1. Beaud, S. (2000). Young
workers. The social class decline of the "children of the era of school
democratization". Lien Social et Politiques, 43, 103-112.
Through interviews with
twenty-five young people from an industrial region in eastern France in the late
1990's, the social decline of young people of working-class origin who
participated in the wave of school democratization for ten years between
1985-1995 is analyzed. Case studies of students expose their failure to pass
the examinations that were formally opened to them, and their self-perceptions
as only temporary workers in factories, because family members who attended a
professional lycee may have done better. Findings show feelings of low
self-worth connected to the return to factory work they had sought to avoid by
undertaking longer studies.
KEY WORDS: France; Young Adults; Youth; Working Class; Education
Work Relationship; Democracy; Academic Achievement; Educational Inequality;
2. Blouin, C. (2004). Engendering
Canadian trade policy: A case study of labour mobility in trade agreements. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.
Canada's commitments under labour mobility agreements
associated with the N.American Free Trade Agreement and the General Agreement
on Trade in Services are examined from a gender equality view. In this study a
gender analysis framework is created to examine the agreements and the content
of the agreements and immigration data are analyzed to identify differences in
access to and use of, the agreements by women and men. Study provides a
detailed examination of the agreements through case studies of 2 groups; nurses
and women business owners. The case studies highlight differences in
participation in, and impact on, government policy making by the 2 groups and discrepancies
in the various data sets needed to evaluate the impact.
KEY WORDS: Labor Mobility; Canada; Commercial Policy; Labor
Mobility; Case Studies; Nurses Supply and Demand; Women Employment.
3. Blustein, D. L., Kenna,
A. C., Murphy, K. A., DeVoy, J. E., & DeWine, D. B. (2005). Qualitative
research in career development: Exploring the center and margins of discourse
about careers and working. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(4), 351-370.
This article explores the
contributions of qualitative research to the study of career development and
the psychology of working. Epistemological perspectives (logical positivism,
postpositivism, and social constructionism) are discussed as they relate to
historical context, career theories, and the various methods used within
qualitative research. Prevailing qualitative methods within career development
and the psychology of working, such as consensual qualitative research,
grounded theory, and narrative analysis, are reviewed. The article examines
exemplary lines of qualitative research on women's achievements, school-to-work
transitions, work and relationships, and the constructions of school and work.
Finally, the article concludes with an example of an assessment tool that is
derived from research on constructions of work and school.
KEY WORDS: Psychology; Career Development; Qualitative Research;
Evaluation Methods; Education Work Relationship; Females; Psychological
Patterns; Constructivism (Learning); Social Influences; Interpersonal
Relationship; Personal Narratives; Case Studies.
4. Bron, A., & West, L.
(2000). Time for stories: The emergence of life history methods in the social
sciences. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 37(2),
This article considers the
reemergence and development of life history/biographical research methods
across the social sciences, together with the impact of feminist ideas. A
reference is made to the study of adult learning and processes of constructing
and reconstructing biographies in changing times, and when moving between
different cultures. The article provides examples of the unique contribution
such methods can make to enlighten the complexities of human experience. The
article also challenges positivistic criteria of validity as well as the absence
of the researcher's story from conventional research texts.
KEY WORDS: Life History; Research Methodology; Social Science
Research; Methodological Problems; Research Ethics; Case Studies.
5. Burgoon, B., &
Baxandall, P. (2004). Three worlds of working time: The partisan and welfare
politics of work hours in industrialized countries. Politics and Society, 32(4),
Annual hours per employed person
& per working-age person capture important dimensions of political-economic
success. This article also argues that partisan-driven work-time policies and
welfare-regime institutions result in the development of three diverging
"worlds" of work time: Social Democratic, Liberal, & Christian.
Descriptive statistics for eighteen OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation
& Development) states highlight broad clustering and trends suggestive of
the Three Worlds, while panel estimation suggests the influence of partisan and
welfare-institutional conditions underlying them. To further illustrate the
political process and sequence of the Three Worlds, case studies of Finland, the United States, and
the Netherlands are included.
KEY WORDS: Political Economy; Working Hours; Social Policy; Time;
Industrial; Societies; Employment; Wealth; Democracy; Welfare State; Case
6. Chan, D. C., Marshall, J.
G., & Marshall, V. W. (2001). Linking technology, work, and the life
course: Findings from the NOVA case study. In V. W. Marshall, W. R. Heinz, H.
Kruger & A. Verma (Eds.), Restructuring work and the life course
(pp. 270-287). Toronto: University Toronto Press.
This case study of the Canadian
utility & petrochemical firm, NOVA Corp. depicts the link between technological change
& work restructuring. NOVA Corp. is experiencing swift change in both its adoption
of new technology and its organizational structure. The case study finds that
most female employees are comfortable with technological change, particularly
computer usage and that younger employed men are more technologically adept
than their older counterparts. In spite of minimal computer skills, older men
experience upward career mobility while linear progression is notably
associated with computer competency. Though there exists some negative
attitudes toward older workers at NOVA Corp, most are generally positive. Younger workers
(under age 35) are more likely than those over 45 to see older workers (age
50+) as averse to attaining new skills.
