and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Paid Work and
1. Aaronson, D. P., Kyung-Hong; Sullivan,
(2006). The decline in teen labor force
participation. Economic Perspectives
pattern of steady decline in teen work from the 1970's is escalating
beyond 2000. The authors argue that much of this pattern is due to a
significant increase in the rewards of formal education. The study also
explores changes to labour demand, crowding out by substitutable workers,
the increased work activity of mothers and the rise in wealth as possible
Labor Market; Demographics; Teenagers; Education;
Anonymous. (2003). A snapshot of Canada's workforce.
Canadian HR Reporter [Toronto],
researchers, sociology professor Cynthia Cranford at the University of
Toronto at Mississauga, professor Leah Vosko of the School of Social
Sciences at York University, and Nancy Zukewich at Statistics Canada, have
thoroughly counted the labour force in contingent work. Their results show
that the contingent workforce grew in the early 1990s and has stabilized
Research; Temporary Employment; Labor Market; Canada;
Forecasts; Canada; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent Work.
3. Appelbaum, E. B., Annette; Murnane, Richard J; Weinberg, Jeremy A.
employment in America: Results from a set of recent industry case studies.
Socio-Economic Review, 3(2), 293-230.
National survey results show the changes that have taken place in the US
wage structure over the past 3 decades. These data provide only very
limited information about the complex reasons why changes have occurred
and why there is significant variation in the wages of workers with
similar education levels employed in similar industries. Industry case
studies, on the other hand, document how firms' responses to economic
pressures have affected working conditions, work rules, productivity
pressures, skill requirements, & opportunities for training & advancement
for workers with less than a 4-year college education. Reviewed are a
series of recent case studies on low-wage employment in America funded by
the Russell Sage, Rockefeller Foundations, and examines the pressures to
cut costs and how these pressures have affected firms' treatment of
Wages; Employment Changes; Income Inequality; Labor Market;
Industry; United States of America; Changes in Paid Work; Survey;
4. Aronowitz, S.
(2001). The last good job in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
book argues for the decline of the job as the backbone (along with family)
of American society. New economic and global technological changes have
enabled an emerging culture of cynicism between workers and their
employers that threatens social stability and well being.
New Economy; United States; Changes in Paid Work.
5. Bailey, T.
(2001). Changing labor markets and the U.S. workforce development system.
In I. Berg & A. L. Kalleberg (Eds.), Sourcebook of labour markets:
Evolving structures and processes (pp. 429-449). New York: Kluwer
America's workforce development system and policy during the 80's and 90's
is first described. Then, changes in America's economic system and the
workplaces are analyzed. These changes are arguably, a basis for an agenda
of reform and possible reforms are examined and assessed. Concludes by
looking at how the latest economic changes have affected both the
workforce development system and education reform.
Labor Market; Labor Policy; Economic Systems; Employment
Changes; Labor Supply; Economic Change; United States of America;
Educational Reform; Changes in Paid Work.
6. Barker, K., &
Christensen, K. (Eds.). (1998). Contingent work: American employment
relations in transition. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
Contingent work is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of tenuous
and insecure employment arrangements. The 1997 successful strike by the
Teamsters against UPS, and the overwhelming support the American public
gave strikers, highlighted the impact of contingent work. This book
considers the consequences for the individual, family, and community of
Part-Time Employment; Piece-Work; Contract System (Labor);
Labor Laws and Legislation; Temporary Employment; Seasonal Labor; Employee
Fringe Benefits; Law and Legislation; Piece-work; United States; Changes
in Paid Work; Contingent work.
7. Bernhardt, A.,
Dresser, L., & Hill, C. (2000). Why privatizing government services
would hurt women workers. Research-in-brief (No. IWPRC347).
Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research.
from the 1998 Current Population Survey was employed to document job
growth in public and private sectors and examine wages and benefits.
Findings show both men and women's public sector employment declined from
1979-98, with a somewhat sharper decline among men. In 1998, median public
sector earnings were higher than private sector earnings for most workers.
Privatization was likely to erode the wages and benefits of women workers;
this was particularly the case for African American and Hispanic women and
those with less formal education. Unionization was a central factor in
understanding why the public sector pays workers more than the private
sector. While there was clearly a gender bias in both sectors, women's
wages were closer to men's in the public sector. However, the public
sector did not generally offer exceptional opportunities for women to hold
managerial and professional positions. The bottom line was that
privatization and de-unionization were likely to prove detrimental to the
economic welfare of women workers.
Adult Education; Blacks; Economics; Employed Women;
Government Role; Hispanic Americans; Private Sector; Privatization; Public
Agencies; Salary Wage Differentials; Sex Differences; Unions; Wages;
Changes in Paid Work.
8. Bernhardt, A.,
Morris, M., Handcock, M. S., & Scott, M. A. (2000). Trends in job
instability and wages for young adult men. In D. Neumark (Ed.), On the
job: Is long-term employment a thing of the past? (pp. 111-141). New
York: Russell Sage Foundation.
examination of job stability for young men compares 2-year job separation
rates across cohorts of white men, ages 14-22, in the National
Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). Advantages & potential problems of using the
NLS rather than another data source are discussed. The two cohorts were
followed over the periods 1966-1981 & 1979-1994, respectively, with the
more recent cohort exhibiting higher separation rates. The marked increase
during the 1980s & early 1990s does not disappear when young workers
"settle down," & the increase cannot be blamed on less education or shifts
to the less stable service sector. Overall, other factors could only
explain about half of the overall rise in instability. Although job
shopping was once considered a way for young adults to increase their
wages, it no longer offers the same benefits, especially for persons with
lower educational achievement. It is predicted that this greater
inequality in wage growth is apt to persist as these young men grow older.
Employment Changes; Job Change; Dismissal; Wages; Males;
Young Adults; Youth Employment; Labor Turnover; Unemployment Rates;
Changes in Paid Work.
9. Biagi, M.
(Ed.). (2001). Towards a European model of industrial relations?
Building on the first report of the European Commission. New York:
Kluwer Law International.
this volume fifteen notable scholars and policymakers from six European
countries explore the territory of industrial relations in Europe as it
now stands. The important questions for which they provide in-depth
materials include: How far has `Europeanisation' progressed in this field?
In what ways does the monetary union affect industrial relations? To what
extent is the evolving European policy a `pact' between the national
employers and trade union organisations? What subtle variations persist in
the theme of worker security versus labour market flexibility? What is the
`new style' of collective bargaining? - Is the power of the state
government in industrial relations beyond EU intervention? How will the
Nice Charter of Fundamental Rights affect industrial relations? What kinds
of labour law and social security legislation may be expected in the near
future? - How is the globalisation of the market economy affecting wages
and working time? and How does the prospect of EU enlargement to the East
affect industrial relations policy?
Europe; Industrial Relations; Collective Bargaining;
Changes in Paid Work.
10. Conley, H.
(2002). A state of insecurity: Temporary work in the public services.
Work, Employment and Society, 16(4), 725-737.
