and Lifelong Learning Resource Base
Materials for Teaching,
Research and Policy Making
Investigator: David W. Livingstone
M. Raykov, K. Pollock, F. Antonelli
Assessments of "Knowledge-based Economy", "New Economy" and Economic
Alvesson, M. (2004). Knowledge work and knowledge-intensive
firms. New York: Oxford University Press.
book is based on the idea that society is beginning an era characterized
by turbulence and rapid technological change. In the following competitive
context, information technology has become omnipresent and increasingly
important and new organizational forms have surfaced to respond to the new
competitive challenges. The "knowledge" intensive firms are one type of
these new forms. The increasing significance of this new type of
organization relies on the fact that between ten and fifteen percent of
the workforce in Europe and North America works in Knowledge Intensive
Firms (KIFs). Many scholars and practitioners therefore feel confident in
asserting that KIFs have started dictating the world economy.
Knowledge Work; KBE; Knowledge Workers; Knowledge
2. Aneesh, A.
(2001). Skill saturation: Rationalization and post-industrial work.
Theory and Society, 30(3), 363-396.
proliferation of new information technologies in the US has brought a
shift in work skill requirements. Skill formation is located within the
framework of rationalization to demonstrate the shift from industrial to
postindustrial information work. The focus is on new information
technologies that require the worker to interact primarily with electronic
text and graphics. "De-skilling" is discussed, followed by an analysis of
"skill saturation"; a distinction is made between saturated and
unsaturated skills. Changes characteristic of saturated and unsaturated
work are identified, including a loss of spaces for play and creativity
and a paradoxical intensification of work, despite a decrease in the
physical requirements of work. The way skills move from an unsaturated to
a saturated state is described in the context of computer programming, and
a history of programming languages and skill saturation is advanced.
Possibilities of resisting saturation in postindustrial work world are
Work Skills; Job Characteristics; Information Technology;
Postindustrial Societies; Work Organization; Work Environment; Job
Requirements; Employment Changes; Rationalization.
J. R., & Beckstead, D. (2003). Knowledge workers
Canada's economy, 1971-2001.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
article examines the emergence of the knowledge economy by examining the
increasing importance of high-knowledge occupations over the period
1971-2001. Contrary to the impression that is sometimes given by reports
that just emphasize the recent rapid development of the high-tech
information and communications technology sector, a more extensive
examination of the presence of knowledge workers shows that the emergence
of the knowledge economy has been more widespread and continuous than
might otherwise be thought. This paper reports that the importance of
knowledge occupations has continuously increased over the last three
decades. It also examines differences in the changes that have occurred
for different knowledge professions—managers, professionals and technical
occupations—and for different industries. It finds that the increase in
the proportion of the labour force that is classified to knowledge
occupations was widespread. It occurred for professionals, managers, and
technical occupations. It occurred across most industries. While there are
differences in the rates of growth in some areas, the most important
conclusion to emerge from the study is that the growth of skills, as
proxied by the importance of knowledge occupations, was widespread and not
restricted to narrow areas of interest, such as popularly defined
Canada; Knowledge Economy; Occupation; Industry; Knowledge
Beckstead, D., & Vinodrai, T. (2003). Dimensions
of occupational changes in
Canada's knowledge economy,
Ottawa: Ministry of Industry.
article examines the increasing importance of high-knowledge occupations
over the period 1971 to 1996. It also examines changes that have occurred
for different knowledge professions, including managers, professionals and
technical occupations, by industry and by geographic area.
Knowledge Economy; Knowledge Workers; Knowledge Industry.
5. Beckstead, D.,
& Gellatly, G. (2004). Are knowledge workers found only in
high-technology industries? Ottawa: Ministry of Industry, Canada.
paper explores the industrial composition of Canada’s Knowledge Economy.
It uses a new occupational taxonomy to identify a small set of
high-knowledge industries—industries that exhibit proportionately large
concentrations of knowledge workers. It then compares these high-knowledge
industries with two industrial aggregates that have recently been used to
study growth trends in the New Economy: (1) information and communications
technology (ICT) industries, and (2) science-based industries. Two basic
questions guide our analysis. First, are there industries—beyond those
located in science and technology-based environments—that emerge as
high-knowledge leaders when statistical estimates of knowledge intensity
are based solely on occupational structure? Second, how do the growth and
structural characteristics of these high-knowledge industries compare with
those that characterize ICT-based environments, sectors that are home to
the technology-based firms that develop, deliver and support many of the
products and services associated with the New Economy?
