Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

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Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: David W. Livingstone
Team Members:
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli



2.3. Changes in Paid Work and
       Employment Statuses

1. Aaronson, D. P., Kyung-Hong; Sullivan, Daniel. (2006). The decline in teen labor force participation. Economic Perspectives [Chicago], 30(1), 10-16.


            The pattern of steady decline in teen work from the 1970's is escalating beyond 2000. The authors argue that much of this pattern is due to a significant increase in the rewards of formal education. The study also explores changes to labour demand, crowding out by substitutable workers, the increased work activity of mothers and the rise in wealth as possible explanations.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Demographics; Teenagers; Education; Employment Changes.


2. Anonymous. (2003). A snapshot of Canada's workforce. Canadian HR Reporter [Toronto], 16(19), pp.17.


            Three researchers, sociology professor Cynthia Cranford at the University of Toronto at Mississauga, professor Leah Vosko of the School of Social Sciences at York University, and Nancy Zukewich at Statistics Canada, have thoroughly counted the labour force in contingent work. Their results show that the contingent workforce grew in the early 1990s and has stabilized thereafter.


            KEY WORDS: Research; Temporary Employment; Labor Market; Canada; Forecasts; Canada; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent Work.



3. Appelbaum, E. B., Annette; Murnane, Richard J; Weinberg, Jeremy A. (2005). Low-wage employment in America: Results from a set of recent industry case studies. Socio-Economic Review, 3(2), 293-230.


            National survey results show the changes that have taken place in the US wage structure over the past 3 decades. These data provide only very limited information about the complex reasons why changes have occurred and why there is significant variation in the wages of workers with similar education levels employed in similar industries. Industry case studies, on the other hand, document how firms' responses to economic pressures have affected working conditions, work rules, productivity pressures, skill requirements, & opportunities for training & advancement for workers with less than a 4-year college education. Reviewed are a series of recent case studies on low-wage employment in America funded by the Russell Sage, Rockefeller Foundations, and examines the pressures to cut costs and how these pressures have affected firms' treatment of frontline workers.


            KEY WORDS: Wages; Employment Changes; Income Inequality; Labor Market; Industry; United States of America; Changes in Paid Work; Survey; Employment Status.


4. Aronowitz, S. (2001). The last good job in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.


            This book argues for the decline of the job as the backbone (along with family) of American society. New economic and global technological changes have enabled an emerging culture of cynicism between workers and their employers that threatens social stability and well being.


            KEY WORDS: New Economy; United States; Changes in Paid Work.


5. Bailey, T. (2001). Changing labor markets and the U.S. workforce development system. In I. Berg & A. L. Kalleberg (Eds.), Sourcebook of labour markets: Evolving structures and processes (pp. 429-449). New York: Kluwer Academic /Plenum.


            America's workforce development system and policy during the 80's and 90's is first described. Then, changes in America's economic system and the workplaces are analyzed. These changes are arguably, a basis for an agenda of reform and possible reforms are examined and assessed. Concludes by looking at how the latest economic changes have affected both the workforce development system and education reform.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Labor Policy; Economic Systems; Employment Changes; Labor Supply; Economic Change; United States of America; Educational Reform; Changes in Paid Work.


6. Barker, K., & Christensen, K. (Eds.). (1998). Contingent work: American employment relations in transition. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.


            Contingent work is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of tenuous and insecure employment arrangements. The 1997 successful strike by the Teamsters against UPS, and the overwhelming support the American public gave strikers, highlighted the impact of contingent work. This book considers the consequences for the individual, family, and community of working contingently.


            KEY WORDS: Part-Time Employment; Piece-Work; Contract System (Labor); Labor Laws and Legislation; Temporary Employment; Seasonal Labor; Employee Fringe Benefits; Law and Legislation; Piece-work; United States; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent work.


7. Bernhardt, A., Dresser, L., & Hill, C. (2000). Why privatizing government services would hurt women workers. Research-in-brief (No. IWPRC347). Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research.


            Data from the 1998 Current Population Survey was employed to document job growth in public and private sectors and examine wages and benefits. Findings show both men and women's public sector employment declined from 1979-98, with a somewhat sharper decline among men. In 1998, median public sector earnings were higher than private sector earnings for most workers. Privatization was likely to erode the wages and benefits of women workers; this was particularly the case for African American and Hispanic women and those with less formal education. Unionization was a central factor in understanding why the public sector pays workers more than the private sector. While there was clearly a gender bias in both sectors, women's wages were closer to men's in the public sector. However, the public sector did not generally offer exceptional opportunities for women to hold managerial and professional positions. The bottom line was that privatization and de-unionization were likely to prove detrimental to the economic welfare of women workers.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Blacks; Economics; Employed Women; Government Role; Hispanic Americans; Private Sector; Privatization; Public Agencies; Salary Wage Differentials; Sex Differences; Unions; Wages; Changes in Paid Work.


8. Bernhardt, A., Morris, M., Handcock, M. S., & Scott, M. A. (2000). Trends in job instability and wages for young adult men. In D. Neumark (Ed.), On the job: Is long-term employment a thing of the past? (pp. 111-141). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


            An examination of job stability for young men compares 2-year job separation rates across cohorts of white men, ages 14-22, in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). Advantages & potential problems of using the NLS rather than another data source are discussed. The two cohorts were followed over the periods 1966-1981 & 1979-1994, respectively, with the more recent cohort exhibiting higher separation rates. The marked increase during the 1980s & early 1990s does not disappear when young workers "settle down," & the increase cannot be blamed on less education or shifts to the less stable service sector. Overall, other factors could only explain about half of the overall rise in instability. Although job shopping was once considered a way for young adults to increase their wages, it no longer offers the same benefits, especially for persons with lower educational achievement. It is predicted that this greater inequality in wage growth is apt to persist as these young men grow older.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Changes; Job Change; Dismissal; Wages; Males; Young Adults; Youth Employment; Labor Turnover; Unemployment Rates; Changes in Paid Work.


9. Biagi, M. (Ed.). (2001). Towards a European model of industrial relations? Building on the first report of the European Commission. New York: Kluwer Law International.


            In this volume fifteen notable scholars and policymakers from six European countries explore the territory of industrial relations in Europe as it now stands. The important questions for which they provide in-depth materials include: How far has `Europeanisation' progressed in this field? In what ways does the monetary union affect industrial relations? To what extent is the evolving European policy a `pact' between the national employers and trade union organisations? What subtle variations persist in the theme of worker security versus labour market flexibility? What is the `new style' of collective bargaining? - Is the power of the state government in industrial relations beyond EU intervention? How will the Nice Charter of Fundamental Rights affect industrial relations? What kinds of labour law and social security legislation may be expected in the near future? - How is the globalisation of the market economy affecting wages and working time? and How does the prospect of EU enlargement to the East affect industrial relations policy?


            KEY WORDS: Europe; Industrial Relations; Collective Bargaining; Changes in Paid Work.


10. Conley, H. (2002). A state of insecurity: Temporary work in the public services. Work, Employment and Society, 16(4), 725-737.