Temporary employment in Great Britain is discussed as a major aspect of
job insecurity in the public sector. Though the threat of temporary work
is generally considered low (6%), a reanalysis of statistical data
suggests this is a more common practice if one compares temporary workers
in each sector as a percentage of the total workforce for that sector,
rather than relying on a simple head count of temporary workers. It is
suggested that the concentration of temporary contracts within certain
social groups may offer an inferior type of employment to workers who are
already disadvantaged. In-depth case studies, conducted 1996-1998, of two
local authorities and their attendant local education authorities support
these arguments at both the city and county levels. The human costs to
workers associated with state-level decisions to attempt to improve
efficiency and flexibility by shifting to temporary work contracts are
Employment Changes; Great Britain; Job Security; Temporary
Employment; Public Sector; Government Policy; Changes in Paid Work.
11. Conway, N., &
Briner, R. B. (2002). Full-time versus part-time employees: Understanding
the links between work status, the psychological contract, and attitudes.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 279-301.
Research findings comparing the work attitudes of full-time and part-time
employees have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Furthermore, empirical
studies have tended to be atheoretical, and there are few convincing
psychological explanations to explain differences where found. This
article tests the psychological contract as an explanatory framework for
attitudinal differences across work status (i.e., whether employed on a
part-time or full-time basis). The model is tested across samples from two
different organizations using structural equation modeling. The analysis
reveals that part-time and full-time employees differed on a number of
attitudes and that psychological contract fulfillment could be used to
explain differences in certain attitudes (e.g., satisfaction) but not
others (e.g., affective commitment). Analyses also show that the
relationships between psychological contract fulfillment and outcomes were
rarely moderated by work status, suggesting that part-time employees will
respond in a similar way as full-time employees to adjustments in their
Attitudes; Part-Time; Full-time; Psychological Contract
Fulfillment; Changes in Paid Work.
12. Deery, M., &
Jago, L. K. (2002). The core and the periphery: An examination of the
flexible workforce model in the hotel industry. International Journal
of Hospitality Management, 21(4), 339-351.
complexities and precariousness of the peripheral workforce in the hotel
industry, as defined by Guerrier and Lockwood (Personnel Rev. 18 (1)
(1989) are studied in relation to access to the internal labour market.
Also examined are the perceptions of employees in relation to the ILM
components of training, promotional opportunities and job security. In
this study, 287 non-supervisory hotel employees from seven Central
Business District (CBD) Melbourne hotels were surveyed. These respondents
were grouped into peripheral and non-peripheral clusters according to
labour force segmentation criteria. Statistical techniques, including
discriminant analysis, were used to assess differences between the
clusters in terms of ILM components and employee attitudes. The findings
question previous research that proposes clearly defined workforce groups
in the hotel sector. Previous research has examined the flexible firm from
a range of perspectives such as pay flexibility (British Journal of
Industrial Relations 31 (1993) 409), temporal flexibility (Working Paper
No. 112, Department of Management & Industrial Relations, University of
Melbourne, 1997) and gender segregation (Sociology 25 (4) (1991) 607.
Core; Periphery; Workforce Flexibility; Internal Labour
Markets; Changes in Paid Work.
Dickerson, A., & Green, F. (2004). The growth and valuation of computing
and other generic skills.
Oxford Economic Papers, 56,
article describes a method for measuring job skills using survey data on
detailed work activities, and using these measures examines whether the
utilisation of skills is growing, and how they are valued in the labour
market. We show that between 1997 and 2001 there was a growth in Britain
in the utilisation of computing skills, literacy, numeracy, technical
know-how, high-level communication skills, planning skills, client
communication skills, horizontal communication skills, problem-solving,
and checking skills. Computer skills utilisation was growing the fastest,
and the use of computers was becoming more sophisticated. The authors
re-evaluate the issue of whether computers have affected wages, taking
into account existing critiques in the literature. The authors find that
both computer skills and high-level communication skills carry positive
wage premia, as shown both in cross-section hedonic wage equations that
control for many detailed activities, and through a within-cohorts change
Britain; Knowledge Economy.
14. DiPrete, T. A., Goux, D., & Maurin, E. (2002).
Internal labor markets and
earnings Trajectories in the post-Fordist economy: An analysis of recent
trends. Social Science Research, 31(2), 175-196.
"post-Fordist" economy is believed to have changed the structure of work
careers in the American work force of the 1990s. Most research examines
the implications of post-Fordism for job mobility or for the fraction of
the workforce that has a "contingent" employment relationship with the
employer. Post-Fordism should also affect the relationship between job
rewards and tenure with the employer, which sociologists have stated as a
core characteristic of the firm internal labor market. The theory of
post-Fordism declares a weaker relationship between tenure and job rewards
and a correspondingly stronger relationship between general labor force
experience and job rewards for the highly educated workers. Analysis of
trends for male workers from the Current Population Surveys for the years
1983-1998 have largely supported these hypotheses. Analysis also suggests
that observed trends in the returns to job tenure and experience can be
attributed to changes in the production of value rather than from
selection mechanisms linked to post-Fordist-induced trends in the
structure of job mobility.
Post-Fordism; Work Career Structure; American Workforce;
Employee and Employer Relations; Changes in Paid Work.
15. Evans, C. F.
(2003). The changing nature of employment: How self-employed HR
professionals manage their lives, learning and knowledge. Dissertation
Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social, 64(1), 58-C.
changing landscape of employment and work in late 20th century Britain is
informed by the "informational technological paradigm" (Castells, 1996).
This research investigates how self-employed human resource professionals
are managing their lives, learning and knowledge. Other empirical work has
investigated the lives of individuals pursuing nontraditional career
models (e.g., "portfolio career", or "lifestyle career"); this research is
different. It is based on a broader view of a career, where the term
career is seen as applying to all life-areas, not just an individual's
working life. Second, this research has adopted a different methodological
approach, applying the Life History Methodology. The research sample
included twenty-six participants, seventeen male and nine female,
identified through non-probability sampling. The research has illuminated
how the decisions that these individuals make about their work career is
balanced with the needs and demands from other life-areas, e.g., family
and learning, together with the availability of key resources. The
findings offer a description of the benefits, threats, opportunities and
paradoxes associated with the self-employed lifestyle, and the strategies
adopted for managing learning and knowledge. Formal learning was found to
have an important place in these individuals' lives, at strategic points.
However, much of their learning falls into six informal learning
categories. The thesis concludes by discussing the implications and
opportunities for policy making.
Self Employment; Employment Changes; Great Britain; Time
Utilization; Professional Workers; Human Resources; Lifestyle; Learning;
Family-Work Relationship; Knowledge; Changes in Paid Work.
16. Felstead, A.,
Jewson, N., & Walters, S. (2005). The shifting locations of work: New
statistical evidence on the spaces and places of employment. Work,
Employment & Society, 19(2), 415-431.
aim of this paper is to chart with available data, the shifting locations
of work – both outside and inside the office – and to identify which types
of people and jobs have been most affected. The paper reports on the
changing proportions and numbers of people carrying out work away from the
conventional physical boundaries of the office or factory.
Changing Nature of Work; Health; Changes in Paid Work.
17. Garcy, A. M.,
Jr. (2003). Part-time and contingent academic employment. Dissertation
Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63(12).
study of contingent, part-time and part-time contingent employment was
carried out to determine why these employment arrangements had become more
prevalent over time. Data from the National Center for Education
Statistics 1987 and 1992 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty and
National Survey of Post-Secondary Faculty were used to conduct the 3
levels of analyses: the individual, the academic field and the academic
institution. At the Faculty level findings revealed the increased
likelihood of working a limited employment status which was related to
numerous characteristics that suggested both voluntary and involuntary
factors. Age, lack of tenure status, union membership, education and the
combined effect of marital status and gender contributed. The field level
analysis showed a higher than average growth in limited employment status.