Knowledge Economy; Knowledge Workers; Canada; Class
Analysis; Knowledge Industry.
6. Black, S. E.,
& Lynch, L. M. (2003). The new economy and the organization of work. In D.
C. Jones (Ed.), New economy handbook (pp. 545-563). San Diego:
Although considerable research has focused on the role of investments in
information and communication technologies in the "new economy," this
chapter argues that an additional component of the new economy includes
changes in workplace practices. Over the past decade, more firms have
adopted "knowledge-based" work processes in which nonmanagerial workers
are involved in problem solving and identifying opportunities for
innovation and growth. Workplace innovations such as teamwork,
incentive-based compensation, employee participation in decision-making,
and training have raised the productive capacity of firms, impacted the
wages of workers, and affected the demand for skilled labor. This chapter
summarizes the empirical evidence on the impact of workplace innovation on
a new economy and the implications for public policy.
Economic Analysis; Workplace Alternatives; New Economy.
7. Blom, R.,
Melin, H., & Pyoria, P. (2002). Social contradictions in informational
capitalism: The case of Finnish wage earners and their labor market
situation. The Information Society, 18, 333-343.
with the diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs),
work processes are becoming ever more knowledge intensive. In keeping with
this trend, the number of informational (or knowledge) workers in Finland
has more than tripled from 12% in 1988 to 39% in 2000. What makes the
Finnish case unique and interesting is the exceptional speed with which
the information sector of the economy has grown. A few years after facing
the most severe economic recession in its history in the early 1990s,
Finland is now considered to have an advanced information economy.
However, our empirical analysis—based on survey data from 1988, 1994, and
2000—yields a somewhat more critical picture of the Finnish information
society than what usually comes across in the mainstream media. The
opportunities for social equality offered by the growth of informational
work are far more limited than was the case with the transition from
agricultural to industrial production.
Knowledge; Knowledge Work; Information; Stratification;
Class Analysis; KBE; Education; Work.
8. Brint, S.
(2001). Professionals and the 'knowledge economy': Rethinking the theory
of postindustrial society. Current Sociology, 49(4), 101-132.
author provides evidence that the Scientific-Professional Knowledge (SPK)
economy is a sizeable, but far from predominant, part of the larger
economy. He criticizes the tendency of most of the early theorists to
assume either a linear or ‘S-curve’ growth in the size and influence of
the knowledge economy. He shows that a meaningful conception of the
knowledge economy must have a more realistic sense of subsector dynamics
to replace the simplistic notions of linearly expanding influence that
marred much of the earlier visionary work on the SPK economy. He argues
that structural influences on the growth of particular industries in the
knowledge economy (including the potential for productivity gains in the
different SPK industries, demographic changes related to demand for
services, and legal environment-influencing relationships between
universities, government and corporations) are necessary features of an
adequate social science understanding of this growing sector of the
economy. Finally, he differentiates five major subsectors of the SPK
economy and show that the conditions and opportunities at work faced by
professionals vary greatly by the subsector in which they are employed. In
the conclusion of the article, the author uses this reformulation of the
knowledge economy idea to discuss why the social changes associated with
the coming of a professionally dominated, knowledge-based postindustrial
society have not, by and large, come to pass.
Knowledge; KBE; Knowledge-Based Economy; Professional;
Post-Industrialism; Management; Management Theory.
9. Brown, P.
(2000). The globalisation of positional competition? Sociology, 34(4),
paper examines the impact of economic globalisation on competition for a
livelihood. He suggests that centre-left Modernisers, which include New
Labour in Britain and the Democrats in the USA, assume that globalisation
has transformed the nature of positional class conflict. These groups
argue that the absolute standards of educational achievement, rather than
the relative standing of credential holders within local or national
labour markets, are of primary importance. Drawing on neo-Weberian
theories of social closure, the author argues that the Modernisers'
description of the global labour market and its impact on positional class
conflict is flawed. He suggests that existing theories of social closure
be developed in terms of what is called Positional Conflict Theory.
Academic Achievement; Competition; Social Class;
Globalization; Sociological Perspectives; Work and Learning.
10. Bryson, J.
(2000, October 24-26). Building a knowledge-based economy and society.