KEY WORDS: Technological Change; Computers; Occupational
Achievement; Worker Attitudes; Work Skills; Canada; Corporations; Age
Differences; Adoption of Innovations; Organizational Change; Sex Differences;
7. Colson, M. A. (2000). A
qualitative case study of Montgomery GI Bill education benefits and the paradox
of underachievement in the U.S. Navy. Dissertation Abstracts International,
A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 61(4), 1619-A.
This case study explores the
Montgomery GI Bill & its role in supporting the pre-enlistment career and
education goals of active duty military volunteers. Using research methods
including surveys, field research, review of current literature, and an
in-depth exploration of the MGIB program a data record was created and
analyzed. Emerging trends and patterns came together into two larger themes:
the paradox of under-achievement by military members in spite of well defined
pre-enlistment education goals and the sociological factors that inhibit that
personal & professional development within a benefit-laden system. The
study's implications and conclusions call for a review of MGIB and a re-design
of how this once significant social change program is implemented.
KEY WORDS: Military Personnel; Adult Education; Benefits; Higher
Education; Educational Attainment; Academic Achievement; Case Studies.
8. Curry, M. W. (2004).
Critical friends: A case study of teachers' professional community in a
reforming high school. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The
Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(9), 3239-A-3240-A.
This dissertation explores how
teachers' professional inquiry communities at the secondary level represent a
resource for school reform and professional development. This study, through
video-based, qualitative methods and a multi-case case study design,
investigates the situated practices of teachers as members of Critical Friends
Groups (CFGs) - school-based, cross-disciplinary, oral inquiry groups. The
research of these CFG case groups looks at how and to what extent participating
teachers influenced instructional improvement and school reform. Findings show
that these professional inquiry communities promoted teachers' ongoing
instructional improvement, reflective practice, collective responsibility for
student learning, and collegiality. At the school level, curricular coherence,
interdisciplinary cross-fertilization, and a shared awareness of the school's
reform progress/philosophy may be attributed to these CFGs. At the same time
however, these CFGs provided limited opportunity for teachers' professional
growth in their subject matter areas, exaggerated micro-political reform
debates and divisions, and restricted systematic organizational learning.
KEY WORDS: High Schools; Educational Reform; Teachers; Professional
Training; Professional Associations; Social Networks; Case Studies.
9. David, M. E. (2004). Feminist
sociology and feminist knowledges: Contributions to higher education pedagogies
and professional practices in the knowledge economy. International Studies
in Sociology of Education, 14(2), 99-123.
This article uses feminist
methodologies to explore the contributions made by feminist sociology and
sociology of education to developments in the pedagogies and practices of
higher education, particularly professional and postgraduate education. It
considers how these developments around the notions of personal and political
have become more complex over the last few decades as generations of women have
entered the academy. These complexities are linked to changing forms of higher
education and to wider social and economic transformations. The article also
focuses on developments in higher education and the massification of
postgraduate and professional education under neoliberalism. A case study of
developments and changes in doctoral and professional education emphasizing the
engagement of women in these practices is considered. The article outlines
future prospects of these developments, the contribution of feminist
pedagogies, and practices for the renewal of sociology and the sociology of
education and forms of knowledge within the academy.
KEY WORDS: Higher Education; Doctoral Programs; Teaching; Feminist
Theory; Sociology of Education; Neoliberalism; Case Studies.
10. DeLaat, J. (1999). Gender
in the workplace: A case study approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Through a summary collection of
cases, students and employees gain a hands-on understanding of gender issues in
the workplace and learn useful tools to handle those issues. Case studies in
Gender in the Workplace, which are based on actual legal cases, nationally
reported incidents, and personal interviews, address a wide variety and types
of gender issues in the workplace.
KEY WORDS: Sex Discrimination in Employment; United States; Case
Studies; Sex Role in the Work Environment; United
11. Esveld, L. E. (2004). A
case study of senior students' perceptions of factors that shape aspirations in
one low-income rural Iowa high school. Dissertation Abstracts
International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 65(2), 460-A.
Findings from a case study in one
predominantly low-income rural Iowa district highlight that senior students are less likely
to aspire to high levels of educational attainment than their more urban peers.
They are also more likely to be economically disadvantaged as measured by
eligibility for free and reduced cost meals. Using student focus groups, as
well as interviews with parents and school personnel, seniors' perceptions
regarding factors that influence their aspirations were gathered. Results
highlight the significant role of rural culture and context in shaping
students' sense of possibility and their plans for the future. The study also
shows the ways in which rural values of place and connectedness collide with
the national agenda of developing a competitive workforce ready for a global
marketplace. Findings include: participants value hard work, responsibility,
independence, and relationships; they view education primarily as a means to
becoming credentialed; they lack knowledge about choosing, gaining entrance to,
and paying for a postsecondary option suited to their needs and interests; and
they see their parents as the most important source of support in choosing
their postsecondary options.
KEY WORDS: Student Attitudes; High School Students; Aspiration;
Rural Education; Iowa; Educational Attainment; Educational Plans; Higher
Education; Case Studies.
12. Fisher, M. (2004). The
crisis of civil service trade unionism: A case study of call centre development
in a civil service agency. Work, Employment and Society, 18(1), 157-177.
Examines why and how British
civil service agency management have sought to respond to the present Labour
government's Modernising agenda, through the application of Taylorist
principles of work organization to a complex form of administrative casework.