This was concentrated in typical education and fine arts fields. Younger
faculty were clearly associated with growth in part-time, contingent and
part-time contingent employment rates over time. A decrease in the amount
of time that average faculty spent on research was noted. Institutions
with declining numbers of majors tended to increase their employment
levels of part-time/contingent faculty over time. Statistical evidence
showed that average public two-year institutions had a higher proportion
of faculty who held a limited employment status. Within institutions,
those that had raised requirements for research activities diminished
their use of such faculty over-time. Compositional changes in the makeup
of the institution level faculty workforce were also important. Within
institutions, those that increased the proportion of faculty who were
younger had growth in the proportion of faculty who were employed
part-time/contingently. Finally, there was no statistical evidence to show
that fixed or quasi-fixed costs were related to institution level
increases in limited status academic employment.
Higher Education; College Faculty; Part Time Employment;
Temporary Employment; Employment Changes; United States of America;
Changes in Paid Work.
18. Gibelman, M.
(2005). Social workers for rent: The contingency human services labor
force. Families in Society, 86(4), 457-469.
Identified and characterized are the trends in the contingency market in
social work and articulates advantages and disadvantages from the vantage
point of employing organizations and the professional labor force. The
author raises questions regarding the accuracy of perceived cost-benefits
of these arrangements as well as implications for professional ethics and
values, service quality, accountability, and workplace environment.
Monitoring and evaluation of the use of contingent workers are essential
to ensure the quality, efficiency, and efficacy of these alternative
arrangements on the provision of human services.
Human Services; Employment Changes; Working Hours; Social
Workers; Labor Force Development; Changes in Paid Work.
19. Giesecke, J.,
& Gross, M. (2003). Temporary employment: Chance or risk? European
Sociological Review, 19(2), 161-177.
paper investigates whether increased labor-market flexibility leads to a
reinforcement of the existing segmentation of the labor market or to a
dismantling of barriers in the labor market. Using spell data (employment
and unemployment periods) from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP,
time period: 1984-1999), both determinants of temporary employment and
their consequences (eg, renewed temporary employment, unemployment) are
investigated with the help of random-effects logit-models. The results
show that respondents' characteristics (amount and type of human capital,
previous periods of unemployment), structural variables (industry, firm
size), and occupational characteristics (position, marginal employment)
influence the risk of finding a temporary job. Further, it is shown that
fixed-term contracts increase the risk of finding another temporary job or
of becoming unemployed after termination of the contract. These results
show that fixed-term contracts are primarily part of the secondary labor
market, and they have negative consequences for the employees in this
segment. At the same time fixed-term contracts can be seen as providing
opportunities in that they are at least an alternative to unemployment.
Temporary Employment; Employment Changes; Labor Market
Segmentation; Contracts; Employment Opportunities; Employability; Germany;
Changes in Paid Work.
20. Giuffre, P.
A. (2005). Changing corporate America from inside out: Lesbian and gay
workplace rights. Gender & Society, 19(6), 868-870.
Review: Changing Corporate America from Inside Out: Lesbian and Gay
Workplace Rights by Nicole C. Raeburn (2004). Despite offering domestic
partner benefits that now include sexual orientation in their
antidiscrimination corporate policies, others do not. What contributes to
the variation among employers? Under what conditions are we likely to see
gay-inclusive policies and benefits emerge? What is the influence of
lesbian and gay workplace activists in the development of domestic partner
benefits on Fortune 1000 companies? This impressive multimethod approach
includes analyses of phone surveys of gay, lesbian, and bisexual networks
in Fortune 1000 companies and with vice presidents and human resource
directors; print and online sources; organizational documents from three
case studies; and field data from conferences and meetings of gay employee
activist networks. Interviews with gay employee groups and informants from
the Human Rights Commission and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
were conducted. Scholars interested in policy, sexuality, organizations
and organization theory, social movements, activism, sociology of work,
and for readers who seek specific strategies would find this an essential
Homosexuality; Organizations; Working Conditions; Employee
Benefits; Lesbianism; Sexual Orientation; Changes in Paid Work.
21. Goyder, J.
(2005). The dynamics of occupational prestige: 1975-2000. The Canadian
Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 42(1), 1-23.
Urban-area data collected in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, twinned with an
earlier study from 1975, are used as a vantage point for re-examining the
historical stability of occupational prestige. The article proposes that
the shape of the prestige distribution has been neglected in favour of
statistics describing stability in rank order and that historical change
since around 1975 is qualitatively different than for earlier periods. The
researcher's hypothesis is that the distribution of occupational prestige
has become more equal and that the rank order has shifted noticeably.
Occupation; Class Analysis; Stratification; Changes in Paid
Work; Employment Status.
22. Green, F.
(2004). Work intensification, discretion and the decline in well-being at
work. Eastern Economic Journal, 30(4), 615-625.
from three representative British surveys are used to show that there has
been a decline in the overall level of job satisfaction and a rise in the
extent of work strain. The rise in work strain is associated with work
intensification, while the fall in job satisfaction is associated partly
with work intensification but also with the declining amount of discretion
that workers have in their daily tasks. However, work intensification may
have come to a halt after 1997. The paper also confirms a link between
computerised or automated jobs and high work effort.
Discretion; Work; Labour Process; Changes in Paid Work.
23. Gunderson, M.
(2002). Rethinking productivity from a workplace perspective. CPRN
Discussion Paper. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
issue of increasing productivity was examined from an interdisciplinary
perspective focusing on the impact of workplace practices on various
productivity-related outcomes. First, the following methodological issues
were discussed: defining workplace practices that affect productivity;
linking employer behavior and organizational performance; dealing with the
complexity of interrelated factors; reverse causality; bias from selection
into the program; bias from the research and publication process; biases
from reverting to normal; the Hawthorne effect; and short-run versus
long-run effects. Next, the impacts of the following workplace practices
on productivity were analyzed with consideration for those methodological
issues: job design; employee involvement; compensation; alternative work
time arrangements; training; diversity management; and workplace
well-being programs. Most of those workplace practices had positive
effects on employees, which in turn positively affected firm performance,
productivity, and competitiveness. Success of the workplace practices was
enhanced when they were combined in clusters, integrated to fit overall
corporate strategy, and supported by managers, supervisors, and unions.
The analysis identified 11 barriers to adoption and diffusion of "best"
workplace practices, including the following: managerial resistance,
employee resistance, union resistance, legislative barriers, short-term
focus, workplace practices as a source of competitive advantage, barriers
to cooperative actions, and externalities and the fact that trained
employees may be lured away by other companies.
Adjustment (to Environment); Adoption (Ideas); Adult
Education; Compensation (Remuneration); Cooperation; Cultural Differences;
Definitions; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Employer Employee
Relationship; Employment Patterns; Employment Practices; Federal
Legislation; Foreign Countries; Job Performance; Literature Reviews;
Organizational Effectiveness; Performance Factors; Personnel Management;
Policy Formation; Productivity; Public Policy; Quality of Working Life;
Research Design; Research Methodology; Research Problems; Supervisor
Supervisee Relationship; Training; Work Attitudes; Work Environment Best
Practices; Canada; Global Economy; Hawthorne Effect; Impact Studies;
Changes in Paid Work.