Paper presented at the Conference Capitalising on Knowledge: The
Information Profession in the 21st Century, Canberra, Australia. Retrieved
December 28, 2006, from http://conferences.alia.org.au/
paper provides an overview of the forces shaping the future of the
knowledge economy and society, including: the speed and type of change
that is occurring; the technologies that are propelling it; the technology
and information choices that competitors are making; which organizations
are in the lead; who has the most to gain and to lose; the investment
strategies of competitors vis-a-vis the trends; and the variety of ways
these trends may influence customers' demands and needs. The
characteristics of a global information economy and society are
identified, focusing on the four building blocks of infrastructure
provision, lifelong learning, economic growth, and service delivery.
National strategies for Singapore, the European Union, and Australia are
considered, as is the role of libraries and information services in the
global information economy and society.
Economic Change; Foreign Countries; Futures of Society;
Global Approach; Information Services; Information Technology; Library
Role; Lifelong Learning; National Programs; Social Change.
11. Carlsen, A., Klev, R., & von Krogh, G. (2004).
Living knowledge: Foundations
and frameworks. In A. Carlsen, R. Klev & G. von Krogh (Eds.), Living
knowledge: The dynamics of professional service work (pp. 1-19). New
York: Palgrave Macmillan.
authors take a fairly conventional approach to knowledge work, or what
they specify as professional service work, arguing there are a growing
number of jobs that involve non-routine and problem-solving activity. The
authors reject the reification of knowledge, rather studying knowledge
only through those activity systems where knowledge is applied and
Knowledge Work; Knowledge Workers; KBE; Professional;
Knowledge; Knowledge Management.
12. Castells, M.
(2004). The network society: A cross-cultural perspective.
Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Castells writes that technology cannot be considered independently of its
social context. He presents 19 contributed articles inquiring into some
key themes in various cultural and institutional contexts. These themes
offer theoretical discussion of the network society. Analysis of processes
of technological transformation in Silicon Valley, Finland, Russia, China,
and the UK are provided. Subsequent chapters discuss the economy,
sociability and social structure, the public interest, social movements
and politics, and identity, culture, globalization, the hacker ethic, and
a historian's view.
Information Society; Cross-Cultural Studies.
13. Cortada, J.
(Ed.). (1998). Rise of the knowledge worker. Boston:
book traces the history and evolution of the "knowledge worker," a term
coined to describe employees in the Information Age who do mental as
opposed to manual labor, and provides insights and conjecture as to the
future role of such workers.
Knowledge Workers; Knowledge Management; Intellectual
14. Cully, M.
(2003). Pathways to knowledge work. Retrieved March 22, 2006, from
study examined how the occupational structure of the Australian labor
market evolved and how individuals fared in the process. It identified
issues in defining skill and knowledge and followed Elias and McKnight
(2001) in stating that sufficient evidence showed a very high correlation
between job-required cognitive ability and ordinal skill ranking. Prong 1
of an empirical approach examined census data on occupational composition
of employment from 1986-2000 and showed that employment grew most rapidly
in professional jobs and intermediate clerical, service, and sales jobs,
and a very large number of trades were in decline. Prong 2 examined
longitudinal data from the 1997 Negotiating the Life Course Survey with
work and education histories for over 2,000 people and found that about
six in seven changed occupation between their first main job on entering
the labor market and their present job, and just over half changed broad
skill ranking. The most important determinant of whether a person began
working life in a knowledge job and stayed was education. There was little
association between people's background characteristics, education, and
work experience and whether they moved into knowledge work. Implications
for vocational education and training (VET) were that the surest path to
knowledge jobs is to obtain post-school qualifications; VET might deliver
degree-level courses at the associate professional level where diplomas
are often required; and over-education through VET is dangerous if
educational attainment outstrips growth of jobs at the top of skill
Knowledge Workers; Australia.
15. David, P. A.,
& Foray, D. (2002). An introduction to the economy of the knowledge
society. International Social Science Journal, 54(171), 9-23.
paper reviews the central themes relating to the development of new
knowledge-based economies. After placing their emergence into an
historical perspective & suggesting a theoretical framework to distinguish
knowledge from information, the authors try to grasp what constitutes the
specific nature of such economies. They proceed to deal with some of the
major issues concerning the new skills & abilities necessary for
integration into the knowledge-based economy; the new geography that is
developing (where physical distance would cease being such a influential
constraint); the conditions controlling access to the knowledge-based
economy, not least for developing countries; how the development of
knowledge across different sectors of activity has been uneven; problems
with intellectual property rights & the privatization of knowledge; and
the topics of confidence, memory, & the fragmentation of knowledge.