            Temporary employment in Great Britain is discussed as a major aspect of job insecurity in the public sector. Though the threat of temporary work is generally considered low (6%), a reanalysis of statistical data suggests this is a more common practice if one compares temporary workers in each sector as a percentage of the total workforce for that sector, rather than relying on a simple head count of temporary workers. It is suggested that the concentration of temporary contracts within certain social groups may offer an inferior type of employment to workers who are already disadvantaged. In-depth case studies, conducted 1996-1998, of two local authorities and their attendant local education authorities support these arguments at both the city and county levels. The human costs to workers associated with state-level decisions to attempt to improve efficiency and flexibility by shifting to temporary work contracts are explored.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Changes; Great Britain; Job Security; Temporary Employment; Public Sector; Government Policy; Changes in Paid Work.


11. Conway, N., & Briner, R. B. (2002). Full-time versus part-time employees: Understanding the links between work status, the psychological contract, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 279-301.


            Research findings comparing the work attitudes of full-time and part-time employees have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Furthermore, empirical studies have tended to be atheoretical, and there are few convincing psychological explanations to explain differences where found. This article tests the psychological contract as an explanatory framework for attitudinal differences across work status (i.e., whether employed on a part-time or full-time basis). The model is tested across samples from two different organizations using structural equation modeling. The analysis reveals that part-time and full-time employees differed on a number of attitudes and that psychological contract fulfillment could be used to explain differences in certain attitudes (e.g., satisfaction) but not others (e.g., affective commitment). Analyses also show that the relationships between psychological contract fulfillment and outcomes were rarely moderated by work status, suggesting that part-time employees will respond in a similar way as full-time employees to adjustments in their psychological contract.


            KEY WORDS: Attitudes; Part-Time; Full-time; Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Changes in Paid Work.


12. Deery, M., & Jago, L. K. (2002). The core and the periphery: An examination of the flexible workforce model in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21(4), 339-351.


            The complexities and precariousness of the peripheral workforce in the hotel industry, as defined by Guerrier and Lockwood (Personnel Rev. 18 (1) (1989) are studied in relation to access to the internal labour market. Also examined are the perceptions of employees in relation to the ILM components of training, promotional opportunities and job security. In this study, 287 non-supervisory hotel employees from seven Central Business District (CBD) Melbourne hotels were surveyed. These respondents were grouped into peripheral and non-peripheral clusters according to labour force segmentation criteria. Statistical techniques, including discriminant analysis, were used to assess differences between the clusters in terms of ILM components and employee attitudes. The findings question previous research that proposes clearly defined workforce groups in the hotel sector. Previous research has examined the flexible firm from a range of perspectives such as pay flexibility (British Journal of Industrial Relations 31 (1993) 409), temporal flexibility (Working Paper No. 112, Department of Management & Industrial Relations, University of Melbourne, 1997) and gender segregation (Sociology 25 (4) (1991) 607.


            KEY WORDS: Core; Periphery; Workforce Flexibility; Internal Labour Markets; Changes in Paid Work.


13. Dickerson, A., & Green, F. (2004). The growth and valuation of computing and other generic skills. Oxford Economic Papers, 56, 371-406.


            This article describes a method for measuring job skills using survey data on detailed work activities, and using these measures examines whether the utilisation of skills is growing, and how they are valued in the labour market. We show that between 1997 and 2001 there was a growth in Britain in the utilisation of computing skills, literacy, numeracy, technical know-how, high-level communication skills, planning skills, client communication skills, horizontal communication skills, problem-solving, and checking skills. Computer skills utilisation was growing the fastest, and the use of computers was becoming more sophisticated. The authors re-evaluate the issue of whether computers have affected wages, taking into account existing critiques in the literature. The authors find that both computer skills and high-level communication skills carry positive wage premia, as shown both in cross-section hedonic wage equations that control for many detailed activities, and through a within-cohorts change analysis.


            KEY WORDS: Britain; Knowledge Economy.


14. DiPrete, T. A., Goux, D., & Maurin, E. (2002). Internal labor markets and earnings Trajectories in the post-Fordist economy: An analysis of recent trends. Social Science Research, 31(2), 175-196.


            The "post-Fordist" economy is believed to have changed the structure of work careers in the American work force of the 1990s. Most research examines the implications of post-Fordism for job mobility or for the fraction of the workforce that has a "contingent" employment relationship with the employer. Post-Fordism should also affect the relationship between job rewards and tenure with the employer, which sociologists have stated as a core characteristic of the firm internal labor market. The theory of post-Fordism declares a weaker relationship between tenure and job rewards and a correspondingly stronger relationship between general labor force experience and job rewards for the highly educated workers. Analysis of trends for male workers from the Current Population Surveys for the years 1983-1998 have largely supported these hypotheses. Analysis also suggests that observed trends in the returns to job tenure and experience can be attributed to changes in the production of value rather than from selection mechanisms linked to post-Fordist-induced trends in the structure of job mobility.


            KEY WORDS: Post-Fordism; Work Career Structure; American Workforce; Employee and Employer Relations; Changes in Paid Work.


15. Evans, C. F. (2003). The changing nature of employment: How self-employed HR professionals manage their lives, learning and knowledge. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social, 64(1), 58-C.


            The changing landscape of employment and work in late 20th century Britain is informed by the "informational technological paradigm" (Castells, 1996). This research investigates how self-employed human resource professionals are managing their lives, learning and knowledge. Other empirical work has investigated the lives of individuals pursuing nontraditional career models (e.g., "portfolio career", or "lifestyle career"); this research is different. It is based on a broader view of a career, where the term career is seen as applying to all life-areas, not just an individual's working life. Second, this research has adopted a different methodological approach, applying the Life History Methodology. The research sample included twenty-six participants, seventeen male and nine female, identified through non-probability sampling. The research has illuminated how the decisions that these individuals make about their work career is balanced with the needs and demands from other life-areas, e.g., family and learning, together with the availability of key resources. The findings offer a description of the benefits, threats, opportunities and paradoxes associated with the self-employed lifestyle, and the strategies adopted for managing learning and knowledge. Formal learning was found to have an important place in these individuals' lives, at strategic points. However, much of their learning falls into six informal learning categories. The thesis concludes by discussing the implications and opportunities for policy making.


            KEY WORDS: Self Employment; Employment Changes; Great Britain; Time Utilization; Professional Workers; Human Resources; Lifestyle; Learning; Family-Work Relationship; Knowledge; Changes in Paid Work.


16. Felstead, A., Jewson, N., & Walters, S. (2005). The shifting locations of work: New statistical evidence on the spaces and places of employment. Work, Employment & Society, 19(2), 415-431.


            The aim of this paper is to chart with available data, the shifting locations of work – both outside and inside the office – and to identify which types of people and jobs have been most affected. The paper reports on the changing proportions and numbers of people carrying out work away from the conventional physical boundaries of the office or factory.


            KEY WORDS: Changing Nature of Work; Health; Changes in Paid Work.


17. Garcy, A. M., Jr. (2003). Part-time and contingent academic employment. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63(12).