24. Harley, B.
(2003). Class and control revisited: An analysis of occupation,
autonomy and pay in the service sector. Unpublished manuscript,
paper is concerned with recent debates about the continuing relevance of
class as an explanatory category for key aspects of the experience of work
in the advanced economies. In particular, it engages with the claim that
the growth of service sector employment, and attendant changes in labour
processes and contractual arrangements, have changed the nature of work in
ways which make previously dominant conceptualisations of class redundant.
The paper seeks to elucidate a key issue in the debates – the extent to
which associations between occupation on one hand, and discretion,
orientation to management and pay on the other, vary systematically
between employees working in ‘service’ industries and other industries.
The analysis suggests that occupation remains a key determinant of
discretion which is consistent with earlier studies (see Harley 1999,
Boreham 1991). It also remains a key predictor of pay. The associations
between occupation and views of management remain rather less clear.
Moreover, the associations involving occupation appear to hold across
Discretion; Class; Decision-Making; Occupation; Work;
Service Workers; Changes in Paid Work; Employment Status.
25. Havlovic, S.
J., Lau, D. C., & Pinfield, L. T. (2002). Repercussions of work schedule
congruence among full-time, part-time, and contingent nurses. Health
Care Management Review, 27(4), 30-41.
Previous studies on alternative work schedules have focused primarily on
the main effects of compressed work weeks and shift work on individual
outcomes. The combined effects of alternative and preferred work schedules
on nurses' satisfaction with their work schedules, the perceived patient
care quality, and interferences with their personal lives is explored.
Results show substantial support for the notion of work schedule
congruence. Generally, registered nurses who worked simultaneously on both
their preferred shifts and preferred work weeks reported more positive
work outcomes and less interference with their nonwork activities. Shift
congruence yielded less interference with sleep and social activities and
higher satisfaction with work arrangement. No benefits were observed for
those with only work week congruence.
Studies; Regression Analysis; Employee Attitude; Nurses;
Flexible Hours; Workforce Planning; Quality of Service; United States;
Experimental/Theoretical; Health Care Industry; Human Resource Planning;
US; Changes in Paid Work.
26. Hecker, D. E.
(2001). Occupational employment projections to 2010. Monthly Labor
Review, 124(11), 57-84.
Employment in professional and related occupations and service occupations
will increase the fastest and add the most jobs from 2000 to 2010. Changes
in technology or business operations will cause the largest declines in
occupational demand. Occupations requiring a postsecondary award or
academic degree will account for 42 percent of total job growth from 2000
Demand Occupations; Employment Projections; Employment
Qualifications; Job Development; Postsecondary Education; Tables (Data);
Changes in Paid Work.
27. Henley, A.
(2004). Self-employment status: The role of state dependence and initial
circumstances. Small Business Economics, 22(1), 67-82.
British longitudinal data is used to model self-employment status.
Contrast to prior studies, the modelling approach accounts for
state-dependence and unexplained heterogeneity effects. In conclusion,
state dependence is an important influence on self-employment choice.
Someone self-employed last year is, controlling for observable and
unobservable influences, 30% points more likely to be self-employed this
year than someone who was in paid employment one year ago. Results show
that significant individual heterogeneity in the probability of
self-employment, with significant explained influences operating through
gender, educational attainment, occupation, spouse's self-employment, and
parental and educational background. Significant, though quantitatively
smaller influences come though initial financial circumstance and current
house price movements. Local labour market shocks do not appear
significantly to influence self-employment choice. The authors conclude
that the autoregressive nature of self-employment time-series would appear
to be a structural rather than a cyclical phenomenon.
British Longitudinal Data; Modelling Approach; State
Dependence; Self-Employment Choice; Changes in Paid Work.
A.-M. (2003). Virtually working: Traditional and emerging institutional
frameworks for the contingent workforce. International Journal of
Manpower, 24(2), 187-206.
author focuses on virtual working and the ultramobile – contingent -
workforce in a Nordic welfare economy. Institutional frameworks for
virtual working are investigated and analysed. Danish legal frameworks and
collective bargaining arrangements are shown to provide substantial
opportunities for flexibility that benefits small and medium-sized
enterprises in particular. From the early 1990s, temp and recruiting
agency activity has somewhat widened in scope and scale, in accordance
with a general deregulation of this labour market service. Restrictions
that still exist in many European countries have been abolished in
Denmark, but other forces counteract a rapid development of the agency
sector. The new opportunities over internet for a flexibilisation of work
by expanding geographical and organisational limits and lowering search
and promotion costs. Results discussed are the new "meta" organisations.
The aim is social protection of virtual workers in an increasingly
competitive, globalised and individualised world.
Employment Determination; Job Creation; Demand for Labor;
Self-Employment; Personnel Economics; Labor Contracting; Outsourcing;
Franchising; Other; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor
Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Technological
Change; Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Impact on
Production; Welfare; Income Distribution; International Competitiveness;
Military Power; Measurement; Case Studies; International Transfer of
Technology; Denmark; Changes in Paid Work.
29. Hughes, K. D.
(2003). Pushed or pulled? Women's entry into self-employment and small
business ownership. Gender, Work & Organization, 10(4), 433-454.
economies of Canada and many other industrialized countries have
experienced significant restructuring within the past two decades. This
restructuring has encouraged steadily rising levels of self-employment and
small business ownership. Women have been at the forefront of this change.
As more women enter self-employment, of interest are the factors fueling
its growth. Some argue that women have been pulled into self-employment by
the promise of independence, flexibility and the opportunity to escape
barriers in paid employment. Others argue that women have been pushed into
it as restructuring and downsizing has eroded the availability of once
secure jobs in the public and private sector. Existing research on the
'push-pull' debate has not fully answered. Drawing on in-depth interviews
with 61 self-employed women in Canada, this paper examines the push-pull
debate in greater detail. Overall women's experiences shed further light
on the expansion of women's self-employment in the 1990. The research
suggests that push factors have been underestimated and challenges the
current contours of the 'push-pull' debate.
Business; Economy; Entrepreneurship; Females; Self
Employment; Changes in Paid Work.
Labour Office. (2004). World employment report 2004: Employment and
poverty reduction. Geneva: International Labour Office.
edition of the World Employment Report looks at the concept of labour
productivity and the ways in which it is linked to poverty reduction and
employment creation in countries at various stages of development around
the world. The paper works from the premise that for most of the world’s
labour force, it is not necessarily the absence of work that is the major
challenge for improving living standards, but rather the absence of work
that is sufficiently productive for earning a decent income. The paper
looks closely at the interdependence of productivity, output and
employment. It traces the main sources of productivity growth and
pinpoints the principal influences affecting those sources such as
technological change, organization and composition of the labour market.
The paper provides a thorough definition of productivity and evaluates
whether productivity growth alone is enough to eradicate poverty in the
future. The implications for labour market policy around the world are
Labour Market; Labour Supply; Unemployment; Changes in Paid
Labour Office. (2003). Global employment trends 2002. Geneva:
report was released by the ILO in 2003 to fill the demand for a timely and
comprehensive analysis of current labour market trends. It presents labour
market trends and underlines the main employment challenges at the global
level and in each of eight regions of the world. The report does not aim
at presenting policy recommendations to overcome these challenges. Stress
is laid on the growth of employment and unemployment, youth unemployment
and the employment of women. Such developments are presented in the light
of changes in output growth and in labour market policy.