Economic Change; Economic Systems; Knowledge; Technological
Progress; Social Change; Knowledge Utilization; Telecommunications; Work
16. Dunning, J.
(Ed.). (2000). Regions, globalization, and the knowledge based economy.
New York: Oxford University Press.
book presents different disciplinary approaches to the knowledge economy
and includes detailed case analysis of its impact in various parts of the
world. The book moves between the supra national macro region and the
micro cluster, as well as looking at associated infrastructural and policy
Knowledge Management; Regional Economics; International
Business; Work and Learning.
17. Florida, R.
(2002). The rise of the creative class: And how it's transforming work,
leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Basic Books.
author looks at the growing influence of today's newest "Creative Class"
which derives its identity and values from its role as purveyors of
creativity and comprises nearly 40 million Americans and 25 percent of all
employed people. The author also offers innovative and practical lessons
for businesses and employees.
Creative Ability; Work Ethic; Knowledge Workers; Leisure;
Social Classes; Technology and Civilization; Human Capital.
18. Frenkel, S.,
Korczynski, M., Donoghue, L., & Shire, K. (1995). Re-constituting work:
Trends towards knowledge work and info-normative control. Work,
Employment & Society, 9(4), 773-796.
article examines the impact of three macrotrends in technological change &
employment structure on the nature of work in advanced societies: (1)
transformation of infrastructure to one based on information technology;
(2) growth of occupations requiring reconceptualization & analysis of
information; & (3) continued expansion of the service sector relative to
the manufacturing sector. These trends are making the conventional
classifications of work - manual vs. nonmanual, white- vs. blue-collar, &
part- vs. full-time - meaningless & are producing an emphasis in the
workplace on knowledge work & people-centeredness. A three-dimensional
framework for interpreting the work of several kinds of information- &
people-centered workers is provided, & the impact of this trend on
management control of the workplace discussed.
Technological Change; Employment Changes; Trends; Work;
Information Technology; Occupational Structure; Service Industries.
19. Guthrie, J.,
& Petty, R. (2000). Intellectual capital literature review: Measurement,
reporting and management. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 1(2),
rise of the “new economy”, one principally driven by information and
knowledge, is attributed to the increased prominence of intellectual
capital (IC) as a business and research topic. Intellectual capital is
implicated in recent economic, managerial, technological, and sociological
developments in a manner previously unknown and largely unforeseen.
Whether these developments are viewed through the filter of the
information society, the knowledge-based economy, the network society, or
innovation, there is much to support the assertion that IC is instrumental
in the determination of enterprise value and national economic
performance. First, the authors seek to review some of the most
significant extant literature on intellectual capital and its developed
path. The emphasis is on important theoretical and empirical contributions
relating to the measurement and reporting of intellectual capital. The
second part of this paper identifies possible future research issues into
the nature, impact and value of intellectual management and reporting.
KBE; Knowledge Management; Intellectual Labour;
Intellectual Capital; Intangible Assets; Knowledge Work; Knowledge
L. (2001). The division of labour in post-industrial societies.
Retrieved June 19, 2006, from https://guoa.ub.gu.se/dspace/bitstream/
dissertation is a study of how work is distributed in so-called
post-industrial societies. The main question it addresses is how the
division of labour in complex societies is developing. That is, what
occupations are increasing or decreasing their shares within the
occupational structure, and how can these changes be understood? For many
years it has been argued that advanced Western societies are leaving the
industrial era and entering a so-called post-industrial phase. The primary
feature of this alleged post-industrial development is a shift from the
primacy of goods production to a dominance of service production.
The studies that
are presented in this thesis represent attempts to capture the essence of
the division of labour in so-called post-industrial societies. Five
economically advanced Western countries (Canada, Denmark, Germany, Sweden,
and the United States) are studied regarding such aspects as industrial
and occupational employment changes, occupational sex segregation, and
changes in educational attainment. Also, the conceptual framework for
occupational classifications is analysed and discussed. The countries are
studied with the help of official statistics, and, in particular,
occupational employment data are utilised in a number of ways.