            A study of contingent, part-time and part-time contingent employment was carried out to determine why these employment arrangements had become more prevalent over time. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics 1987 and 1992 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty and National Survey of Post-Secondary Faculty were used to conduct the 3 levels of analyses: the individual, the academic field and the academic institution. At the Faculty level findings revealed the increased likelihood of working a limited employment status which was related to numerous characteristics that suggested both voluntary and involuntary factors. Age, lack of tenure status, union membership, education and the combined effect of marital status and gender contributed. The field level analysis showed a higher than average growth in limited employment status. This was concentrated in typical education and fine arts fields. Younger faculty were clearly associated with growth in part-time, contingent and part-time contingent employment rates over time. A decrease in the amount of time that average faculty spent on research was noted. Institutions with declining numbers of majors tended to increase their employment levels of part-time/contingent faculty over time. Statistical evidence showed that average public two-year institutions had a higher proportion of faculty who held a limited employment status. Within institutions, those that had raised requirements for research activities diminished their use of such faculty over-time. Compositional changes in the makeup of the institution level faculty workforce were also important. Within institutions, those that increased the proportion of faculty who were younger had growth in the proportion of faculty who were employed part-time/contingently. Finally, there was no statistical evidence to show that fixed or quasi-fixed costs were related to institution level increases in limited status academic employment.


            KEY WORDS: Higher Education; College Faculty; Part Time Employment; Temporary Employment; Employment Changes; United States of America; Changes in Paid Work.


18. Gibelman, M. (2005). Social workers for rent: The contingency human services labor force. Families in Society, 86(4), 457-469.


            Identified and characterized are the trends in the contingency market in social work and articulates advantages and disadvantages from the vantage point of employing organizations and the professional labor force. The author raises questions regarding the accuracy of perceived cost-benefits of these arrangements as well as implications for professional ethics and values, service quality, accountability, and workplace environment. Monitoring and evaluation of the use of contingent workers are essential to ensure the quality, efficiency, and efficacy of these alternative arrangements on the provision of human services.


            KEY WORDS: Human Services; Employment Changes; Working Hours; Social Workers; Labor Force Development; Changes in Paid Work.


19. Giesecke, J., & Gross, M. (2003). Temporary employment: Chance or risk? European Sociological Review, 19(2), 161-177.


            The paper investigates whether increased labor-market flexibility leads to a reinforcement of the existing segmentation of the labor market or to a dismantling of barriers in the labor market. Using spell data (employment and unemployment periods) from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP, time period: 1984-1999), both determinants of temporary employment and their consequences (eg, renewed temporary employment, unemployment) are investigated with the help of random-effects logit-models. The results show that respondents' characteristics (amount and type of human capital, previous periods of unemployment), structural variables (industry, firm size), and occupational characteristics (position, marginal employment) influence the risk of finding a temporary job. Further, it is shown that fixed-term contracts increase the risk of finding another temporary job or of becoming unemployed after termination of the contract. These results show that fixed-term contracts are primarily part of the secondary labor market, and they have negative consequences for the employees in this segment. At the same time fixed-term contracts can be seen as providing opportunities in that they are at least an alternative to unemployment.


            KEY WORDS: Temporary Employment; Employment Changes; Labor Market Segmentation; Contracts; Employment Opportunities; Employability; Germany; Changes in Paid Work.


20. Giuffre, P. A. (2005). Changing corporate America from inside out: Lesbian and gay workplace rights. Gender & Society, 19(6), 868-870.


            Book Review: Changing Corporate America from Inside Out: Lesbian and Gay Workplace Rights by Nicole C. Raeburn (2004). Despite offering domestic partner benefits that now include sexual orientation in their antidiscrimination corporate policies, others do not. What contributes to the variation among employers? Under what conditions are we likely to see gay-inclusive policies and benefits emerge? What is the influence of lesbian and gay workplace activists in the development of domestic partner benefits on Fortune 1000 companies? This impressive multimethod approach includes analyses of phone surveys of gay, lesbian, and bisexual networks in Fortune 1000 companies and with vice presidents and human resource directors; print and online sources; organizational documents from three case studies; and field data from conferences and meetings of gay employee activist networks. Interviews with gay employee groups and informants from the Human Rights Commission and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force were conducted. Scholars interested in policy, sexuality, organizations and organization theory, social movements, activism, sociology of work, and for readers who seek specific strategies would find this an essential read.


            KEY WORDS: Homosexuality; Organizations; Working Conditions; Employee Benefits; Lesbianism; Sexual Orientation; Changes in Paid Work.


21. Goyder, J. (2005). The dynamics of occupational prestige: 1975-2000. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 42(1), 1-23.


            Urban-area data collected in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, twinned with an earlier study from 1975, are used as a vantage point for re-examining the historical stability of occupational prestige. The article proposes that the shape of the prestige distribution has been neglected in favour of statistics describing stability in rank order and that historical change since around 1975 is qualitatively different than for earlier periods. The researcher's hypothesis is that the distribution of occupational prestige has become more equal and that the rank order has shifted noticeably.


            KEY WORDS: Occupation; Class Analysis; Stratification; Changes in Paid Work; Employment Status.


22. Green, F. (2004). Work intensification, discretion and the decline in well-being at work. Eastern Economic Journal, 30(4), 615-625.


            Data from three representative British surveys are used to show that there has been a decline in the overall level of job satisfaction and a rise in the extent of work strain. The rise in work strain is associated with work intensification, while the fall in job satisfaction is associated partly with work intensification but also with the declining amount of discretion that workers have in their daily tasks. However, work intensification may have come to a halt after 1997. The paper also confirms a link between computerised or automated jobs and high work effort.


            KEY WORDS: Discretion; Work; Labour Process; Changes in Paid Work.


23. Gunderson, M. (2002). Rethinking productivity from a workplace perspective. CPRN Discussion Paper. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.


            The issue of increasing productivity was examined from an interdisciplinary perspective focusing on the impact of workplace practices on various productivity-related outcomes. First, the following methodological issues were discussed: defining workplace practices that affect productivity; linking employer behavior and organizational performance; dealing with the complexity of interrelated factors; reverse causality; bias from selection into the program; bias from the research and publication process; biases from reverting to normal; the Hawthorne effect; and short-run versus long-run effects. Next, the impacts of the following workplace practices on productivity were analyzed with consideration for those methodological issues: job design; employee involvement; compensation; alternative work time arrangements; training; diversity management; and workplace well-being programs. Most of those workplace practices had positive effects on employees, which in turn positively affected firm performance, productivity, and competitiveness. Success of the workplace practices was enhanced when they were combined in clusters, integrated to fit overall corporate strategy, and supported by managers, supervisors, and unions. The analysis identified 11 barriers to adoption and diffusion of "best" workplace practices, including the following: managerial resistance, employee resistance, union resistance, legislative barriers, short-term focus, workplace practices as a source of competitive advantage, barriers to cooperative actions, and externalities and the fact that trained employees may be lured away by other companies.


            KEY WORDS: Adjustment (to Environment); Adoption (Ideas); Adult Education; Compensation (Remuneration); Cooperation; Cultural Differences; Definitions; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Employer Employee Relationship; Employment Patterns; Employment Practices; Federal Legislation; Foreign Countries; Job Performance; Literature Reviews; Organizational Effectiveness; Performance Factors; Personnel Management; Policy Formation; Productivity; Public Policy; Quality of Working Life; Research Design; Research Methodology; Research Problems; Supervisor Supervisee Relationship; Training; Work Attitudes; Work Environment Best Practices; Canada; Global Economy; Hawthorne Effect; Impact Studies; Changes in Paid Work.