Labor Market; Trends; Growth of Employment; Youth
Unemployment; Employment of Women; Unemployment; Changes in Paid Work.
32. Jackson, A.
(2005). Work and labour in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Scholars'
thesis is change. Work and Labour in Canada examines changes in the labour
market, and in workplaces, with a strong empirical component based upon
recent Statistics Canada data. The chapters are tailored to an
undergraduate audience. They are masterfully written from a labour
perspective - that is, concerned with the impacts of changes on workers -
but also written on the basis of empirical evidence with supporting
summaries of the academic research literature.
Canada; Work; Global Economy; Academic; Changing Nature of
Work; Changes in Paid Work.
33. Jordan, J. W.
(2003). Sabotage or performed compliance: Rhetorics of resistance in temp
worker discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89(1), 19-40.
Analyzed are the contemporary temporary employment texts and the competing
rhetorical definitions that shape the meanings of employment and identity
in the contingent economy. Arguing against resistance labor rhetoric that
is ill-suited to present conditions of temporary work, the author
advocates a rhetoric of "performativity" enabling temporary workers to
carve their own definitional territory and seek advantage within an
oppressive management culture. Rhetorical tactics of performativity enable
resistant practices suited to contingent situations and show promise for
new conceptions of identity.
Identity; Rhetoric; Workers; Discourse; Changes in Paid
34. Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000).
Bad jobs in America: Standard
and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States.
American Sociological Review, 65(2), 256-278.
Nonstandard jobs are often perceived as bad. The study uses data from the
1995 Current Population Survey to examine the relationship between
nonstandard employment (on-call work and day labor, temporary-help agency
employment, employment with contract companies, independent contracting,
other self-employment, and part-time employment in "conventional" jobs)
and exposure to "bad" job characteristics. Of workers age 18+, 31% are in
some type of nonstandard work arrangement. To assess the link between type
of employment and bad jobs, we conceptualize "bad jobs" as those with low
pay and without access to health insurance and pension benefits. About one
in seven jobs in the US is considered bad on these three dimensions.
Nonstandard employment strongly increases workers' contact to bad job
characteristics, net of controls for workers' personal characteristics,
family status, occupation, and industry.
Employment; United States of America; Labor Market; Work
Attitudes; Job Characteristics; Nontraditional Occupations; Changes in
35. Kalleberg, A.
L. (2003). Flexible firms and labor market segmentation: Effects of
workplace restructuring on jobs and workers. Work and Occupations, 30(2),
employers' use of numerical and functional flexibility has created a
division between organizational insiders (core) and outsiders (periphery).
The latter have nonstandard work arrangements, the consequences of which
differ depending on workers' degree of control over skills, autonomy, and
Labor Market; Labor Relations; Organizational Change;
Personal Autonomy; Temporary Employment; Work Environment; Working Hours;
Changes in Paid Work.
36. Kiger, P. J.
(2002). Workers take their jobs on the road. Workforce, 81(10),
Camping World's Multi-Location Crew member program is an HR four-year
initiative enabling employees to work part of the year at one of the
organization's thirty stores, take off for traveling, and relocate to
another location to resume work. Participants enjoy the freedom to roam
and still retain security of a full-time position with health-care and
other benefits. Contingent, mobile full-time workers have helped the
company cope with what was once a chronic shortage of competent employees
in stores during the seasons when the firm did the bulk of its business.
The ability to deploy already-trained workers has enabled Camping World to
improve productivity and revenues. Recognizing Camping World's astute
approach to helping both its employees and its own bottom line, the
company is this year's recipient of Workforce's Optimas Award for Quality
Corporate Profiles; Retailing Industry; Honors; Human
Resource Management; Work Life Programs; United States; Company Specific;
Retailing Industry; Human Resource Planning; United States; US; Camping
World; Changes in Paid Work.
A., & Weisberg, J. (2002). Employee's turnover intentions destination
choices. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 109-125.
part of the turnover process, employee's job destination choices reflect
options for internal organizational or external labor market moves. A
sample of 477 employees in 15 firms was used to consider how
bio-demographic, job, plant, and labor market characteristics are related
to five alternative job destinations. Multivariate logistic regression and
odds-ratio analyses compared the five models confirming that different
sets of variables influence each of the destination choices. Coworkers'
intentions have a significant impact on all destination options. Findings
have implications for present turnover models, career paths, and promotion
progression in the firm.
Turnover; Empirical Research; Turnover Models; Career
Paths; Promotion Progression; Changes in Paid Work.
38. Lanza, B., Maryn, M. R., & Elders, R. J. (2003).
Legal status of contingent
workers. Compensation and Benefits Review, 35(4), 47-60.
Contingent workers are a vital part of the workforce for many companies. A
recent estimate in the United States, has placed the number of contingent
workers at 3 million, with about half, or one and one half million,
performing the same services for the same company for six months or
longer. However, the vast majority of companies using contingent workers
have not developed a clear plan for maximizing the benefit of the various
categories of contingent workers or for avoiding legal pitfalls.
Consequently, many companies never benefit from the significant cost
savings and risk-management benefits provided by such a plan. This article
raises the strategic, legal and financial issues companies need to think
about in working with a contingent workforce. The potential drawbacks and
possible solutions for managing the contingent workforce are discussed.
Regulatory Compliance; Human Resource Management; Risk
Management; Outsourcing; Changes in Paid Work.
39. Lautsch, B.
A. (2003). The influence of regular work systems on compensation for
contingent workers. Industrial Relations, 42(4), 565-588.
data from a nationally representative survey of US business
establishments, the authors explore features of regular work and the
outcomes for contingent workers. Results show that firms combine regular
and contingent work in varied ways: Contingent work may be designed to
achieve performance objectives not possible with the regular workforce. In
other cases, contingent jobs are created to reinforce the same goals as
regular work. In the latter case, contingent workers are more likely to be
integrated with regular workers and receive benefits. Benefit provision
for contingent workers is also influenced by traditional internal labor
market rules, and may be extended to contingent workers once offered to
Temporary Employment; Benefits; Enterprises; United States
of America; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent Work.
40. Loh, K.
(2004). Socialization experiences of part-time faculty: A study of
socialization programs and employment longevity. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 65-04A, pp.1199.
Socialization experiences of part-time faculty at a four-year
comprehensive university, a survey was administered to part-time faculty
that gathered data on (1) their perceptions of their socialization
experiences through its processes and outcomes, (2) the professional
profile of these part-time faculty, and (3) the factors behind their
employment longevity - referred to in the study as non-transient part-time
faculty. Part-time faculty who participated in this study had positive
perceptions about their socialization experiences and exhibited a strong
sense of loyalty and commitment to their institution. However, they did
not participate much in socialization programs provided by the
institution, and individual socialization efforts were also minimal or
limited to informal activities such as lunches or holiday parties.
