733-752.
Through an approach of class and gender, this article connects two major
research themes; variation in time poverty & the organization of the
domestic division of labour, to the study of couples' working time. Links
are drawn between these two research themes through review of debates in
key studies and an analysis of dual-earner couples from different classes
in the British Household Panel Survey. In conclusion, the article suggests
that a class-based analysis is necessary to reveal how the different
dimensions of time poverty intermesh and play out on the daily lives of
families, and the resulting ways in which families' caring and paid
working lives are managed on a day-to-day basis.
Time Utilization; Sexual Division of Labor; Sex; Housework;
Dual Career Family; Family-Work Relationship; Class Differences; Social
Class; United Kingdom; Household Work.
75. Wharton, A.
S. (2000). Feminism at work. The Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science, 571, 167-182.
paper examines the contributions of feminist research to the study of
work, occupations, and organizations. Three themes in the literature are
investigated: (1) characteristics of housework and so-called women's work
more generally; (2) economic inequality between men and women; & (3)
structural and institutional bases of gender in the workplace. The
direction of feminist research on these themes has been shaped by feminist
activists. This research, in turn, has influenced feminist activists'
strategies and orientations. The article concludes with a discussion of
future challenges for feminist research on the study of work.
Feminism; Work; Housework; Work Environment; Sex; Social
Science Research; Sexual Inequality; Activism; Occupations; Organizational
Research; Sociology of Work; Household Work.
76. Wheelock, J.,
Oughton, E., & Baines, S. (2003). Getting by with a little help from your
family: Toward a policy-relevant model of the household. Feminist
Economics, 9(1), 19-45.
decades have seen dramatic changes in the ways in which households in
developed Western economies gain their livelihoods, with marked elements
of a return to old ways of working. There has been a shift from reliance
upon one family wage to the need for family employment as well as growing
reliance on self-employment and small business. These changes mean that
child care for working parents, and the promotion of new small enterprise,
are key areas of policy concern. Drawing on original English empirical
research around both these themes, this article shows the ways in which UK
households draw on redistribution between the generations as a - generally
decommodified - contribution to livelihoods and "getting by." We argue
that these results confound widely utilized models of how people behave
and take particular issue with how economists and policymakers model the
household and its boundaries as the institutional context for individual
Households; Economic Models; Family Businesses; Small
Businesses; Family-Work Relationship; Labor Force Participation;
Boundaries; Policy Analysis; Methodological Problems; Household Work.
77. Youm, Y., & Laumann, E. O. (2003).
The effect of structural
embeddedness on the division of household labor: A game-theoretic model
using a network approach. Rationality and Society, 15(2), 243-280.
article proposes a game-theoretic model in which the structural
embeddedness of the partners is the key concept predicting family members'
behavior. Under the condition of strong embeddedness, partners behave as
if they share a unitary utility function because they can safely assume
their partners' gain will be their own gain. With weak embeddedness,
however, partners can no longer assume a flow of future fair rewards and
thus are in a bargaining situation. They try to decrease their share of
housework by using their resources (options outside marriage/cohabitation)
as threats in their bargaining with their partners. A representative
sample from the Chicago Health & Social Life Survey is analyzed as
illustrative evidence for this model.
Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Game Theory; Network
Analysis; Negotiation; Chicago, Illinois; Household Work.