This has led to the creation of a call centre within the agency. Discussed is
the positive and cooperative response by the main trade union within the agency
to this new call centre. The article argues that trade unionism in the agency
is in crisis which consists of a too uncritical understanding of the potential
that the increased development of call centre working has to further the
degradation & devaluation of staff labour.
KEY WORDS: Civil Service; Unions; Taylorism; Government Agencies;
Labor Relations; United Kingdom; Case Studies.
13. Flack, M. E. (2000).
Working the family in: A case study of the determinants of employees' access to
and use of alternative work arrangements, and their home-to-work spillover. Dissertation
Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 60(11),
Article investigates the adoption
of work-home policies that offer alternative work arrangements (AWAs) to help
employees juggle their work and home responsibilities while maintaining their
productivity. Explored through qualitative, quantitative, and archival data
collected in a case study of a financial services organization, are (1)
employees' access to flextime, compressed work weeks, and telecommuting; (2)
employees' use of the arrangements; and (3) their home-to-work spillover. Five
conclusions are: (1) The context of employees work influences the managers'
decisions to make AWAs options available and employees' decisions to use them.
(2) The degree to which AWAs deviate from traditional work arrangements has
implications for managers' decisions to make options available and the
complexity of supervising employees using AWAs. (3) Managerial support for AWAs
varies. (4) Telecommuting and use of compressed work weeks reduced domestic
spillover. (5) Corporations with work-home policies based in considerations of
productivity have difficulty evaluating the policies' effectiveness unless
managers have measures of individual productivity, the information and skills
to oversee workgroups using AWAs, and clear corporate support for the options.
KEY WORDS: Family-Work Relationship; Labor Policy; Working Hours;
Telecommunications; Home Workplaces; Sex Differences; Case Studies.
14. Fuller, A., Munro, A.,
& Rainbird, H. (2004). Workplace learning in context. New York: Routledge.
As policy makers increasingly
focus on workplace learning as a way of improving organizational performance,
the debate about the learning organization has grown. Counterbalancing the
often over-optimistic assumptions made about the future of work and learning,
this volume argues that without a contextualized analysis of the field, our
understanding of the learning environment is limited. It reconsiders the true
role and nature of workplace learning in context. Grounded in original
research, the volume features case studies which illuminate how the workplace
environment can provide both barriers to and opportunities for learning. It
explores learning in different organizational contexts and different countries,
sectors, types of public and private sector organization, and by different
occupational groups. This multi-disciplinary approach provides a coherent
perspective of the institutional, organizational and pedagogical contexts of
workplace learning, and as a result, policy-makers, trainers, trade unionists
and educators alike will welcome this groundbreaking text, as it gives the
intellectual tools required to understand how learning in the workplace can be
KEY WORDS: Work and Learning; Workplace Environment; Public Sector;
15. Gabbay, J., Le May, A., Jefferson, H., Webb, D., Lovelock, R., Powell, J., et al. (2003).
A case study of knowledge management in multi-agency consumer-informed
'communities of practice': Implications for evidence-based policy development
in health and social services. Health, 7(3), 283-310.
This case study explores two
multiagency Communities of Practice (CoPs) that are seeking to improve specific
aspects of health and social services for older people. Through data collection
including observing and tape-recording the CoPs, interviewing participants and
reviewing documents they generated and used the authors analysed how the CoPs
processed and applied knowledge in formulating their views. Sources were
analysed to identify knowledge-related behaviours. The data highlighted four
themes: (1) the manner that certain types of knowledge became accepted and
privileged; (2) how CoP members transformed and internalized new knowledge; (3)
the manner in which the haphazard processing of the available knowledge was dependent
upon the groups' organizational aspects; and (4) how changing agendas, roles
and power-relations had differential effects on collective sense making.
Article concludes by recommending ways in which the process of evidence-based
policy development in such groups may be improved.
KEY WORDS: Health Care Services; Social Services; Organizational
Behavior; Organizational Structure; Evidence Based Practice; Knowledge; Health
Care Services Policy; Social Policy; Case Studies.
16. Geppert, M. (2000). Beyond
the learning organisation: Paths of organisational learning in the East German
context. Aldershot, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Gower.
This book builds on detailed
comparative case studies to discuss the neglect of social institutions in
common organizational learning approaches. It also reassess some
neo-institutionalist arguments which overestimate the role of institutions at
the expense of the role played by creativity and the emergence of strategic
choices within the processes of organizational learning. By bringing together
contributions from organizational learning and institutional analysis, it
stresses the social embeddedness of organizational learning. The book concludes
by cited the societal change in East Germany as being beneficial in helping others
to study better the consequences of micro-level processes on the macro-level of
society, and vice versa.
KEY WORDS: Organizational Learning; East
Germany; Case Studies.
17. Hodson, R. (2004). A
meta-analysis of workplace ethnographies: Race, gender, and employee attitudes
and behavior. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 33(1), 4-38.
Workplace ethnographies suggest
many hypotheses about the effects of organizational characteristics on employee
attitudes and behaviors. These hypotheses, however, are difficult to evaluate
by considering each ethnography individually. The current article uses
qualitative comparative analysis of content-coded data from the full population
of workplace ethnographies to provide a fuller evaluation of the lessons these
ethnographies have to offer. The hypothesis that women are happy and quiescent
workers receives only limited support. Women actually evidence less
satisfaction and pride in their work than men, but they are more cooperative
and less conflictual than men. Autonomy is the most consistent determinant of
positive workplace attitudes, a finding that is consistent with survey-based
research. These findings thus both confirm and condition prior conclusions
about the workplace and suggest the importance of systematically compiling the
findings of workplace ethnographies to evaluate and benchmark conclusions based
on ethnographic analysis.