Non-transient part-time faculty at this institution had an average
employment tenure of 4.75 years and attributed their employment longevity
to intrinsic factors in the process of teaching and interaction with
students, professional satisfaction in being associated with an
institution of higher learning, and convenience in their flexible teaching
schedule. The data did not support the somewhat negative perspectives on
part-time faculty employment in the conventional literature. Part-time
faculty here chose their employment status willingly and primarily to earn
extra income. Many had no desire to seek full-time teaching positions, and
a minority indicated that they were teaching part-time due to a lack of
more favorable employment options. Highlighted is the importance of
customizing and adapting socialization programs to the needs of the
institution and the part-time faculty. Also the importance of studying
part-time faculty from a human resource perspective, focusing on their
deployment as contingent workforce - or contingent faculty with budgetary
Education; Administration; Education; Higher; Changes in
Paid Work; Part-Time.
41. Luber, S., &
Leicht, R. (2000). Growing self-employment in Western Europe: An effect of
modernization? International Review of Sociology/ Revue Internationale
de Sociologie, 10(1), 101-123.
Trends embedded in economic and structural changes toward self-employment
in Western European companies. Common explanations to growing
self-employment cover cultural & sociodemographic issues, institutional &
political arrangements, & structural changes. The 1983-1997 European Labor
Force Survey data for Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Spain, & the UK reveal differences between the North & South
that indicate a concentration in trades, restaurants, & hotels in the
latter, while the former tended toward professional, modern, & business
related services. Changes in self-employment & growth rates are reviewed
for each country, as are trends between industry & services. These
countries are marked by discontinuity showing that heterogeneous
self-employment trends in the European Community are not in alignment with
the expected effects of modernization. New explanations are needed to
explain the dissimilarities between countries.
Western Europe; Self Employment; Employment Changes;
Economic Change; Economic Development; North and South; Denmark; Federal
Republic of Germany; France; Italy; Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; United
Kingdom; Regional Differences; Changes in Paid Work.
42. Luff, P.,
Hindmarsh, J., & Heath, C. (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work
practice and informing system design. Cambridge, UK, New York:
Cambridge University Press.
book discusses critical issues in the study of the workplace and outlines
recent developments in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part I
consists of a number of detailed case studies that provide an insight into
the issues central to workplace studies including some of the problems
involved in carrying out such research. Part II focuses on the
interrelationship between workplace studies and the design of new
Technological Innovations; Employee Participation;
Management; Communication in Design; Organizational Change; Communication
And Technology; Work Environment; Work Design; Changes in Paid Work.
43. McGovern, P.,
Smeaton, D., & Hill, S. (2004). Bad jobs in Britain: Nonstandard
employment and job quality. Work and Occupations, 31(2), 225-249.
rapid growth in nonstandard forms of employment toward the end of the 20th
century has fuelled claims about the spread of “bad jobs” within
Anglo-American capitalism. Research from the United States indicates that
such jobs have more bad characteristics than do permanent jobs after
controlling for workers’ personal characteristics, family status, and
occupation. We apply a version of the bad characteristics approach to
British data and find that despite some institutional differences with the
United States, (notably, in employer welfare provision), the British case
also supports the hypothesis that nonstandard employment (part-time,
temporary, and fixed term) increases workers’ exposure to bad job
Job Quality; Nonstandard Employment; Britain; Changes in
44. McLagan, P.
A. (2002). Change leadership today. T+D, 56(11), 26-31.
Summarizes current research on change leadership and the scope of change
in the workplace. Addresses reasons for failure in anticipating and
Adult Education; Change Agents; Leadership; Organizational
Change; Organizational Climate; Training; Changes in Paid Work.
R., & Cangemi, J. (2000). North American employee attitudes in the 1990's:
Changing attitudes for changing times.
IFE Psychologia: An
International Journal, 8(2),
study examines the effects of organizational change in the 1990s on
attitudes of 9,495 hourly and salaried employees in 45 manufacturing
facilities in the US and Canada. Interview data was also collected from 25
organizational leaders of Fortune 500 companies. Employee survey findings
are discussed in categories of: communication, idea generation and usage,
consistence/favoritism/fairness, shifting rewards, and absenteeism.
Interviews with top management in organizations indicated that they felt
young workers were: less disposed to working long hours and loyalty, less
skilled, more demanding of free time, and less trusting of organizations
as companies experience downsizing. These results support the argument
that worker attitudes have paralleled organizational changes, wherein the
traditional workplace has changed to a more streamlined, self-directed
structure with less direct central control.
Business and Industrial Personnel; Employee Attitudes;
Organizational Change; Attitude Change; Employer Attitudes; Top Level
Managers; Changes in Paid Work.
46. Moore, S.
(2005). Contractor vs. employee: What's best for you? Contract
Management [McLean], 45(2), 8-15.
September 2004, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics conservatively
reported that 10,450,000 Americans nationwide are classified as
non-permanent employees, representing 7.5 percent of the nation's entire
workforce. Since it is virtually impossible to capture rock-solid data
about non-permanent employees, the actual number of "contingent" workers
that would include contract consultants, considered by many to be one of
the fastest-growing sectors of the economy, is most likely higher.
Contract employees have to adapt rapidly to the culture of the office
where they're working on a project. It's possible that the permanent
employees may be a little jealous or intimidated by your expertise
depending on the contract. Despite the facts and statistics, the decision
to become an independent contractor rests with each individual.
Consultants; Career Development Planning; Consultants;
United States; Development; Changes in Paid Work.
47. Moran, A. E.
(2004). The contingent workforce: A challenge for benefits managers.
Employee Relations Law Journal, 30(3), 87-100.
contingent workforce is resulting in special challenges for HR
professionals and for those who counsel them. The "contingent workforce"
is made up of people who do not identify themselves as employees but who
perform services on a freelance or independent basis, and it is fairly
typical that such contingent workers do not get the same employee benefit
packages as "permanent employees." Controversies often arise when a
worker, the IRS, or a court opts to challenge arrangements for contingent
workers by reclassifying the previously agreed-upon status of the worker.
Temporary Employees; Legal Status; Independent Contractors;
Employee Benefit Managers; Responsibility; Changes in Paid Work.
48. Myerson, J.,
& Ross, P. (2006). Radical office design. New York: Abbeville
Traditional office work, characterized by repetitive clerical tasks, is
quickly giving way to “knowledge work,” characterized by the creative
application and exchange of information. In response, architects around
the world are leaving aside the old cubicle grid to design creative,
high-tech offices that foster knowledge work and, at the same time, help
workers balance the competing demands of colleagues, customers, and
family. The forty-three exceptional workplaces profiled in this timely
volume have all been completed within the last six years and serve a large
variety of organizations, both private and public, small and large.
Examples range from the headquarters of an advertising firm where one
enormous table seats all two hundred employees, facilitating
communication, to a BMW plant where the factory production line runs
through and above the administrative offices, bringing the corporate
Knowledge Economy; Knowledge Workers; Public Sector;
Private Sector; Changes in Paid Work.
49. Olsen, K. M., & Kalleberg, A. L. (2004).
Non-standard work in two
different employment regimes: Norway and the United States. Work,
Employment and Society, 18(2), 321-348.
article examines organizational use of non-standard work arrangements -
fixed-term employees hired directly by the organization, workers from
temporary help agencies (THA), and contractors - in the United States and
Norway. Our analysis is based on information obtained from surveys of 802
establishments in the US and 2130 in Norway. We find that Norwegian
establishments make greater use of non-standard arrangements than the US
establishments; we argue that this is due in part to the greater overall
restrictive labour market regulations on hiring and firing regular
workers, and greater demand for temporary labour resulting from generous
access to leaves of absence in Norway. We also find that certain
institutional factors have a similar impact in both countries. First,
establishments in the public sector are more likely to use direct-hired
temporary workers and less apt to use contractors and THAs; this pattern
is particularly striking in Norway, but is also evident in the United
States. Second, highly unionized establishments tend to have the lowest
use of non-standard arrangements in both countries.