24. Harley, B. (2003). Class and control revisited: An analysis of occupation, autonomy and pay in the service sector. Unpublished manuscript, Melbourne.


            This paper is concerned with recent debates about the continuing relevance of class as an explanatory category for key aspects of the experience of work in the advanced economies. In particular, it engages with the claim that the growth of service sector employment, and attendant changes in labour processes and contractual arrangements, have changed the nature of work in ways which make previously dominant conceptualisations of class redundant. The paper seeks to elucidate a key issue in the debates – the extent to which associations between occupation on one hand, and discretion, orientation to management and pay on the other, vary systematically between employees working in ‘service’ industries and other industries. The analysis suggests that occupation remains a key determinant of discretion which is consistent with earlier studies (see Harley 1999, Boreham 1991). It also remains a key predictor of pay. The associations between occupation and views of management remain rather less clear. Moreover, the associations involving occupation appear to hold across industry.


            KEY WORDS: Discretion; Class; Decision-Making; Occupation; Work; Service Workers; Changes in Paid Work; Employment Status.


25. Havlovic, S. J., Lau, D. C., & Pinfield, L. T. (2002). Repercussions of work schedule congruence among full-time, part-time, and contingent nurses. Health Care Management Review, 27(4), 30-41.


            Previous studies on alternative work schedules have focused primarily on the main effects of compressed work weeks and shift work on individual outcomes. The combined effects of alternative and preferred work schedules on nurses' satisfaction with their work schedules, the perceived patient care quality, and interferences with their personal lives is explored. Results show substantial support for the notion of work schedule congruence. Generally, registered nurses who worked simultaneously on both their preferred shifts and preferred work weeks reported more positive work outcomes and less interference with their nonwork activities. Shift congruence yielded less interference with sleep and social activities and higher satisfaction with work arrangement. No benefits were observed for those with only work week congruence.


            KEY WORDS: Studies; Regression Analysis; Employee Attitude; Nurses; Flexible Hours; Workforce Planning; Quality of Service; United States; Experimental/Theoretical; Health Care Industry; Human Resource Planning; US; Changes in Paid Work.


26. Hecker, D. E. (2001). Occupational employment projections to 2010. Monthly Labor Review, 124(11), 57-84.


            Employment in professional and related occupations and service occupations will increase the fastest and add the most jobs from 2000 to 2010. Changes in technology or business operations will cause the largest declines in occupational demand. Occupations requiring a postsecondary award or academic degree will account for 42 percent of total job growth from 2000 to 2010.


            KEY WORDS: Demand Occupations; Employment Projections; Employment Qualifications; Job Development; Postsecondary Education; Tables (Data); Changes in Paid Work.


27. Henley, A. (2004). Self-employment status: The role of state dependence and initial circumstances. Small Business Economics, 22(1), 67-82.


            British longitudinal data is used to model self-employment status. Contrast to prior studies, the modelling approach accounts for state-dependence and unexplained heterogeneity effects. In conclusion, state dependence is an important influence on self-employment choice. Someone self-employed last year is, controlling for observable and unobservable influences, 30% points more likely to be self-employed this year than someone who was in paid employment one year ago. Results show that significant individual heterogeneity in the probability of self-employment, with significant explained influences operating through gender, educational attainment, occupation, spouse's self-employment, and parental and educational background. Significant, though quantitatively smaller influences come though initial financial circumstance and current house price movements. Local labour market shocks do not appear significantly to influence self-employment choice. The authors conclude that the autoregressive nature of self-employment time-series would appear to be a structural rather than a cyclical phenomenon.


            KEY WORDS: British Longitudinal Data; Modelling Approach; State Dependence; Self-Employment Choice; Changes in Paid Work.


28. Hjalager, A.-M. (2003). Virtually working: Traditional and emerging institutional frameworks for the contingent workforce. International Journal of Manpower, 24(2), 187-206.


            The author focuses on virtual working and the ultramobile – contingent - workforce in a Nordic welfare economy. Institutional frameworks for virtual working are investigated and analysed. Danish legal frameworks and collective bargaining arrangements are shown to provide substantial opportunities for flexibility that benefits small and medium-sized enterprises in particular. From the early 1990s, temp and recruiting agency activity has somewhat widened in scope and scale, in accordance with a general deregulation of this labour market service. Restrictions that still exist in many European countries have been abolished in Denmark, but other forces counteract a rapid development of the agency sector. The new opportunities over internet for a flexibilisation of work by expanding geographical and organisational limits and lowering search and promotion costs. Results discussed are the new "meta" organisations. The aim is social protection of virtual workers in an increasingly competitive, globalised and individualised world.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Determination; Job Creation; Demand for Labor; Self-Employment; Personnel Economics; Labor Contracting; Outsourcing; Franchising; Other; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Technological Change; Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Impact on Production; Welfare; Income Distribution; International Competitiveness; Military Power; Measurement; Case Studies; International Transfer of Technology; Denmark; Changes in Paid Work.


29. Hughes, K. D. (2003). Pushed or pulled? Women's entry into self-employment and small business ownership. Gender, Work & Organization, 10(4), 433-454.


            The economies of Canada and many other industrialized countries have experienced significant restructuring within the past two decades. This restructuring has encouraged steadily rising levels of self-employment and small business ownership. Women have been at the forefront of this change. As more women enter self-employment, of interest are the factors fueling its growth. Some argue that women have been pulled into self-employment by the promise of independence, flexibility and the opportunity to escape barriers in paid employment. Others argue that women have been pushed into it as restructuring and downsizing has eroded the availability of once secure jobs in the public and private sector. Existing research on the 'push-pull' debate has not fully answered. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 61 self-employed women in Canada, this paper examines the push-pull debate in greater detail. Overall women's experiences shed further light on the expansion of women's self-employment in the 1990. The research suggests that push factors have been underestimated and challenges the current contours of the 'push-pull' debate.


            KEY WORDS: Business; Economy; Entrepreneurship; Females; Self Employment; Changes in Paid Work.


30. International Labour Office. (2004). World employment report 2004: Employment and poverty reduction. Geneva: International Labour Office.


            This edition of the World Employment Report looks at the concept of labour productivity and the ways in which it is linked to poverty reduction and employment creation in countries at various stages of development around the world. The paper works from the premise that for most of the world’s labour force, it is not necessarily the absence of work that is the major challenge for improving living standards, but rather the absence of work that is sufficiently productive for earning a decent income. The paper looks closely at the interdependence of productivity, output and employment. It traces the main sources of productivity growth and pinpoints the principal influences affecting those sources such as technological change, organization and composition of the labour market. The paper provides a thorough definition of productivity and evaluates whether productivity growth alone is enough to eradicate poverty in the future. The implications for labour market policy around the world are also examined.


            KEY WORDS: Labour Market; Labour Supply; Unemployment; Changes in Paid Work.


31. International Labour Office. (2003). Global employment trends 2002. Geneva: Author.


            This report was released by the ILO in 2003 to fill the demand for a timely and comprehensive analysis of current labour market trends. It presents labour market trends and underlines the main employment challenges at the global level and in each of eight regions of the world. The report does not aim at presenting policy recommendations to overcome these challenges. Stress is laid on the growth of employment and unemployment, youth unemployment and the employment of women. Such developments are presented in the light of changes in output growth and in labour market policy.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Trends; Growth of Employment; Youth Unemployment; Employment of Women; Unemployment; Changes in Paid Work.