KEY WORDS: Race; Gender; Organizations; Ethnography; Qualitative
Comparative Analysis; Case Studies.
18. Hunt, V. (2004). Call centre
work for women: Career or stopgap? Labour & Industry, 14(3),
This paper, through case study
research on 5 best-practice companies chosen to represent the shape &
diversity of the New Zealand call center industry, discusses initial findings &
concerns affecting women & their career opportunities in call centers. This
research contests international literature which asserts there are limited
career trajectories for women in call centers. Suggested through exploratory
research with key informants in New Zealand is that the call center work experience provides product
or company knowledge and skills which may help women to gain promotion to
management positions both in and outside the centre. The call industry in New Zealand is
dominated by smaller call centers and government sector call centers which may
explain why preliminary research findings for New
Zealand on women and call center work
contradicts claims made in international literature.
KEY WORDS: Service Industries; Telephone Communications; Working
Women; Promotion (Occupational); Employment Opportunities; Career Patterns; New
Zealand; Case Studies.
19. Isengard, B. (2003).
Youth unemployment: Individual risk factors and institutional determinants. A
case study of Germany and the United Kingdom. Journal of Youth Studies, 6(4), 357-376.
This case study of Germany and the UK highlights the
individual risk factors related to youth unemployment during the mid-1990s.
This is put into context through an overview of youth unemployment trends in Europe from
mid-1980s. This two country case study highlights that the individual risk of
(long-term) unemployment is not equally high for all young people, but is
contingent on various socioeconomic and structural factors including gender,
education, nationality, and region of residence. Although the main determinant
of occupational success is the individual level of education, other factors
include: the organization of educational systems and labor market institutions
and the welfare state structures and policies in each country. To respond to
the increasing problems of youth unemployment, Germany and the UK have implemented the active labor market programs 'JUMP'
and 'New Deal for Young People.' Discussed are the concepts and results of
KEY WORDS: Youth Employment; Risk Factors; United Kingdom; Federal
Republic of Germany; Unemployment; Socioeconomic Factors; Case Studies.
20. Kahn, W. A. (2004).
Facilitating and undermining organizational change: A case study. The
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(1), 7-30.
This case study outlines a
research-action project where the author acted as researcher and change agent.
The author describes the research project and its success and failure which was
related to finding and losing the balance of joining and remaining separate
from a social system's dynamics. Reflecting on the research project's, the
author illustrates the relationship between helping system members (and
himself) get unstuck from their automatic, dysfunctional patterns of
relationships. Described are the forces within him and in the system itself
that caused him to lose his balance, such that he either fell into the system
as a member or fell away from it altogether. What he learned through this
research is discussed in terms of change agents creating or undermining the
holding environment in which system members struggle to alter dysfunctional
KEY WORDS: Social Systems; Researcher Subject Relations; Social
Relations; Organizational Change; Organizational Research; Change Agents; Case
21. Knox, D. W., Jr., &
Walker, M. (2003). Effects of leadership training on the manufacturing
productivity of informal leaders. Workforce Education Forum, 30(1),
workers were placed in four groups (n=10, 11, 5, 11) using Solomon four-group
experimental design; two groups received leadership training. Productivity in
mold production was measured for all groups. Leadership training appeared to
increase the manufacturing productivity of informal leaders.
KEY WORDS: Informal Leadership; Leadership Training; Manufacturing;
Outcomes of Education; Productivity; Case Studies.
22 Kretsedemas, P. (2003).
Immigrant households and hardships after welfare reform: A case study of the
Miami-Dade Haitian community. International Journal of Social Welfare, 12(4),
Welfare reforms in the US have resulted in
steeper and more immediate caseload declines compared to countries like Canada and Australia. US
immigrants, faced with a new set of service restrictions implemented under the
1996 Welfare Reform Act, experience these declines more profoundly. Through
qualitative interviews with Haitian service professionals and a quantitative
survey of Haitian immigrant households, this case study examines the service
access for Haitian immigrants in Miami, FL, since the introduction of these reforms. Survey data
indicates that many Haitians experiencing poverty and qualified to access
services are not enrolled for government services. Some of the variation of
these low enrollments for services (such as child health insurance and
childcare) can be attributed to confusion over eligibility guidelines. This
does not explain however, low enrollments for commonly used services such as
food stamps and Medicaid. Also highlighted is that qualified immigrants living
in households with unqualified persons are less likely to access services than
are other qualified immigrants and are more apt to experience hardships that
limit their ability to find stable work. The article's conclusion highlights
the significance of the use of a household unit of measure to assessing
immigrant enrollments and hardships.
KEY WORDS: Caribbean Cultural Groups; Immigrants; Welfare Reform;
Social Services Utilization; Access; Miami, Florida; Case Studies.
23. Levesque, C. (2003).
Globalization and the power of local unions: A case study of Mexico's automobile industry. Relations
industrielles/Industrial Relations, 58(1), 60-84.