Human Resource Management; Labor Relations; Regulatory
Compliance; Guilds; Changes in Paid Work.
50. Osnowitz, D.
(2005). Marketing expertise: The contingent experience of contract
professionals. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities
and Social Sciences, 66(6), pp. 2405-A.
Contract professionals represent a segment of nonstandard, "contingent"
workers whose ranks have grown in the wake of workforce restructuring.
Addressed are contract professionals into 2 occupational groups: (1)
writers and editors and (2) programmers and engineers. In both
occupations, contractors comprise an external labor market of mobile
practitioners who procure and carry out assignments for clients. Lacking
organizational positions, contractors work outside a system of standard
employment, usually augmenting staffs of employees with standard jobs.
From interviews, observations, and documentary evidence, examined are the
micro-processes that constitute work relations for these professionals, at
the margins of employing organizations. The processes of contracting
depend on a labor market structure that facilitates mobility. With
contract work well institutionalized, contractors span the boundaries of
multiple client firms. Standard jobs, however, had typically demanded
excessively long hours and had failed to provide stability, so that
contracting, with professional challenge and financial reward, offered an
alternative opportunity structure. The choice to contract can thus
represent an implicit critique of standard employment in these two
occupational groups. Contract work constitutes a parallel system of work
relations, outside the social and legal protection that comes with a
standard job. Assuming greater labor market risk, contract professionals
described managing uncertainty through expert performance. They presented
themselves as skilled and authoritative. Exercising discursive control
over their work, they depended on social interaction to define and adjust
the terms of their employment, displaying competence both to clients, who
engage their services, and to colleagues, who might provide referrals for
new assignments. Maintaining distance from organizational conflict, they
accounted for "billable time" and patrolled the boundaries of
organizational membership, drawing their identity from occupational,
Contracts; Professional Workers; Self Employment; Writers;
Editors; Engineers; Marketing; Labor Relations; Client Relations; Changes
in Paid Work.
51. Osnowitz, D.
(2006). Occupational networking as normative control: Collegial exchange
among contract professionals. Work and Occupations, 33(1), 12-41.
workforce flexibility and nonstandard, “contingent,” work have come new
mechanisms for labor market mediation and workforce control. Examined are
the occupational connection and control in 2 groups of contract
professionals. Networking is a mechanism for labor market regulation as
well as for finding work. Networking perpetuates occupational norms that
demand commitment to work, accountability to clients, and reciprocity
among colleagues. Complying with occupational norms, contractors develop
reputations to enhance the likelihood of referrals from colleagues for
contract assignments. Collegial exchange in an occupational labor market
thus exposes contractors to the informal sanctions of formative control.
Networking; Contingent Work; Professionals; Changes in Paid
52. Peck, J. A.,
& Theodore, N. (2002). Temped out? Industry rhetoric, labor regulation and
economic restructuring in the temporary staffing business. Economic and
Industrial Democracy, 23(2), 143-175.
article develops a conceptualization of the role of the temporary staffing
industry (TSI) in the wider economy, with particular reference to the
'home' of temping, the USA. It is suggested that the TSI should be
understood as an active agent of labor-market deregulation and
restructuring, contrary to the industry's selfrepresentation as a neutral
intermediator in the job market and as a mere facilitator of more
efficient and flexible employment systems. The article draws attention to
the active steps that the industry has taken to establish (and defend) the
legally ambiguous 'triangular' employment relationship upon which its very
viability depends and, more generally, to make and grow its markets in
segments as diverse as light assembly and construction work, health care,
accountancy, teaching and a range of clerical occupations. The article
argues also for a more finely grained analysis of the ways in which the
temporary staffing business has itself transformed and restructured - as
an inventive and energetic vendor of labor flexibility in what has been an
expanding market since the industry's take-off in the 1970s. In fact, the
American TSI has experienced a series of distinctive stages of growth over
the past three decades, during which time it has searched but failed to
find alternatives to the established business model of narrow margins,
price competition and commodification. If there are limits to this
industry's growth, then, these may well prove to be internal ones.
Labor Relations; Downsizing (Management); Human Resource
Management; Regulatory Compliance; Changes in Paid Work.
53. Pupo, N., &
Duffy, A. (2000). Canadian part-time work into the Millennium: On the cusp
of change. Community, Work & Family, 3(1), 81-101.
paper examines the evolution of part-timer work in the Canadian context
and related research on insecure employment. Presented are the major
factors implicated in the expansion of part-time employment and
speculation on the further evolution of this form of peripheral employment
and its likely implications for women, youth, and older workers. Finally,
discussed are the challenges to unions and the state in addressing the
question of workers' insecurity and marginalized work.
Part-Time Work; Insecurity; Peripheral Employment; Canada;
Changes in Paid Work.
A. (2005). Evolution of the professional contingent workforce.
Journal of Labor Research [Fairfax],
professional contingent workers (PCW) market has evolved into one of the
fastest growing segments of the temporary labor force in the so-called
"new economy." To understand the evolution and success of the professional
contingent market, the author utilized a new paradigm. Three dimensions
are included: First, supply-side characteristics among PCW are analyzed in
aggregation. Second, the role and market contribution of intermediaries,
such as staffing groups, are stipulated. Finally, interaction among the
parties - PCW, staffing groups, and client firms - is viewed as symbiotic.
Within the structural framework established by client firms and staffing
groups, PCW create value and scale economies for all parties. Empirical
results confirm the hypothesis that PCW professionalism assures the
vitality of the market.
Labor Unions; Temporary Employment; Contract Labor; Labor
Supply; Studies; United States; Labor Relations; Experimental/Theoretical;
United States; Changes in Paid Work.
55. Rice, E. M.
(2004). Capitalizing on the contingent workforce - Outsourcing benefits
programs for non-core workers improves companies' bottom line. Employee
Benefit Plan Review, 58(8), 16-18.
According to the Advisory Council of the Department of Labor, 30 percent
of the U.S. labor force is a contingent workforce. This contingent
workforce is consists of temporary employees, project consultants,
contractors, seasonal workers, freelance workers, and other non-core
employees. Outsourcing of benefits programs allows companies to offer a
competitive benefits package to contingent staff employees. Discussed are
the advantages and considerations to companies that outsource the
administrative processes, human resources and benefits program for
Contingent Employees; Salaries; Pensions; Employee Health
Benefits; Administration; Outsourcing; Changes in Paid Work.
56. Saloniemi, A., Virtanen, P., & Vahtera, J. (2004).
The work environment in
fixed-term jobs: Are poor psychosocial conditions inevitable? Work,
Employment and Society, 18(1), 193-208.
study, which aimed to explore the relations between the psychosocial work
environment (PSWE) and the type of employment contract, showed that
fixedterm employment indicates neither social exclusion in the working
community, nor low job control or high job demands. Moreover, exposure to
high strain jobs was more common among permanent than among fixed-term
employees, while the latter were more often found in low strain and active
jobs. A closer glance at the background variables revealed some
significant associations, in particular ageing as a temporary employee
appeared to increase the risk of a poor PSWE. All in all, however, the
findings do not support suspicions about the adverse consequences of
Finland; Temporary Employment; Work Environment; Job
Satisfaction; Job Characteristics; Quality of Working Life; Employment
Changes; Changes in Paid Work.