Occupational data are presented on several levels of aggregation and
organised according to different classifications in order to arrive at a
comprehensive understanding of these countries’ division of labour.
Post-Industrial Society; Division of Labour; Occupational
Classification; Occupational Structure; Welfare State; Sex Segregation;
21. Henwood, D.
(2003). After the new economy: The binge...and the hangover that won't
go away. New York: The New Press.
author dissects the New Economy, arguing that the delirious optimism was
actually a manic set of variations on ancient themes, all promoted from
the highest of places. Claims of New Eras have plenty of historical
precedents; in this latest act, our modern mythmakers maintained that
technology would overturn hierarchies, democratizing information and
finance and leading inexorably to a virtual social revolution. But, as the
author vividly demonstrates, the gap between rich and poor has never been
so wide, wealth never so concentrated.
New Economy; Classical Economics; Weightless Society;
Knowledge Economy; Knowledge Workers; Neoliberalism.
22. Kelloway, K.,
& Barling, J. (2000). Knowledge work as organizational behaviour.
International Journal of Management Reviews, 2(3), 287-304.
authors review and critique the definitions of knowledge work and put
forth the idea that it can best be understood as a discretionary behaviour
in organizations. The discretionary acts in organizations are understood
to compromise the creation of knowledge, the application of knowledge, the
transmission of knowledge, and the acquisition of knowledge.
Knowledge Workers; Human Capital.
23. Kevatsalo, K.
(2001). Confidence and commitment in postindustrial work organizations.
Sosiologia, 38(4), 260-273.
analysts agree that the mid-1970s was a turning point in the organization
of production and markets during the last of the industrial age. The
period of change that followed has been described as a transition from
"Fordism" to "post-Fordism". This period has even been called the
information age because of the rapid adoption and diffusion of information
technology. This article elaborates on employee commitment to management
and trade unions throughout this period of transition.
Management; Unions; Workers; Labor Process; Employment
Changes; Postindustrial Societies; Flexible Specialization.
24. Kim, S.
(2000). The roles of knowledge professionals for knowledge management.
Inspel, 34(1), 1-8.
paper starts by exploring the definition of knowledge and knowledge
management; examples of acquisition, creation, packaging, application, and
reuse of knowledge are provided. It then considers the partnership for
knowledge management and especially how librarians as knowledge
professionals, users, and technology experts can contribute to effective
knowledge management. It is concluded that knowledge professionals will
have to move from the background to the center of the organizational stage
to jointly hold the reins of knowledge management.
Information Professionals; Knowledge Management;
Information Management; Information Technology; Librarians; Library Role;
Library Services; Organizational Development; Users (Information).
25. Kleinman, D.
L., & Vallas, S. P. (2001). Science, capitalism, and the rise of the
"knowledge worker": The changing structure of knowledge production in the
United States. Theory and Society, 30(4), 451-492.
paper explores the paradox of increasing scientist/engineer autonomy in
the private sector versus decreased academic freedom for university
researchers in the context of capitalism's growing dependence on
scientific/technical expertise. The concept of "asymmetrical convergence"
is applied to describe the simultaneous penetration of industrial codes &
practice into the academy & emergence of academic norms for knowledge
workers in the high-tech sector. In light of problems in existing
scholarship on scientific & technical workers, a divergent conceptual
model for viewing knowledge work under contemporary capitalism is
outlined, demonstrating new knowledge production structures, particularly
as the academy aligns more frequently with industry.
Science and Technology; Scientists; Engineers; College
Faculty; Knowledge; Production; Academic Freedom; Autonomy; Public Sector
Private Sector Relations.
26. Kurzman, C.,
& Owens, L. (2002). The sociology of intellectuals. Annual Review of
Sociology, 28, 63-90.
sociology of intellectuals has adopted three fundamentally unique
approaches to its subject. The Dreyfusards, Julien Benda, "new class"
theorists, and Pierre Bourdieu treated intellectuals as potentially a
class-in-themselves, that is to say, as having interests that distinguish
them from other groups in society. Antonio Gramsci, Michel Foucault, and
theorists of "authenticity" treated intellectuals as primarily
class-bound, representatives of their group of origin. Karl Mannheim,
Edward Shils, and Randall Collins treated intellectuals as relatively
class-less with the ability to transcend their group of origin to pursue
their own ideals. These approaches divided the field at its founding in
the 1920s, during its mid-century peak, and in its late-century revival.