Resulting from 7 case studies in
the automotive industry in Mexico, this document examines this power resource approach to
local union action as it applies to the Mexican institutional context where
globalization has exacerbated the imbalance of power between union &
KEY WORDS: Globalization; Automobile Industry; Unions; Labor
Relations; Mexico; Global Local Relationship; Power; Case Studies.
24. Meyer, C. B. (2001). A
case in case study methodology. Field Methods, 13(4), 329-352.
A view of the case study process
from the researcher's perspective, emphasizing methodological considerations is
comprehensively outlined in this article. Unlike existing qualitative or
quantitative research strategies, case research has virtually no specific
guidelines or requirements. An advantage to this is that it allows the
researcher to tailor the design and data collection procedures to the research
questions. A disadvantage to this approach is that many poor case studies have
resulted, opening it up to criticism, especially from the quantitative research
field. Argued here is the need for researchers involved in case studies to be
explicit about their methodological choices. The wide range of decisions
concerned with design requirements, data collection procedures, data analysis,
and validity and reliability are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Case Studies; Qualitative Methods; Methodological
Problems; Norway; Mergers; Case Studies.
25. Meyer, D. (2001).
Building union power in the global economy: A case study of the coordinated
bargaining committee of General Electric unions (CBC). Labor Studies
Journal, 26(1), 60-75.
This case study examines the
ongoing strategic campaign of the Coordinated Bargaining Committee of General
Electric and Westinghouse Unions (CBC) which was designed to promote the
economic and political power of General Electric (GE) internationally. A
historical review of GE and its relationship with North American unions is
provided. Although new breakthroughs in the area of international labor rights
were not achieved, substantial wage and benefits improvements were. The
progress in the relationships CBC maintains with other unions from around the
world is slow and difficult due to economic, cultural, and language
KEY WORDS: Unions; Labor Relations; Electricity; Political Power; Case
26. Mirchandani, K. (1999).
Legitimizing work: Telework and the gendered reification of the work-nonwork
Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie/The Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology, 36(1), 87-107.
Based on interviews with 50 teleworkers in Ontario and Quebec this article
investigates why employees who do professional work at home (telework) continue
to need to maintain a boundary between their public and private lives. The
article discusses the impact of gender differences on how people organize their
lives in terms of the public /work-private/nonwork dichotomy. In addition,
mechanisms that necessitate the reification of this dichotomy are explored.
KEY WORDS: Sex Differences; Home Workplaces; Public Sphere; Private
Sphere; Reification; Boundary Maintenance; Legitimation; Work Environment;
Quality of Working Life; Family-Work Relationship; Telecommunications; Ontario;
27. Nelson, R. E. (2001). On
the shape of verbal networks in organization. Organization Studies, 22(5),
Based on social network data
gathered over a number of years from 52 US organizations, the shape of informal or "realized'
personal networks in organizations, focusing on regularities in the structure
of verbal networks (face-to-face or telephone contact) across hierarchies of
diverse organizations, are examined. The data shows that the verbal networks of
the upper echelons of organizations rarely follow a classic hierarchical
pattern. Surfacing instead are numerous different morphologies, including the
most common of these regularities, the center-periphery pattern. This pattern
has been commonly observed in large human systems, including tribal &
modern societies, national & international economies, industries, &
political systems, but has not been studied inside organizations. Suggested due
to the prevalence of the center-periphery shape & its variations is that
this is a robust & dynamic form. The verbal network groups studied always
involved people from diverse hierarchical levels & none of these verbal
networks shared all the attributes of classical formal hierarchies. Conclusions
indicate that organizational hierarchies do not shape informal or emergent
processes in their own image.
KEY WORDS: Employee Interaction; Oral Communication; Organizational
Structure; Social Networks.
28. Olmedo, C. (2004).
Labor-capital relations under neoliberal reforms. The role of the state in the
regulation of informal-precarious labor: A case study in Chilecito, a town in
the Northwest of Argentina, 1991-2001. Dissertation Abstracts International,
A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(11), 4226.
This ethnographic study of the
labor market of a town (Chilecito) in northwest Argentina focuses on the state's role in the process of informalization
of employment experienced under neoliberalism and the respective reforms in
labor legislation through the 1990s. The study demonstrates deficiencies in the
analysis of conventional understandings of formal and informal labor when
addressing markets which have been subjected to deregulation and
flexibilization policies. Policies have caused Argentina to become a promoter of precarious employment that
resembles informal markets. Flexibilization policies have also limited the
state's finances through the reduction of labor taxes. On the contrary,
traditional theories consider precariousness and reduction in tax revenues
effects of informal-unregulated markets. In the conventional frameworks, the
analysts have established a formal-regulated-protected vs.
informal-unregulated-unprotected duality, where regulations by the state divide
these two dimensions.
KEY WORDS: Neoliberalism; Argentina; Labor Relations; Informal
Sector; Employment Changes; Labor Market; State Role; Labor Policy; Case
29. Paige, H. (2002). An
exploration of learning, the knowledge-based economy, and owner-managers of
small bookselling businesses. Journal of Workplace Learning, 14(6),
A qualitative study of six
owner/managers of small Australian bookselling businesses elicited these
themes: participation in learning is largely informal or incidental;
interaction with information/communication technologies is less than optimal;
and small business management relies on personal and business networking. Ways
to develop a more active learning culture and skills for the knowledge-based
economy were suggested.