32. Jackson, A. (2005). Work and labour in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.


            The thesis is change. Work and Labour in Canada examines changes in the labour market, and in workplaces, with a strong empirical component based upon recent Statistics Canada data. The chapters are tailored to an undergraduate audience. They are masterfully written from a labour perspective - that is, concerned with the impacts of changes on workers - but also written on the basis of empirical evidence with supporting summaries of the academic research literature.


            KEY WORDS: Canada; Work; Global Economy; Academic; Changing Nature of Work; Changes in Paid Work.


33. Jordan, J. W. (2003). Sabotage or performed compliance: Rhetorics of resistance in temp worker discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89(1), 19-40.


            Analyzed are the contemporary temporary employment texts and the competing rhetorical definitions that shape the meanings of employment and identity in the contingent economy. Arguing against resistance labor rhetoric that is ill-suited to present conditions of temporary work, the author advocates a rhetoric of "performativity" enabling temporary workers to carve their own definitional territory and seek advantage within an oppressive management culture. Rhetorical tactics of performativity enable resistant practices suited to contingent situations and show promise for new conceptions of identity.


            KEY WORDS: Identity; Rhetoric; Workers; Discourse; Changes in Paid Work.


34. Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000). Bad jobs in America: Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States. American Sociological Review, 65(2), 256-278.


            Nonstandard jobs are often perceived as bad. The study uses data from the 1995 Current Population Survey to examine the relationship between nonstandard employment (on-call work and day labor, temporary-help agency employment, employment with contract companies, independent contracting, other self-employment, and part-time employment in "conventional" jobs) and exposure to "bad" job characteristics. Of workers age 18+, 31% are in some type of nonstandard work arrangement. To assess the link between type of employment and bad jobs, we conceptualize "bad jobs" as those with low pay and without access to health insurance and pension benefits. About one in seven jobs in the US is considered bad on these three dimensions. Nonstandard employment strongly increases workers' contact to bad job characteristics, net of controls for workers' personal characteristics, family status, occupation, and industry.


            KEY WORDS: Employment; United States of America; Labor Market; Work Attitudes; Job Characteristics; Nontraditional Occupations; Changes in Paid Work.


35. Kalleberg, A. L. (2003). Flexible firms and labor market segmentation: Effects of workplace restructuring on jobs and workers. Work and Occupations, 30(2), 154-175.


            U.S. employers' use of numerical and functional flexibility has created a division between organizational insiders (core) and outsiders (periphery). The latter have nonstandard work arrangements, the consequences of which differ depending on workers' degree of control over skills, autonomy, and transferability.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Labor Relations; Organizational Change; Personal Autonomy; Temporary Employment; Work Environment; Working Hours; Changes in Paid Work.


36. Kiger, P. J. (2002). Workers take their jobs on the road. Workforce, 81(10), 58-61.


            Camping World's Multi-Location Crew member program is an HR four-year initiative enabling employees to work part of the year at one of the organization's thirty stores, take off for traveling, and relocate to another location to resume work. Participants enjoy the freedom to roam and still retain security of a full-time position with health-care and other benefits. Contingent, mobile full-time workers have helped the company cope with what was once a chronic shortage of competent employees in stores during the seasons when the firm did the bulk of its business. The ability to deploy already-trained workers has enabled Camping World to improve productivity and revenues. Recognizing Camping World's astute approach to helping both its employees and its own bottom line, the company is this year's recipient of Workforce's Optimas Award for Quality of Life.


            KEY WORDS: Corporate Profiles; Retailing Industry; Honors; Human Resource Management; Work Life Programs; United States; Company Specific; Retailing Industry; Human Resource Planning; United States; US; Camping World; Changes in Paid Work.


37. Kirschenbaum, A., & Weisberg, J. (2002). Employee's turnover intentions destination choices. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 109-125.


            As part of the turnover process, employee's job destination choices reflect options for internal organizational or external labor market moves. A sample of 477 employees in 15 firms was used to consider how bio-demographic, job, plant, and labor market characteristics are related to five alternative job destinations. Multivariate logistic regression and odds-ratio analyses compared the five models confirming that different sets of variables influence each of the destination choices. Coworkers' intentions have a significant impact on all destination options. Findings have implications for present turnover models, career paths, and promotion progression in the firm.


            KEY WORDS: Turnover; Empirical Research; Turnover Models; Career Paths; Promotion Progression; Changes in Paid Work.


38. Lanza, B., Maryn, M. R., & Elders, R. J. (2003). Legal status of contingent workers. Compensation and Benefits Review, 35(4), 47-60.


            Contingent workers are a vital part of the workforce for many companies. A recent estimate in the United States, has placed the number of contingent workers at 3 million, with about half, or one and one half million, performing the same services for the same company for six months or longer. However, the vast majority of companies using contingent workers have not developed a clear plan for maximizing the benefit of the various categories of contingent workers or for avoiding legal pitfalls. Consequently, many companies never benefit from the significant cost savings and risk-management benefits provided by such a plan. This article raises the strategic, legal and financial issues companies need to think about in working with a contingent workforce. The potential drawbacks and possible solutions for managing the contingent workforce are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Regulatory Compliance; Human Resource Management; Risk Management; Outsourcing; Changes in Paid Work.


39. Lautsch, B. A. (2003). The influence of regular work systems on compensation for contingent workers. Industrial Relations, 42(4), 565-588.


            Using data from a nationally representative survey of US business establishments, the authors explore features of regular work and the outcomes for contingent workers. Results show that firms combine regular and contingent work in varied ways: Contingent work may be designed to achieve performance objectives not possible with the regular workforce. In other cases, contingent jobs are created to reinforce the same goals as regular work. In the latter case, contingent workers are more likely to be integrated with regular workers and receive benefits. Benefit provision for contingent workers is also influenced by traditional internal labor market rules, and may be extended to contingent workers once offered to regular workers.


            KEY WORDS: Temporary Employment; Benefits; Enterprises; United States of America; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent Work.


40. Loh, K. (2004). Socialization experiences of part-time faculty: A study of socialization programs and employment longevity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65-04A, pp.1199.


            Socialization experiences of part-time faculty at a four-year comprehensive university, a survey was administered to part-time faculty that gathered data on (1) their perceptions of their socialization experiences through its processes and outcomes, (2) the professional profile of these part-time faculty, and (3) the factors behind their employment longevity - referred to in the study as non-transient part-time faculty. Part-time faculty who participated in this study had positive perceptions about their socialization experiences and exhibited a strong sense of loyalty and commitment to their institution. However, they did not participate much in socialization programs provided by the institution, and individual socialization efforts were also minimal or limited to informal activities such as lunches or holiday parties. Non-transient part-time faculty at this institution had an average employment tenure of 4.75 years and attributed their employment longevity to intrinsic factors in the process of teaching and interaction with students, professional satisfaction in being associated with an institution of higher learning, and convenience in their flexible teaching schedule. The data did not support the somewhat negative perspectives on part-time faculty employment in the conventional literature. Part-time faculty here chose their employment status willingly and primarily to earn extra income. Many had no desire to seek full-time teaching positions, and a minority indicated that they were teaching part-time due to a lack of more favorable employment options. Highlighted is the importance of customizing and adapting socialization programs to the needs of the institution and the part-time faculty. Also the importance of studying part-time faculty from a human resource perspective, focusing on their deployment as contingent workforce - or contingent faculty with budgetary reductions.