Intellectuals; Knowledge Workers; New Class; Class
C. (2000). The weightless society: Living in the new economy bubble.
New York: Texere.
more and more of us make our living from our ideas. The Weightless Society
demonstrates why entrepreneurship will become a mass activity, companies
will need to be structured as if they were brains, ownership must be
broadly spread, networks will become the main way of organizing our
knowledge economy, and truth and collaboration will be the new ethics of
the new economy. Perhaps most compellingly, the author shows how the same
principles are being applied in the public sector. The author argues for a
radical overhaul of corporate and government institutions inherited from
the industrial era which are ill suited to the knowledge economy,
including new approaches to measuring economic value, taxation and social
New Economy; Knowledge-Based Economy; Weightless Society;
Knowledge Work; Knowledge Workers.
28. Machin, S.
(2003). Skill-biased technical change in the new economy. In D. C. Jones
(Ed.), New economy handbook (pp. 565-581). San Diego: Elsevier.
chapter examines changes in the skill structures of labor demand. It
places attention on changes in the relative wages and employment of more
skilled–educated workers as compared to their less skilled–educated
counterparts. The chapter discusses the main explanations for why relative
demand has shifted in favour of the more skilled, arguing that
skill-biased technical change has been an important factor behind the
observed changes in the organization of work in the new economy. It also
examines some of the technology–trade debate, arguing that trade-based
explanations are difficult to maintain. It concludes by discussing the
possible policy implications that run alongside these changes in labor
Skill; KBE; Knowledge-Based Economy; New Economy.
29. Malhotra, Y.
(2002). Is knowledge management really an oxymoron? Unraveling the role of
organizational controls in knowledge management. In D. White (Ed.),
Knowledge mapping and management (pp. 1-13). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
current implementations of organizational knowledge management, although
based on the most advanced information technologies, are challenged by the
pervading organizational controls. Often, such failures of knowledge
management systems implementations come about from incorrect understanding
and misapplication of the notion of “controls.” Therefore, it is critical
to develop a better understanding of information systems related
organizational controls so that they can facilitate the success of
knowledge management systems implementations. This chapter fills the
critical void of incomplete and commonly incorrect interpretations of
organizational controls by developing a better theoretical and conceptual
understanding of organizational controls and their pragmatic implications.
The chapter proposes an organic model of organizational controls for
design of knowledge management systems that can effectively enable
creation of new knowledge, renewal of existing knowledge and knowledge
Knowledge Management; Knowledge; Knowledge Work;
Discretion; Decision-Making; Management Theory.
30. Meyerson, H.
(2006, April 8). Not your father's Detroit. Retrieved July, 2006,
from http://www.americanprospect.com/web/page.ww?section=root&name =ViewPrint&articleId=11300
author debunks a number of myths concerning the 'new economy': namely,
that wages are improving with productivity and that the future for the US
will be a place where the highly educated are richly rewarded. Instead, he
argues that offshoring practices will move any and all jobs that can be
moved to countries where wages are lower and governments pursue more
aggressive, strategic industrial policy. Using statistics from a range of
mainstream sources, the author paints a bleak future for the worker in the
America and other advanced capitalist economies. He recommends that the US
change its industrial policy to provide incentives for corporations to
invest and stay in the country, that the US pursue and upgrading policy
(unionization) for all service work, especially non-offshorable jobs; and,
finally, that corporate governance be changed so that employees and public
members have a significant say instead of CEO-dominated boards of
governors simply rewarding each other and the shareholder at the expense
Outsourcing; Offshoring; Economics; Restructuring;
31. Mokyr, J.
(2002). The gifts of Athena: Historical origins of the knowledge
economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
increase of technological and scientific knowledge in the past two
centuries has been the overriding dynamic element in the economic and
social history of the world. Its result is now called the knowledge
economy. But what are the historical beginnings of this revolution and
what have been its mechanisms? The author constructs an original framework
to analyze the concept of "useful" knowledge. He argues that the growth
explosion in the modern West in the past two centuries was driven not just
by the appearance of new technological ideas but also by the increased
access to these ideas in society at large - as made possible by social
networks comprising universities, publishers, professional sciences, and
kindred institutions. Through a wealth of historical evidence set in clear
and lively prose, the author shows that changes in the intellectual and
social environment and the institutional background in which knowledge was
generated and disseminated brought about the Industrial Revolution,
followed by sustained economic growth and continuing technological change.