KEY WORDS: Continuing Education; Foreign Countries; Information
Technology; Networks; Participation; Small Businesses; Telecommunications;
Training; Case Studies.
30. Pellegrino, G. (2003).
Representations and uses of the Intranet: A comparative case study. Bulletin
of Science, Technology and Society, 23(4), 281-296.
Case studies of two companies in Italy and the United Kingdom are
presented to analyze practices and processes of implementation and use of the
Intranet. The focus is on Intranet technology resulting from overlapping
negotiations among social actors within organizations. The goal of these
negotiations is to establish and embed specific relations and representations
of work, communication, and learning into the technological artifact. This
study highlights how specific contexts and organizational histories can affect
these processes. In spite of the "optimistic" imagery linked with Intranet
technology and its touted communicative and economic efficiency, the article
points out many limitations in the process of implementation and use. Relevant
factors accounting for the current use of the 2 systems and their low degree of
integration into everyday working and communicative practices are company
history and culture, skills and work groups, and use of other technologies and
KEY WORDS: Internet; Adoption of Innovations; Organizational
Structure; Italy; United Kingdom; Case Studies.
31. Perlesz, A., &
Lindsay, J. (2003). Methodological triangulation in researching families:
Making sense of dissonant data. International Journal of Social Research
Methodology: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 25-40.
Article explores the ontological,
epistemological and methodological tensions that must be negotiated when
working with triangulated data. Triangulation has paid minimal attention to the
problematic of 'making sense of dissonant data' and the use of the technique
when researching families. Through research findings obtained from self-report
questionnaires and in-depth interviews with couples and families, the
possibilities of convergent, complementary and dissonant data and their
interpretation are discussed. Due to the multi-faceted context and intimate subject
matter, it is argued that there is a high likelihood of dissonant findings when
researching family and couples. It is recommended that family researchers
interested in using the technique of triangulation consider the context and
process of their research in the interpretation of their data. In spite of the
challenges that researchers face through triangulation, it is argued that
working within a post-positivist paradigm, this technique enables a more
complex and more meaningful analysis.
KEY WORDS: Data Collection; Experimentation; Family.
32. Perrons, D. (2003). The
new economy and the work-life balance: Conceptual explorations and a case study
of new media. Gender, Work and Organization, 10(1), 65-93.
Provided is a critical evaluation
of some conceptualizations of the new economy and an exploration of how the new
media sector has materialized and been experienced by people working in Brighton and Hove, a new media
hub. Based on 55 in-depth interviews with new media owners, managers and some
employees in small and micro enterprises, this article evaluates the claim that
new technologies and patterns of working allow the temporal and spatial
boundaries of paid work to be extended, potentially allowing more people,
especially those with caring responsibilities, to become involved, possibly
leading to a reduction in gender inequality. Article makes reference to
gender-differentiated patterns of ownership and earnings; flexible working
patterns, long hours and homeworking. Consideration about whether these working
patterns are compatible with a work-life balance is also addressed. Indications
are that while new media offers new opportunities for people to combine
interesting paid work with caring responsibilities, a notable gender imbalance
KEY WORDS: Sexual Inequality; Family-Work Relationship; Economic
Systems; High Technology Industries; England; Case Studies.
33. Pynes, J. E., &
Newman, M. A. (2001). Nonprofit sector unionization and gender equity: Learning
lessons from a case study of a teacher organization in the St. Louis
Archdiocese. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 21(1), 5-26.
This case study examines issues
raised between a large Catholic archdiocese and its elementary school teachers
when the teachers formed a union to negotiate over wages, benefits, working
conditions, and grievance procedures. The St.
Louis, MO, story highlights the inherent gender inequity in this
area of nonprofit organizations' labor relations. The reoccurrence of similar
tensions in archdioceses across the US is likely as the number of nuns continues to decline
forcing parochial schools to hire lay teachers. Similar gender equity-oriented
developments are likely to factor into labor relations in the nonprofit sector
which is expanding its role due to the contemporary hollow state of US
KEY WORDS: Religious Education; Teachers; Nuns; Unionization; St.
Louis, Missouri; Working Women; Nonprofit Organizations; Sexual Inequality;
Elementary Schools; Roman Catholicism; Case Studies.
34. Quilgars, D., &
Abbott, D. (2000). Working in the risk society: Families' perceptions of, and
responses to, flexible labour markets and the restructuring of welfare. Community,
Work & Family, 3(1), 15-36.
Based on 90 qualitative
interviews with members of 50 employed households in England, this
article explores the response of individuals and families to the increasing
flexibilization of the labor market and the restructuring of the welfare state
in the risk society. Findings show that individuals and families make complex
assessments of labor market risk that do not necessarily correspond with more
objective measures and assumptions made at a policy level, and that they are
not always willing or able to protect themselves. Conclusions indicate that due
to current labor and welfare policies, many families, particularly those in
lower socioeconomic groups, are vulnerable to the impacts of a flexible labor
market. A greater incorporation of these realities into the risk society thesis
KEY WORDS: Risk; England; Unemployment; Welfare Reform; Labor
Market; Employment Changes; Economic Problems; Welfare State; Households.
35. Raza, A. (2003).
Downsizing: A case study. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The
Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(1), 300-A.