            KEY WORDS: Education; Administration; Education; Higher; Changes in Paid Work; Part-Time.



41. Luber, S., & Leicht, R. (2000). Growing self-employment in Western Europe: An effect of modernization? International Review of Sociology/ Revue Internationale de Sociologie, 10(1), 101-123.


            Trends embedded in economic and structural changes toward self-employment in Western European companies. Common explanations to growing self-employment cover cultural & sociodemographic issues, institutional & political arrangements, & structural changes. The 1983-1997 European Labor Force Survey data for Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, & the UK reveal differences between the North & South that indicate a concentration in trades, restaurants, & hotels in the latter, while the former tended toward professional, modern, & business related services. Changes in self-employment & growth rates are reviewed for each country, as are trends between industry & services. These countries are marked by discontinuity showing that heterogeneous self-employment trends in the European Community are not in alignment with the expected effects of modernization. New explanations are needed to explain the dissimilarities between countries.


            KEY WORDS: Western Europe; Self Employment; Employment Changes; Economic Change; Economic Development; North and South; Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany; France; Italy; Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; United Kingdom; Regional Differences; Changes in Paid Work.



42. Luff, P., Hindmarsh, J., & Heath, C. (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge, UK, New York: Cambridge University Press.


            This book discusses critical issues in the study of the workplace and outlines recent developments in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part I consists of a number of detailed case studies that provide an insight into the issues central to workplace studies including some of the problems involved in carrying out such research. Part II focuses on the interrelationship between workplace studies and the design of new technologies.


            KEY WORDS: Technological Innovations; Employee Participation; Management; Communication in Design; Organizational Change; Communication And Technology; Work Environment; Work Design; Changes in Paid Work.


43. McGovern, P., Smeaton, D., & Hill, S. (2004). Bad jobs in Britain: Nonstandard employment and job quality. Work and Occupations, 31(2), 225-249.


            The rapid growth in nonstandard forms of employment toward the end of the 20th century has fuelled claims about the spread of “bad jobs” within Anglo-American capitalism. Research from the United States indicates that such jobs have more bad characteristics than do permanent jobs after controlling for workers’ personal characteristics, family status, and occupation. We apply a version of the bad characteristics approach to British data and find that despite some institutional differences with the United States, (notably, in employer welfare provision), the British case also supports the hypothesis that nonstandard employment (part-time, temporary, and fixed term) increases workers’ exposure to bad job characteristics.


            KEY WORDS: Job Quality; Nonstandard Employment; Britain; Changes in Paid Work.


44. McLagan, P. A. (2002). Change leadership today. T+D, 56(11), 26-31.


            Summarizes current research on change leadership and the scope of change in the workplace. Addresses reasons for failure in anticipating and implementing change.


            KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Agents; Leadership; Organizational Change; Organizational Climate; Training; Changes in Paid Work.


45. Miller, R., & Cangemi, J. (2000). North American employee attitudes in the 1990's: Changing attitudes for changing times. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 8(2), 104-110.


            The study examines the effects of organizational change in the 1990s on attitudes of 9,495 hourly and salaried employees in 45 manufacturing facilities in the US and Canada. Interview data was also collected from 25 organizational leaders of Fortune 500 companies. Employee survey findings are discussed in categories of: communication, idea generation and usage, consistence/favoritism/fairness, shifting rewards, and absenteeism. Interviews with top management in organizations indicated that they felt young workers were: less disposed to working long hours and loyalty, less skilled, more demanding of free time, and less trusting of organizations as companies experience downsizing. These results support the argument that worker attitudes have paralleled organizational changes, wherein the traditional workplace has changed to a more streamlined, self-directed structure with less direct central control.


            KEY WORDS: Business and Industrial Personnel; Employee Attitudes; Organizational Change; Attitude Change; Employer Attitudes; Top Level Managers; Changes in Paid Work.


46. Moore, S. (2005). Contractor vs. employee: What's best for you? Contract Management [McLean], 45(2), 8-15.


            As of September 2004, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics conservatively reported that 10,450,000 Americans nationwide are classified as non-permanent employees, representing 7.5 percent of the nation's entire workforce. Since it is virtually impossible to capture rock-solid data about non-permanent employees, the actual number of "contingent" workers that would include contract consultants, considered by many to be one of the fastest-growing sectors of the economy, is most likely higher. Contract employees have to adapt rapidly to the culture of the office where they're working on a project. It's possible that the permanent employees may be a little jealous or intimidated by your expertise depending on the contract. Despite the facts and statistics, the decision to become an independent contractor rests with each individual.


            KEY WORDS: Consultants; Career Development Planning; Consultants; United States; Development; Changes in Paid Work.


47. Moran, A. E. (2004). The contingent workforce: A challenge for benefits managers. Employee Relations Law Journal, 30(3), 87-100.


            The contingent workforce is resulting in special challenges for HR professionals and for those who counsel them. The "contingent workforce" is made up of people who do not identify themselves as employees but who perform services on a freelance or independent basis, and it is fairly typical that such contingent workers do not get the same employee benefit packages as "permanent employees." Controversies often arise when a worker, the IRS, or a court opts to challenge arrangements for contingent workers by reclassifying the previously agreed-upon status of the worker.


            KEY WORDS: Temporary Employees; Legal Status; Independent Contractors; Employee Benefit Managers; Responsibility; Changes in Paid Work.


48. Myerson, J., & Ross, P. (2006). Radical office design. New York: Abbeville Press.


            Traditional office work, characterized by repetitive clerical tasks, is quickly giving way to “knowledge work,” characterized by the creative application and exchange of information. In response, architects around the world are leaving aside the old cubicle grid to design creative, high-tech offices that foster knowledge work and, at the same time, help workers balance the competing demands of colleagues, customers, and family. The forty-three exceptional workplaces profiled in this timely volume have all been completed within the last six years and serve a large variety of organizations, both private and public, small and large. Examples range from the headquarters of an advertising firm where one enormous table seats all two hundred employees, facilitating communication, to a BMW plant where the factory production line runs through and above the administrative offices, bringing the corporate community together.


            KEY WORDS: Knowledge Economy; Knowledge Workers; Public Sector; Private Sector; Changes in Paid Work.


49. Olsen, K. M., & Kalleberg, A. L. (2004). Non-standard work in two different employment regimes: Norway and the United States. Work, Employment and Society, 18(2), 321-348.


            This article examines organizational use of non-standard work arrangements - fixed-term employees hired directly by the organization, workers from temporary help agencies (THA), and contractors - in the United States and Norway. Our analysis is based on information obtained from surveys of 802 establishments in the US and 2130 in Norway. We find that Norwegian establishments make greater use of non-standard arrangements than the US establishments; we argue that this is due in part to the greater overall restrictive labour market regulations on hiring and firing regular workers, and greater demand for temporary labour resulting from generous access to leaves of absence in Norway. We also find that certain institutional factors have a similar impact in both countries. First, establishments in the public sector are more likely to use direct-hired temporary workers and less apt to use contractors and THAs; this pattern is particularly striking in Norway, but is also evident in the United States. Second, highly unionized establishments tend to have the lowest use of non-standard arrangements in both countries.