KBE; Knowledge-Based Economy; Knowledge; Post-Industrial.
32. OECD. (2001).
Competencies for the knowledge economy. Retrieved July, 2006, from
Pressures to increase the role of information and knowledge in national
economies have provoked a wide-ranging debate about what kinds of
competencies young people and adults now require. The workforce is
“upskilling”, both in terms of the average educational level of workers
and the kinds of job that they are performing. White-collar, high-skilled
jobs are driving growth in employment. This is not simply a question of
the growth in knowledge “sectors”. Work is becoming increasingly skilled
across industries and within individual occupations. A group of “knowledge
workers” can be viewed as those performing knowledge-rich jobs. Such
workers are usually but not universally well educated. Some knowledge
workers possess high levels of literacy and lower levels of education,
implying that basic skills obtained beyond education are recognised in the
knowledge economy. Communication skills, problem-solving skills, the
ability to work in teams and ICT skills, among others, are becoming
important and harmonizing to basic core or foundation skills. Even more
than other workers, knowledge workers depend on workplace competencies.
However, further research is required to inform education policy makers
about how to develop the right skills for a knowledge economy, rather than
assuming that high levels of education alone, as conventionally defined,
will be enough.
KBE; Knowledge-Based Economy; Competencies; Education;
33. Powell, W.
W., & Snellman, K. (2004). The knowledge economy. Annual Review of
Sociology, 30, 199-220.
authors define the knowledge economy as production and services based on
knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of
technical and scientific advance, as well as rapid obsolescence. The key
aspect of a knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual
capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources. The authors
provide evidence drawn from patent data to document an upsurge in
knowledge production and show that this expansion is driven by the
emergence of new industries. The authors then review the contentious
literature that assesses whether recent technological advances have raised
productivity. Also, the authors examine the debate over whether new forms
of work that embody technological change have generated more worker
autonomy or greater managerial control. Finally, the paper assesses the
distributional consequences of a knowledge-based economy with respect to
growing inequality in wages and high-quality jobs.
Knowledge; Productivity; Workplace Reform; Distributional
Effects of Technological Change.
34. Sam, T. X.
(2002). New characteristics of knowledge-based economies. Nature,
Society, and Thought, 15(4), 469-481.
scientific & technological revolution led to globalization and this event
in turn has become a driving force for the alteration of science into a
direct labor force. Knowledge is the decisive element in economic
development, & knowledge-based, nonmaterial commodities will soon govern
the market. Changing a knowledge-based economy depends on a strong
development strategy by a country or business. There is a clear gap
between the developed & less-developed capitalist countries. The uneven
development of the capitalist transnational corporations situated in the
developed capitalist countries are using their domination of the
knowledge-based economy to deepen the exploitation of the less-developed
nations. The result is that the class struggle becomes more sophisticated
while remaining just as fierce.
Scientific Knowledge; Economic Models; Development
Strategies; North and South; Capitalist Societies; Class Struggle;
Economic Underdevelopment; Information Society; Globalization; Work and
Canada. (2001). National occupational classification 2001. Ottawa:
Ministry of Supply and Services, Statistics Canada.
Developed in co-operation with Statistics Canada, this report is the
standard framework for collecting and analyzing labour market information.
The revised NOC 2001 provides accurate and up-to-date descriptions of over
500 occupational groups that cover approximately 30,000 job titles. The
Canadian labour market has changed significantly since the 1992 release of
the NOC. Technological advancements have created a number of emerging
occupations and have transformed many others. The revised NOC 2001 now
includes eight new occupational groups for work in the information
technology industry. The new skills required in Canada's knowledge-based
economy are reflected throughout the NOC 2001. This report is seen as
being an indispensable tool for those who use labour market information,
plan human resources, conduct labour market research and analysis, assist
with career planning and vocational rehabilitation, and provide career
Occupations Classification; Occupations Dictionaries;
Occupations Terminology; Occupations Canada.