57. Silla, I.,
Gracia, F. J., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Job insecurity and health-related
outcomes among different types of temporary workers. Economic and
Industrial Democracy, 26(1), 89-117.
increase in the numbers of flexible workers in past few decades has
captured researchers' attention. Traditionally, temporary workers were
portrayed as being disadvantaged compared to permanent workers. However,
temporary workers cannot be treated as a homogeneous group. The authors
compare 4 types of temporaries based on their contract preference and
employability level to that of permanent workers. Using a sample of 383
Spanish employees, differences in job insecurity and health-related
outcomes were tested. Differences in well-being and life satisfaction were
found. The results point out that the temporary workforce is diverse.
Therefore, in order to attain a better understanding of the experiences
and situations of these workers, it is preferable not to consider them as
one homogeneous group.
Contingent Employment; Insecurity; Labor Force; Changes in
58. Starks, B.
(2003). The new economy and the American dream: Examining the effect of
work conditions on beliefs about economic opportunity. The Sociological
Quarterly, 44(2), 205-225.
Recent decades have seen major changes in economic conditions in the US,
including large-scale layoffs and downsizing, erosion of job quality for
some workers, and increased reliance on nonstandard workers. Researchers
have investigated the objective contours of this new economy, but few have
investigated the consequences of these changes for popular attitudes about
economic opportunity. Using data from the 1998 Indiana Survey of Workers
in a Polarized Economy (N = 853), I investigate this new economic
landscape and its effects on people's views about economic opportunity. I
find that job deterioration and experiences with layoffs and job threats
are creating pessimism about the American Dream among workers.
Employment Opportunities; Worker Attitudes; Indiana;
Employment Changes; Pessimism; Economic Conditions; Work Attitudes;
Changes in Paid Work.
59. Theodore, N.,
& Peck, J. (2002). The temporary staffing industry: Growth imperatives and
limits to contingency. Economic Geography, 78(4), 463-493.
the 1970s, the temporary staffing industry (TSI) in the U.S. has enjoyed
explosive growth during a time in the market when temporary labor has
become increasingly complex and diverse. Rather than focus, as has
typically been done, on the wider labor market effects of this sustained
expansion in temporary employment, this article explores patterns and
processes of industrial restructuring in the TSI itself. Results reveal a
powerfully recursive relationship among evolving TSI business practices,
the industry's strategies for building and extending the market, and urban
labor market outcomes as the sector has grown through a series of
qualitatively differentiated phases of development or "modes of growth."
The distinctive character of the TSI's geographic rollout raises a new set
of questions concerning, inter alia, the links between temping and labor
market deregulation, the nature of local competition, the scope for and
limits of value-adding strategies, and the emerging global structure of
the temp market. This idiosyncratic industry has been a conspicuous
beneficiary of growing economic instability - has, throughout the past 3
decades, restructured continuously through a period of sustained but
highly uneven growth. In so doing, it has proved to be remarkably
inventive in extending the market for contingent labor, but has
encountered challenges for expansion in the domestic market. This, in
turn, has triggered an unprecedented phase of international integration in
the TSI, along with a new mode of development - global growth.
Workforce Planning; Temporary Employment; Industry; Labor
Market; Changes in Paid Work.
60. Trudeau, G.
(2002). Changing employment relationships and the unintentional evolution
of Canadian labour relations policy. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de
Politiques, 28(1), 149-152.
Canada, employment relationships have undergone considerable changes.
Current labor policy, which was designed to match the postwar Fordist
model of employment, leaves many workers without an adequate level of
social protection. This paper argues that major innovations in the
regulatory framework applying to labor are needed. In addition, current
policy regarding collective bargaining and minimum labor standards, new
policies aimed at ensuring the well-being and the development of
individuals throughout their career should be developed.
Labor Relations; Labor Policy; Canada; Economic Change;
Changes in Paid Work.
61. Uchitelle, L.
(2006). Retraining laid-off workers, but for what? Retrieved March
26, 2006, from http://www.nytimes.com
Layoffs have been destructive in the lives of millions of Americans over
the last 25 years. The cure that these displaced workers are offered -
retraining and more education - is heralded as a certain path to new and
better-paying careers. However, often that policy prescription does not
work, as this book excerpt explains.
Offshoring; Outsourcing; Globalization; Unions; Industrial
Relations; Changes in Paid Work.
62. VanEvery, J.
(1997). Understanding gendered inequality: Reconceptualizing housework.
Women's Studies International Forum, 20, 411-420.
VanEvery argues that the concepts used in research on housework are
inadequate for the task of understanding the links between divisions of
labor and inequalities.
Gendered Inequality; Housework.
63. Vosko, L.
(2000). Temporary work: The gendered rise of a precarious employment
relationship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Vosko's book presents the history and evolution of the Temporary Help
Industry (THI) in Canada and the regulatory system, both national and
international, that developed around it. Vosko traces the shift from the
Standard Employment Relationship (SER), which marked the post-World War II
period to the current period, where in casualized employment, workers have
few rights and can expect or demand little from their employers.
Temporary Work; Temporary Help Industry; Standard
Employment Relationship (SER); Changes in Paid Work.
64. Wallis, E.,
Winterton, J., & Winterton, R. (2000). Subcontracting in the privatised
coal industry. Work, Employment and Society, 14(4), 727-742.
J. Atkinson's (1984) flexible firm model of capitalist restructuring to
examine subcontracting in the UK's privatized coal industry. A
longitudinal study of the coal mining industry has embraced flexible firm
strategies, offering insights into the longevity of such strategies, as
well associations with increased subcontracting. The evolution of the coal
industry since its 1994 privatization are examined, along with the
rationale that subcontracting allows employers to meet temporary labor
shortages, hire persons with special skills, and reduce costs. Comparing
the current extent of subcontracting in the UK's coal industry to the
recent past, shows its continued utilization after privatization, a
noticeable decline following the 1997 coal crisis, and a return to
extensive use by 1998. The 5 major subcontracting companies are examined
by the range of their involvement in collieries, types of contracts
utilized, their labor sources, and by their company structures.
Implications of current trends and current patterns are discussed.
Employment Changes; Contracts; Coal; Mining Industry;
Privatization; United Kingdom; Changes in Paid Work.
65. Yu, W.-H.
(2002). Jobs for mothers: Married women's labor force reentry and
part-time, temporary employment in Japan. Sociological Forum, 17(3),
paper explains the increase in middle-aged women reentering the labor
force in Japan and their concentration in part-time or temporary
employment. Existing explanations attribute women's concentration in
part-time employment too narrowly to supply or demand factors. In Japan,
both the labor supply of middle-aged women and the demand for part-time
workers have increased, but these conditions channel middle-aged women
into part-time or temporary employment only when systematic barriers
obstruct their access to full-time jobs. Because it plays an important
role in women's employment decisions, the rigidity of standard, full-time
employment needs greater attention in studies of nonstandard, atypical
types of work.
Japan; Part Time Employment; Working Women; Middle-Aged
Adults; Labor Supply; Labor Force Participation; Sexual Inequality;
Changes in Paid Work.