            KEY WORDS: Human Resource Management; Labor Relations; Regulatory Compliance; Guilds; Changes in Paid Work.


50. Osnowitz, D. (2005). Marketing expertise: The contingent experience of contract professionals. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 66(6), pp. 2405-A.


            Contract professionals represent a segment of nonstandard, "contingent" workers whose ranks have grown in the wake of workforce restructuring. Addressed are contract professionals into 2 occupational groups: (1) writers and editors and (2) programmers and engineers. In both occupations, contractors comprise an external labor market of mobile practitioners who procure and carry out assignments for clients. Lacking organizational positions, contractors work outside a system of standard employment, usually augmenting staffs of employees with standard jobs. From interviews, observations, and documentary evidence, examined are the micro-processes that constitute work relations for these professionals, at the margins of employing organizations. The processes of contracting depend on a labor market structure that facilitates mobility. With contract work well institutionalized, contractors span the boundaries of multiple client firms. Standard jobs, however, had typically demanded excessively long hours and had failed to provide stability, so that contracting, with professional challenge and financial reward, offered an alternative opportunity structure. The choice to contract can thus represent an implicit critique of standard employment in these two occupational groups. Contract work constitutes a parallel system of work relations, outside the social and legal protection that comes with a standard job. Assuming greater labor market risk, contract professionals described managing uncertainty through expert performance. They presented themselves as skilled and authoritative. Exercising discursive control over their work, they depended on social interaction to define and adjust the terms of their employment, displaying competence both to clients, who engage their services, and to colleagues, who might provide referrals for new assignments. Maintaining distance from organizational conflict, they accounted for "billable time" and patrolled the boundaries of organizational membership, drawing their identity from occupational, affiliation.


            KEY WORDS: Contracts; Professional Workers; Self Employment; Writers; Editors; Engineers; Marketing; Labor Relations; Client Relations; Changes in Paid Work.


51. Osnowitz, D. (2006). Occupational networking as normative control: Collegial exchange among contract professionals. Work and Occupations, 33(1), 12-41.


            With workforce flexibility and nonstandard, “contingent,” work have come new mechanisms for labor market mediation and workforce control. Examined are the occupational connection and control in 2 groups of contract professionals. Networking is a mechanism for labor market regulation as well as for finding work. Networking perpetuates occupational norms that demand commitment to work, accountability to clients, and reciprocity among colleagues. Complying with occupational norms, contractors develop reputations to enhance the likelihood of referrals from colleagues for contract assignments. Collegial exchange in an occupational labor market thus exposes contractors to the informal sanctions of formative control.


            KEY WORDS: Networking; Contingent Work; Professionals; Changes in Paid Work.


52. Peck, J. A., & Theodore, N. (2002). Temped out? Industry rhetoric, labor regulation and economic restructuring in the temporary staffing business. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 23(2), 143-175.


            The article develops a conceptualization of the role of the temporary staffing industry (TSI) in the wider economy, with particular reference to the 'home' of temping, the USA. It is suggested that the TSI should be understood as an active agent of labor-market deregulation and restructuring, contrary to the industry's selfrepresentation as a neutral intermediator in the job market and as a mere facilitator of more efficient and flexible employment systems. The article draws attention to the active steps that the industry has taken to establish (and defend) the legally ambiguous 'triangular' employment relationship upon which its very viability depends and, more generally, to make and grow its markets in segments as diverse as light assembly and construction work, health care, accountancy, teaching and a range of clerical occupations. The article argues also for a more finely grained analysis of the ways in which the temporary staffing business has itself transformed and restructured - as an inventive and energetic vendor of labor flexibility in what has been an expanding market since the industry's take-off in the 1970s. In fact, the American TSI has experienced a series of distinctive stages of growth over the past three decades, during which time it has searched but failed to find alternatives to the established business model of narrow margins, price competition and commodification. If there are limits to this industry's growth, then, these may well prove to be internal ones.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Relations; Downsizing (Management); Human Resource Management; Regulatory Compliance; Changes in Paid Work.


53. Pupo, N., & Duffy, A. (2000). Canadian part-time work into the Millennium: On the cusp of change. Community, Work & Family, 3(1), 81-101.


            This paper examines the evolution of part-timer work in the Canadian context and related research on insecure employment. Presented are the major factors implicated in the expansion of part-time employment and speculation on the further evolution of this form of peripheral employment and its likely implications for women, youth, and older workers. Finally, discussed are the challenges to unions and the state in addressing the question of workers' insecurity and marginalized work.


            KEY WORDS: Part-Time Work; Insecurity; Peripheral Employment; Canada; Changes in Paid Work.


54. Rassuli, A. (2005). Evolution of the professional contingent workforce. Journal of Labor Research [Fairfax], 26(4), 689-710.


            The professional contingent workers (PCW) market has evolved into one of the fastest growing segments of the temporary labor force in the so-called "new economy." To understand the evolution and success of the professional contingent market, the author utilized a new paradigm. Three dimensions are included: First, supply-side characteristics among PCW are analyzed in aggregation. Second, the role and market contribution of intermediaries, such as staffing groups, are stipulated. Finally, interaction among the parties - PCW, staffing groups, and client firms - is viewed as symbiotic. Within the structural framework established by client firms and staffing groups, PCW create value and scale economies for all parties. Empirical results confirm the hypothesis that PCW professionalism assures the vitality of the market.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Unions; Temporary Employment; Contract Labor; Labor Supply; Studies; United States; Labor Relations; Experimental/Theoretical; United States; Changes in Paid Work.


55. Rice, E. M. (2004). Capitalizing on the contingent workforce - Outsourcing benefits programs for non-core workers improves companies' bottom line. Employee Benefit Plan Review, 58(8), 16-18.


            According to the Advisory Council of the Department of Labor, 30 percent of the U.S. labor force is a contingent workforce. This contingent workforce is consists of temporary employees, project consultants, contractors, seasonal workers, freelance workers, and other non-core employees. Outsourcing of benefits programs allows companies to offer a competitive benefits package to contingent staff employees. Discussed are the advantages and considerations to companies that outsource the administrative processes, human resources and benefits program for contingent staff.


            KEY WORDS: Contingent Employees; Salaries; Pensions; Employee Health Benefits; Administration; Outsourcing; Changes in Paid Work.



56. Saloniemi, A., Virtanen, P., & Vahtera, J. (2004). The work environment in fixed-term jobs: Are poor psychosocial conditions inevitable? Work, Employment and Society, 18(1), 193-208.


            This study, which aimed to explore the relations between the psychosocial work environment (PSWE) and the type of employment contract, showed that fixedterm employment indicates neither social exclusion in the working community, nor low job control or high job demands. Moreover, exposure to high strain jobs was more common among permanent than among fixed-term employees, while the latter were more often found in low strain and active jobs. A closer glance at the background variables revealed some significant associations, in particular ageing as a temporary employee appeared to increase the risk of a poor PSWE. All in all, however, the findings do not support suspicions about the adverse consequences of fixed-term employment.