This case study focuses on one
organization's rationales for downsizing, the process of downsizing, and the
immediate effects of downsizing on the day to day working of the organization
and its long term effects. Many questions arise, including: What is the
rationale behind an organization's decision to reduce its workforce? What are
the advantages that it can get through downsizing? Is it possible for an
organization to restructure itself through downsizing and adapt to the
environment? Also explored is how an organization prepares to downsize, how it
chooses whom to let go, the procedures followed, and how employees are told
they are no longer needed and may not come to work anymore. The final area
explores the feasibility for an organization to efficiently plan work
redistribution among employees left behind, the downsizing effect on the day to
day working of the organization and long term effects on the organization.
KEY WORDS: Organizational Change; Employment Changes; Dislocated
Workers; Organizational Structure; Case Studies.
36. Ross, J., & Wright,
L. (2000). Participant-created case studies in professional training. Journal
of workplace learning: Employee Counselling today, 2(1), 23-28.
Although case studies have long
been a main feature of professional training, among the challenges of using
them are the difficulty of ensuring that their situations and elements
accurately reflect the complexity of current case reality, achieving
acceptability across networking agencies, and the time they can take to create
or obtain. The Center for Child and Family Studies has taken to having
participants create their own case studies for use in ongoing professional
training. There are several advantages to this method. From a theoretical
standpoint, it is true to constructivist values and the principles of adult
learning. Although this method is not a perfect fit in every training situation
where cases may be used, it can greatly enhance training and training outcomes
where it is practical.
KEY WORDS: Case Studies; Professional Training; Multiagency
37. Royster, D. A. (2003). Race
and the invisible hand: How white networks exclude black men from blue-collar
jobs. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
In this book, Royster exposes the
subtleties and discrepancies of a workplace that favors the white job-seeker
over the black. The study essentially asks: Is there something about young
black men that makes them less desirable as workers than their white peers? And
if not, then why do black men shadow white men in earnings and employment
rates? Royster examined the educational performances, work ethics, and values
of 25 black and 25 white men who graduated from the same vocational school and
sought jobs in the same blue-collar labor market in the early 1990s. Her
findings suggest that the greatest difference between young black and white men
is their access to the kinds of contacts and networks that significantly help
in the job search and entry process.
KEY WORDS: African Americans; Employment; Discrimination in
Employment; Blue Collar Workers; United States.
38. Schultze, U. (2000). A
confessional account of an ethnography about knowledge work. MIS Quarterly,
Information systems research has
normally focused on information as an object that serves as input to decision
making. Such a perspective examines the use of information. Increasingly
though, organizations are concerned about the production of information. This
article focuses on the work of producing informational objects, an activity
central to knowledge work. Based on data collected during an eight-month
ethnographic study of three groups of knowledge workers—computer system
administrators, competitive intelligence analysts, and librarians— the author
explores the informing practices they relied upon. Common to these informing
practices is the knowledge workers’ ability to balance subjectivity and
objectivity, where subjectivity is a necessary part of doing value adding work
and objectivity promises workers authority and a sense of security. Recognizing
that researchers are knowledge workers too, the author draws on his own
experiences as an ethnographic researcher to identify parallels between my
informing practices and those of the knowledge workers studied in the past.
KEY WORDS: Knowledge Workers; Knowledge Work; KBE; Ethnography; Literature
39. Shifley, R. L. (2001).
Constructing work: Creating an alternative organizational structure. A case
study of the role, purpose, and effects of work in a producer cooperative. Dissertation
Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(5),
A transition in work systems has
occurred due to increased international & domestic competition, evolving
technological change, & the intensifying globalization of world markets.
Related to these innovations in the organization of work have come changes in
personal responsibility & control, interpersonal interactions, &
changes to personal & family life. These changes related to the nature of
work itself are often not analysed. When the nature of work is looked at, the
parameters are generally restricted to such extrinsic concerns as rate of pay
or benefits. In order to better understand how the organization of work affects
workers & their families this case study of a worker-owned & managed
producer cooperative (a highly participatory organization where equity &
control elements differ from conventional employee roles) was undertaken.
Findings indicate that the organization of work is a potentially pivotal aspect
of one's quality of life & that the organization of work affects personal
choice. When creating the cooperative, members were concerned with enhancing
their choices in a context of income security & absence of formal
hierarchy. Through this process, members realized that the organization of work
impacts the quality of their work life as well as the quality of their family's
KEY WORDS: Organizational Structure; Work Organization; Worker
Ownership; Family-Work Relationship; Quality of Working Life; Family Life;
Cooperatives; Case Studies.
R., & Solorzano, D. G. (2002).
Using critical race theory, Paulo Freire's problem-posing
method, and case study research to confront race and racism in education. Qualitative
Inquiry, 8(1), 66-84.
This article introduces an
alternative instructional and pedagogical methodology for teacher education
using critical race theory (CRT), Paulo Freire's problem-posing method, and
case study research. Through these approaches a space for teacher candidates in
a social foundations course is created which tries get at deep-rooted
ideologies and promote the unlearning of stereotypical knowledge of race while
analyzing and theorizing the meaning of teaching a diverse population of
students. Using this methodology, it is recommended that teacher candidates
access a variety of cultural immersion and field experiences in communities of
KEY WORDS: Social Theories; Teaching Methods; Teacher Education;
Race; Cultural Sensitivity; Racism; Case Studies.