36. Stewart, T.
(1997). Intellectual capital: The new wealth of organizations. New
author demonstrates that the emergence of the Information Age has changed
the nature of wealth and wealth creation, and offers new ways of looking
at what companies do and how to lead them. In a knowledge-based economy,
intellectual capital - the untapped, unmapped knowledge of organizations -
has become a company's greatest competitive weapon. Intellectual capital
is found in the talent of the people who work there; the loyalty of the
customers it serves and learns from; the value of its brands, copyrights,
patents and other intellectual property; the collective knowledge embodied
in its cultures, systems, management techniques, and history. However,
these vital assets are nowhere found on a balance sheet, only rarely
managed, and almost never managed skillfully.
Creative Ability in Business; Human Capital; Success in
37. Thompson, P.,
Warhurst, C., & Callaghan, G. (2000). Human capital or capitalising on
humanity? Knowledge, skills and competencies in interactive service work.
In C. Prichard, R. Hull, M. Chumer & H. Willmott (Eds.), Managing
knowledge: Critical investigations of work and learning (pp. 122-140).
New York: St. Martin's Press.
article critically examines the claim that there has been a striking
growth in ‘knowledge work’ in advanced economies. Using the Australian
Bureau of Statistics Labour Force Survey, the authors examine occupational
change from 1986 to 2000 to evaluate the support for this claim.
Researchers usually rely on aggregate level data to justify the presence
of a burgeoning knowledge-based workforce, but the authors contend that we
must ‘get below the surface’ of the major occupational groups by
disaggregating the data. This enables the authors to demonstrate that a
substantial component of the apparent growth in knowledge work is
accounted for by an increase in low-level information handling occupations
rather than by a growth in knowledge work as it is commonly conceived. The
article then develops an interpretive framework that makes sense of the
data in a manner that avoids both over-estimating the prevalence of the
‘knowledge worker’ and underestimating the knowledge-related activities in
jobs usually considered to be low-skilled and bereft of important
Knowledge; Knowledge Work; Knowledge Workers; Skill; Human
Capital Theory; Human Capital; KBE.
L. C. (2000). Globalization: The product of a knowledge-based economy.
The Annals of the
American Academy of Political
and Social Science, 570,
shift to an era of manmade brainpower industries is devising the
technologies that are creating a global economy. Leaving behind the role
of regulator or the function of controlling their national economies,
governments are becoming platform builders that invest in infrastructure,
education, and research and development to allow their citizens to have
the opportunity to earn world-class standards of living. Countries
themselves are being put into play, and inequality is rising. The rest of
the world sees an invasion of the US system, but in reality, it is a brand
new global system. Intellectual property rights have become a central and
contentious unresolved issue.
Globalization; Knowledge; Property; Property Rights; State
Intervention; Economic Development; World Economy; Research and
D. (2000). Post-Fordism and skill: Theories and perceptions.
Taking three companies, one from the glass, electronics, and chemical
industries, as case studies, the author addresses the trend of general
neglect of manager and worker perceptions of skill, and uses that evidence
to construct a model to explain subjective perceptions of skill and the
causal processes that shape them. Thursfield connects definitions of skill
by sociologists to those grounded in the perceptions of those involved.
Occupations; Great Britain; Sociological Aspects; Skilled
Labor; Ability; Evaluation.
40. Wigfield, A.
(2001). Post-Fordism, gender and work. Aldershot: Ashgate.
recent years there has been extensive debate concerning the way in which
advanced industrialized nations have encountered economic restructuring,
experiencing a shift away from the dominance of Fordism and the emergence
of more flexible modes of production. The principal theoretical
perspectives in this field, the Institutionalist theory of flexible
specialization and the regulationist theory of post-Fordism, fail to
adequately incorporate a gender informed analysis into their respective
models of economic restructuring. This book redresses the gap in existing
post-Fordist literature and is the first of its kind to comprehensively
explore gender relations in the post-Fordist economy. The book
incorporates a gender dimension into the economic restructuring debate on
both a theoretical and a practical level. It also explores the
implications of economic restructuring in the workplace for gender
relations. Several questions emerge from this discussion relating to
issues around numerical flexibility, functional flexibility, and
technological change. This book provides an important and original
contribution to both post-Fordist and feminist literature, whilst at the
same time providing a practical insight into post-Fordist methods of work
organization based on the concept of team working.
Teams in the Workplace; England; Nottinghamshire; Case
Studies; Women; Employment; Feminist Economics; Labor Economics