            KEY WORDS: Finland; Temporary Employment; Work Environment; Job Satisfaction; Job Characteristics; Quality of Working Life; Employment Changes; Changes in Paid Work.


57. Silla, I., Gracia, F. J., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Job insecurity and health-related outcomes among different types of temporary workers. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 26(1), 89-117.


            The increase in the numbers of flexible workers in past few decades has captured researchers' attention. Traditionally, temporary workers were portrayed as being disadvantaged compared to permanent workers. However, temporary workers cannot be treated as a homogeneous group. The authors compare 4 types of temporaries based on their contract preference and employability level to that of permanent workers. Using a sample of 383 Spanish employees, differences in job insecurity and health-related outcomes were tested. Differences in well-being and life satisfaction were found. The results point out that the temporary workforce is diverse. Therefore, in order to attain a better understanding of the experiences and situations of these workers, it is preferable not to consider them as one homogeneous group.


            KEY WORDS: Contingent Employment; Insecurity; Labor Force; Changes in Paid Work.


58. Starks, B. (2003). The new economy and the American dream: Examining the effect of work conditions on beliefs about economic opportunity. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(2), 205-225.


            Recent decades have seen major changes in economic conditions in the US, including large-scale layoffs and downsizing, erosion of job quality for some workers, and increased reliance on nonstandard workers. Researchers have investigated the objective contours of this new economy, but few have investigated the consequences of these changes for popular attitudes about economic opportunity. Using data from the 1998 Indiana Survey of Workers in a Polarized Economy (N = 853), I investigate this new economic landscape and its effects on people's views about economic opportunity. I find that job deterioration and experiences with layoffs and job threats are creating pessimism about the American Dream among workers.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Opportunities; Worker Attitudes; Indiana; Employment Changes; Pessimism; Economic Conditions; Work Attitudes; Changes in Paid Work.


59. Theodore, N., & Peck, J. (2002). The temporary staffing industry: Growth imperatives and limits to contingency. Economic Geography, 78(4), 463-493.


            Since the 1970s, the temporary staffing industry (TSI) in the U.S. has enjoyed explosive growth during a time in the market when temporary labor has become increasingly complex and diverse. Rather than focus, as has typically been done, on the wider labor market effects of this sustained expansion in temporary employment, this article explores patterns and processes of industrial restructuring in the TSI itself. Results reveal a powerfully recursive relationship among evolving TSI business practices, the industry's strategies for building and extending the market, and urban labor market outcomes as the sector has grown through a series of qualitatively differentiated phases of development or "modes of growth." The distinctive character of the TSI's geographic rollout raises a new set of questions concerning, inter alia, the links between temping and labor market deregulation, the nature of local competition, the scope for and limits of value-adding strategies, and the emerging global structure of the temp market. This idiosyncratic industry has been a conspicuous beneficiary of growing economic instability - has, throughout the past 3 decades, restructured continuously through a period of sustained but highly uneven growth. In so doing, it has proved to be remarkably inventive in extending the market for contingent labor, but has encountered challenges for expansion in the domestic market. This, in turn, has triggered an unprecedented phase of international integration in the TSI, along with a new mode of development - global growth.


            KEY WORDS: Workforce Planning; Temporary Employment; Industry; Labor Market; Changes in Paid Work.


60. Trudeau, G. (2002). Changing employment relationships and the unintentional evolution of Canadian labour relations policy. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, 28(1), 149-152.


            In Canada, employment relationships have undergone considerable changes. Current labor policy, which was designed to match the postwar Fordist model of employment, leaves many workers without an adequate level of social protection. This paper argues that major innovations in the regulatory framework applying to labor are needed. In addition, current policy regarding collective bargaining and minimum labor standards, new policies aimed at ensuring the well-being and the development of individuals throughout their career should be developed.


            KEY WORDS: Labor Relations; Labor Policy; Canada; Economic Change; Changes in Paid Work.


61. Uchitelle, L. (2006). Retraining laid-off workers, but for what? Retrieved March 26, 2006, from


            Layoffs have been destructive in the lives of millions of Americans over the last 25 years. The cure that these displaced workers are offered - retraining and more education - is heralded as a certain path to new and better-paying careers. However, often that policy prescription does not work, as this book excerpt explains.


            KEY WORDS: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Globalization; Unions; Industrial Relations; Changes in Paid Work.


62. VanEvery, J. (1997). Understanding gendered inequality: Reconceptualizing housework. Women's Studies International Forum, 20, 411-420.


            VanEvery argues that the concepts used in research on housework are inadequate for the task of understanding the links between divisions of labor and inequalities.


            KEY WORDS: Gendered Inequality; Housework.


63. Vosko, L. (2000). Temporary work: The gendered rise of a precarious employment relationship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


            Leah Vosko's book presents the history and evolution of the Temporary Help Industry (THI) in Canada and the regulatory system, both national and international, that developed around it. Vosko traces the shift from the Standard Employment Relationship (SER), which marked the post-World War II period to the current period, where in casualized employment, workers have few rights and can expect or demand little from their employers.


            KEY WORDS: Temporary Work; Temporary Help Industry; Standard Employment Relationship (SER); Changes in Paid Work.


64. Wallis, E., Winterton, J., & Winterton, R. (2000). Subcontracting in the privatised coal industry. Work, Employment and Society, 14(4), 727-742.


            Uses J. Atkinson's (1984) flexible firm model of capitalist restructuring to examine subcontracting in the UK's privatized coal industry. A longitudinal study of the coal mining industry has embraced flexible firm strategies, offering insights into the longevity of such strategies, as well associations with increased subcontracting. The evolution of the coal industry since its 1994 privatization are examined, along with the rationale that subcontracting allows employers to meet temporary labor shortages, hire persons with special skills, and reduce costs. Comparing the current extent of subcontracting in the UK's coal industry to the recent past, shows its continued utilization after privatization, a noticeable decline following the 1997 coal crisis, and a return to extensive use by 1998. The 5 major subcontracting companies are examined by the range of their involvement in collieries, types of contracts utilized, their labor sources, and by their company structures. Implications of current trends and current patterns are discussed.


            KEY WORDS: Employment Changes; Contracts; Coal; Mining Industry; Privatization; United Kingdom; Changes in Paid Work.


65. Yu, W.-H. (2002). Jobs for mothers: Married women's labor force reentry and part-time, temporary employment in Japan. Sociological Forum, 17(3), 493-523.


            This paper explains the increase in middle-aged women reentering the labor force in Japan and their concentration in part-time or temporary employment. Existing explanations attribute women's concentration in part-time employment too narrowly to supply or demand factors. In Japan, both the labor supply of middle-aged women and the demand for part-time workers have increased, but these conditions channel middle-aged women into part-time or temporary employment only when systematic barriers obstruct their access to full-time jobs. Because it plays an important role in women's employment decisions, the rigidity of standard, full-time employment needs greater attention in studies of nonstandard, atypical types of work.


            KEY WORDS: Japan; Part Time Employment; Working Women; Middle-Aged Adults; Labor Supply; Labor Force Participation; Sexual Inequality; Changes in Paid Work.


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