41. Soni-Sinha, U. (2001).
Income control and household work-sharing. In R. M. Kelly, J. H. Bayes, M.
Hawkesworth & B. Young (Eds.), Gender, Globalization, and
Democratization. Lanham, MD: Rowman
The machine-made jewelry
production sector of the Noida Export Processing Zone near Delhi, India is the
location of this case study involving 16 married female employees. These
reports were part of a larger study conducted in 1996-1997. The focus of the
interview data was on the impact of waged work on income control & the
sharing of domestic work. Findings include: 3 women of the 16 stated that men
control income & never share in household chores; 3 indicated that their
spouses control income but share in household chores; 2 reported that they
control income but their husbands never help with chores; & 8 said there is
joint control of income & chores are shared. Results indicate that women's
wage employment leads to changes in traditional gender regimes & the
negotiating ability of women in order to strike a "better bargain."
The research runs contrary to prior research which suggests minimal sharing of
household work by men once women enter into waged work & suggests that
waged work opens spaces of empowerment for women.
KEY WORDS: India; Working Women; Sex Roles; Family-Work
Relationship; Family Roles; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Opposite Sex
Relations; Family Power.
42. Tapia, J. (2000).
Schooling and learning in U.S.-Mexican families: A case study of households. The
Urban Review, 32(1), 25-44.
This case study uses a household
analysis to depict how students' schooling and academic achievement are
influenced by the activities of household members at home, in the community,
and in the schools. Prior research suggests that learning and the academic
performance of Mexican American students are influenced by the relationship
between economic, cultural, linguistic, and educational aspects. Article shows
that a household analysis can aid in understanding the relative weight of these
aspects in shaping the school performance of students, and that it also
accounts for the differences in academic achievement in any Mexican American
community. This household analysis indicates that the strongest factors
affecting students' learning & academic achievement are the level of family
stability and the social and economic conditions of poor communities.
KEY WORDS: Mexican Americans; Academic Achievement; Home
Environment; Households; Social Conditions; Economic Conditions; Arizona; Case
43. Theodosius, C. (2004).
Developing the sociology of emotion and emotional labour: A case study of
nurses. Dissertation Abstracts International, C: Worldwide, 65(2),
This theoretically informed
empirical study uses Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotional labour to explore
emotion as observed amongst a group of nurses. This research contributes to the
sociology of emotion in 5 areas. (1) It advances understanding about the
relevance of emotional labour to nursing by introducing a typology of emotional
labour, therapeutic, instrumental and collegial. (2) It provides a critique of
Hochschild's theory of emotion and emotional labour thereby developing a more
comprehensive, theoretical approach to emotion. The study advances the notion
of emotional labour by analysing its interactive, relational character, both
identifying its relationship with self identity and developing Hochschild's use
of surface and deep acting. (3) It develops and provides a critique of Archer's
(2000) theory of emotion as a tool in the analysis of empirical data. (4) It
introduces the use of audio diaries as a useful and valuable tool in the
empirical research of emotion. (5) Vignettes are used in a distinctive way -
treating them as narratives - that encapsulate and project the experiences of
the nurses' emotion within the text.
KEY WORDS: Nurses; Job Characteristics; Emotions; Psychoanalytic
Interpretation; Case Studies.
44. van Jaarsveld, D. D. (2004). Collective representation among
high-tech workers at Microsoft and beyond: Lessons from WashTech/CWA. Industrial
Relations, 43(2), 364-385.
Industrial relations literature
documents the obstacles that discourage organization among high-tech workers
whereas discussions on the factors that help workers overcome these obstacles is
minimal. Interviews and other evidence are used to analyze how high-tech
workers formed the Washington Alliance of Technology Workers (WashTech/CWA).
Findings show that WashTech/CWA improved working conditions of employees
through attempts to engage in collective bargaining, mutual benefit activities,
and political action. The WashTech/CWA's use of mutual benefits, such as
information and training services, and political action strategies is being met
with success. This is due in part to the obstacles workers encountered when
trying to access collective bargaining.
KEY WORDS: Collective Bargaining; Professional Workers; High
Technology Industries; Unions; Political Action; Case Studies.
45. Witzel, A., & Zinn,
J. (1998). The role of vocational training in reproducing social inequality.
The interaction of social structures and individual activities in the
transition from school to work. Diskurs, 8(1), 28-39.
Based on questionnaire and
qualitative (problem-oriented) interview data collected in a research project
combining numerous methodological approaches, this work traces the mechanisms
responsible for reproducing and timing social inequality to the school-work
transition period. Besides educational attainment, origin, and gender which are
traditional factors of inequality, the actual choice of vocation is an
additional inequality factor over the course of one's career because most
people stay in the same line of work, even if they do seek further training to
gain promotion. This model is exemplified through the case studies of 2 bank
employees and 2 retail employees. Through their working lives, people develop
typical modes of action in their vocational biographies, here termed
"vocation-biographic design modes." Varieties of coping with career
chances and risks are characterized. Individual self-placement is adapted to
the selection experiences made in the company on the one hand; and scopes of
action are identified and used to fulfill individual interests and claims on
KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Vocational Education; Social
Reproduction; Social Inequality; Educational Attainment; Sex; Retail Industry;